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SEVENTY-FIRST 



ANNUAL REPORT 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

OF MARYLAND 



1937 



LIBRARY— COLLEGE PARK 




1/1 wr maun 



Digitized 


by the Internet Arch 






i 


in 2013 







http://archive.org/details/report00mary_66 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Seventy-first Annual Repo 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 

OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1937 




BALTIMORE, MD. 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 



TASKER G. LOWNDES, President Cumberland 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

CHARLES A. WEAGLY Hagerstown, R. F. D. 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore 

EDWARD H. SHARPE Frederick 



OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr Asst. Supt. in Administration and Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD ~ Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

H. F. COTTERMAN (College Park) , Supervisor of Agriculture 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

THOMAS D. BRAUN (910 Lexington Building) Rehabilitation Assistant 

ROGER E. MARTZ (Boonsboro) Rehabilitation Assistant 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON Supervisor of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (Enoch Pratt Library, 400 Cathedral St.). ...Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

RUTH OWENS Stenographer 

MARY VOLZ ! Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Statistical Assistant 

FRANCES O. KANN Statistical Assistant 

PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

LIDA LEE TALL State Teachers College Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachers College Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL State Teachers College Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES, Principal Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students) Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



,)W 2 8 1938 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 

1937-1938 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian C. Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 
Winifred Greene, S. T. 
L. Grace Shatzer, S. T. 
Richard T. Rizer, High School 
- Supervisor 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 

BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 

E. G. Stapleton, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, S. T. 1 
M. Annie Gracb, S. T. 2 
Nellie Gray, S. T.* 
Jennie E. Jessup, S. T. 3 

James T. Velie, Music Supervisor 2 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor, 2 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 

CAROLINE— Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 

CARROLL— Westminster 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Ruth E. DeVore, S. T. 
Charles E. Reck, S. T. 
Samuel M. Jenness, High School 
Supervisor 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride, Supt. 
Olive L. Reynolds, S. T. 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane R. Bowie, S. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn E. Johnson, S. T. 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt, Supt. 
Hal Lee T. Ott, S. T. 
Helen Jane Woodley, S. T. 
A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T. 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, S. T. 4 
Caroline Wilson, H. T. 



County Address 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Mary L. Grau, S. T. 5 
Jane Naylor, S. T„ 



HOWARD— Ellicott City 

Herbert C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 



KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder, S. T. 
Marjorie Jane Billows, S. T. 
Mary Gertrude Cross, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Louise Colip, S. T. 
Maude Gibbs Hyle, S. T. 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 
Kathryn Reidy, S. T. 



QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 



ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 

E. Violette Young, S. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, S. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Willard S. Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. J. Grimes, Supt. 

F. Pauline Blackford, S. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne H. Richardson, S. T. 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
Hazel J. Hearne, H. T. 
Leah, M. Phillips, H. T. 



WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth A. Mundy, S. T. 



1 Sparrows Point 

2 200 W. Saragota St. 
* Catonsville 



Baltimore 



3 203 Burke Ave.. Towson 

" Grantsville 

5 Havre de Grace 



S. T. 
H. T. 



-Supervising Teacher 
-Helping Teacher 



70441 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budgets for 1938 and 1939 6 

1936 Census of White County Children 8 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate, 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 13 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 23 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 32 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover 41 

Men Teaching, Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 46 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay.... 51 

Size of Schools and Consolidation 67 

Supervision 70 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Attendance, Graduates 

and Their Occupations 71 

Enrollment by Year; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Fail- 
ures, Withdrawals; Standard Tests 87 

Teachers by Subjects; Teacher Certification, Summer School Atten- 
dance, Resignations, Turnover, Sex 106 

Number and Size of High Schools 115 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries of Teachers 121 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 

Health, Capital Outlay 127 

Supervision 137 

1936 Census of Colored County Children 138 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate, 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 142 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions, Tests 151 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 159 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 167 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of 

School Property 178 

Size of Schools, Number of Approved High Schools, Physical Edu- 
cation, Health and Cleanliness Contests, P.-T. A.'s 186 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds; Super- 
vision 196 

Bowie Normal School 198 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland Counties 201 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Emergency Adult Education Pro- 
gram, Vocational Rehabilitation 204 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 213 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 227 

Work Relief Projects for Sanitation and School Buildings 230 

Transportation of Pupils, W. P. A. Library Projects 233 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 240 

County Residents Attending School Outside County 246 

1937-38 County Budgets; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Tax Rates 247 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other 

Than County Funds— White Schools; Federal NYA Aid 255 

State Certification of Teachers 260 

County School Administration 263 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury.... 264 
County Teachers' Contributions to the State Teachers' Retirement 

System 275 

List of Financial Statements; Statistical Tables 277 

Index 322 



4 



Baltimore, Md., May 1, 1938. 



Honorable Harry W. Nice, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 
Dear Governor Nice: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77, of the Laws of 
Maryland, the seventy-first "annual report, covering all operations 
of the State Department of Education and the support, condition, 
progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for the 
school year ending in June, 1937, and considerable data for the 
current school year 1937-38 is herewith presented to you. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan for organization, administra- 
tion, supervision, and financing, as well as the enthusiastic coop- 
eration received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance offi- 
cers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases 
been given the whole-hearted moral and financial support of their 
patrons, county boards of education and county commissioners 
have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer. 

State Board of Education. 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President 
Wendell D. Allen 
Thomas H. Chambers 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D. 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Edward H. Sharpe 
Charles A. Weagly 



5 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGETS FOR 1937 AND 1938 

The State Public School Budget for 1937, after allocations by 
the Board of Public Works from the 1937 Reserve Funds and 
allotment of fees from students collected in addition to the 
amounts originally estimated, totaled $5,544,356, exclusive of 
$350,000 from the State Bond Issue for the Retirement System. 
The chief changes from the amounts shown in Table 1 in the 
1936 report resulted from allocations from the 1937 reserve fund 
to the teachers colleges and Bowie Normal School and increases 
in receipts from fees at Towson. (See column 1 in Table 1.) 

The 1938 amended Public School Budget, which totals $6,019,- 
605, includes amounts allocated from the miscellaneous funds 
provided at the end of the State Budget for restoration in full 
of the salary cuts in effect from 1933 to 1937 for teachers and 
school officials, but excludes $600,000 to be provided from the 
State Bond Issue to finance the Retirement System. (See column 
2 in Table 1.) 

Because of provision of $600,000 from the State Bond Issue, 
which is 8250,000 more than was provided from the Bond Issue 
in 1937, the cash appropriation of S436,338 for the Retirement 
System in 1938 shows a decrease of $238,211 under the cash ap- 
propriation available in 1937. 

State funds to be distributed to the counties and Baltimore 
City for all purposes except the Retirement System, totaling 
$5,191,820 in 1938, will aggregate S666,272 more than the 
amounts distributed to these units in 1937. Most of this increase 
is needed to restore to the State minimum salary schedules the 
percentage cuts which were in effect from September, 1933, to 
June, 1937, and to place teachers where they belong oh the sal- 
ary schedule with respect to increments for experience which 
also have been withheld from September, 1933, to June, 1937. 
Five counties which did not share in the Equalization Fund prior 
to October, 1933, when counties had to levy 67 cents in order to 
become eligible, and also from October, 1933 to 1937, when coun- 
ties were required to levy 20 cents less or 47 cents with salary 
reductions in effect, become eligible to share in October, 1937, 
since the county levy continues at 47 cents and salary cuts are 
restored. There is an increase of S23,000 available as State aid 
toward additional high school teachers employed to instruct the 
ever larger number of pupils found in high schools each year and 
to reduce the size of over-large classes which resulted from need 
for the strictest economy during the period from 1932 to 1937. 

For the State Department of Education and its allied activities, 
8121,658 is available in 1938, an increase of S13,525 over 1937. 
Over $5,000 of this increase is due to raising the State's appro- 
priation for vocational rehabilitation which is matched by federal 
funds. The State is eligible to receive over S25,000 of federal 
funds for vocational rehabilitation, but because of this matching 
requirement will receive only slightly over 815,000. 

6 



The State Public School Budgets for 1937 and 1938 



7 



TABLE 1 



State Public School Budgets for 1937 and 1938 as Amended 



Purpose 


State Public School Budgets 
Amended for 


Increase 


1937 


1938 


Amounts contributed to Retirement Sys- 
tem, Counties and Baltimore City: 
Retirement System: 

3. Expense Fund 

Sub-Total 1-3 

4. High School Aid 


a$146,084.00 
517,265.00 
11,200.00 


a$2,533.00 
b422,355.00 
11,450.00 


*a$143,551.00 
*b94,910.00 
'250.00 


c$674,549.00 

. 537,925.17 
27,000.00 
157,751.40 
250,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
490,871.43 
1,250,000.00 
12,000.00 


C$436,338.00 

560,829.00 
27,000.00 
183,479.00 
250,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,105,511.75 
1,250,000.00 
15,000.00 


*c$238,211.00 
22,903.83 




25,727.60 


8. Fund Distributed on Basis of Census 




10. Reduction of County Taxation 


614,640.32 


Sub-Total 4-11 

12. State Board of Education 

14. Physical Education and Recreation .... 

15. Bureau of Educational Measurements. . 

16. Publications and Printing 

17. Medical Examinations 

18. Vocational Rehabilitation 

19. Consultant Architect 


3,000.00 


$4,525,548.00 

1,069.00 
8,442.94 
116,754.03 
9,583.06 
3,375.87 
2,279.00 
10,041.99 
750.00 
55,837.56 


$5,191,819.75 

800.00 
9,440.25 
15,000.00 
10,491.50 
4,500.00 
1,700.00 
15 293.50 
750.00 
63,683.00 


$666,271.75 

*269.00 
997.31 
*1,754.03 
908.44 
1,124.13 
*579.00 
5,251.51 


20. State Department of Education 

Sub-Total 12-20 

21. State Teachers College, Towson 

22. State Teachers College, Salisbury 

23. State Teachers College, Frostburg 

24. Bowie Normal School 

Sub-Total 21-24 

Grand Total 

Fees Teachers Colleges and Normal 
School 

Total from State 


7,845.44 


$108,133.45 

el91,868.98 
f 72, 680. 08 
g62,641.68 
h45,780.73 


$121,658.25 

e217,542.50 
f 87, 987. 00 
g72,130.00 
h50,210.00 


$13,524 80 

e25,673.52 
fl5,306.92 
g9,488.32 
h4,429.27 


$372,971.47 


$427,869.50 


$54,898.03 


c$5,681,201.92 
kl36,846.10 


C$6,177,685.50 
kl58,080.00 


c$496,483.58 
k21,233.90 


c$5,544,355.82 


c$6,019,605.50 


c$475.249.68 



a Excludes bond issue for Retirement System a$350,000.00 

b Excludes bond issue for Retirement System 

c Excludes bond issue for Retirement System c3 50, 000. 00 
e, f, g, h, and k includes receipts from fees 
from students. 

e Towson e66,946.65 

f Salisbury f35,161.07 

g Frostburg g2 1,895. 54 

h Bowie hl2,842.84 

k Teachers colleges and normal school k$136,846.10 



a$500,000.00 
bl00,000.00 
c600,000.00 



e80,580.00 
f40, 500.00 
g24,000.00 
hl3,000.00 



k$158,080.00 



a$150.000.00 
bl00,000.00 
c250,000.00 



el3,633.35 
f 5, 338. 93 
g2. 104.46 
hl57.16 

k$21.233.90 



* Decrease. "("Original appropriation $15,000. Additional $1 , 754 made available by transfer. 

The amount appropriated to the three teachers colleges and 
Bowie Normal School is S427,870 in 1938, an increase of S54,898 
over 1937. The State's share of this increase is $33,664, since 
the remaining $21,234 comes from fees expected from the larger 
enrollments found at these colleges. 



THE 1936 SCHOOL CENSUS OF WHITE CHILDREN 
IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland coun- 
ties in the fall of 1936 for the first time included the nineteen- 
and twenty-year age groups. There were enumerated 276,302 
white individuals under 21 years of age. There were 201,281 
white children of ages from five to eighteen years, inclusive, 
enumerated, which, compared with 197,424 in the 1934 school 
census, revealed a gain of 3,857. (See Table 2.) 

TABLE 2 



Census of White Children Under 21 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties, 
November, 1936, by Age and Sex 



Age 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total (5-18) 1932 


196,698 


100,505 


96,193 


(5-18) 1934 


197,424 


100,925 


96,499 


(5-18) 1936 


201,281 


102,678 


98,603 


Total Ages 20 or Under, 1936 


276,302 


141,461 


134,841 


20 


8,859 


4,823 


4,036 


19 


10,957 


5,899 


5,058 


18 


12,567 


6,478 


6,089 


17 


12,860 


6,643 


6,217 


16 


15,199 


7,815 


7,384 


15 


15,038 


7,658 


7,380 


14 


14,933 


7,690 


7,243 


13 


15,157 


7,598 


7,559 


12 


15,376 


7,911 


7,465 


11 


15,476 


7,907 


7,569 


10 


14,750 


- 7,608 


7,142 


9 


15,004 


7,501 


7,503 


8 


14,567 


7,343 


7,224 


7. . . 


14,111 


7,123 


6,988 


6 


14,011 


7,133 


6.878 




12,232 


6.270 


5,962 


Under 5 


55,205 


28,061 


27,144 



The enumeration is most nearly complete for ages six to six- 
teen years and for each age group within these limits the county 
census included from a minimum of 14,011 to a maximum of 
15,476. Eleven- and twelve-year-old children formed the largest 
age groups. These figures seem to give definite proof of the ef- 
fects of declining birth rates. (See Table 2.) 

The data furnished by the State Department of Health show- 
ing the birth rates in the individual counties for the white popu- 
lation from 1920 to 1936 are shown in Table 8, page 14. 

Comparison of Boys and Girls 

As in former enumerations, except for the group nine years 
old which shows slightly more girls than boys, there are in every 
age group more white boys than girls. This is also reflected in 
the public school enrollment, which in 1937 showed more white 
boys than girls in the first seven grades of the elementary school. 
(See Table 2 and Chart 2, page 24.) 

8 



1936 School Census of White Children Under 21 



9 



White Children Seven to Fifteen Years Old In and Out of School 

The enumeration of 134,412 white children of compulsory atten- 
dance ages 7 to 15 years, inclusive, showed an average county 
enumeration of 5,840 white children, a maximum county total 
of 21,697, and a minimum of 950. Six counties enumerated over 
9,000 white children. 

Of the 134,412 white county children of ages seven to fifteen 
years, 115,973, or 86.3 per cent, were enrolled in public schools; 
11,764, or 8.7 per cent, had their instruction in non-public schools ; 
and the remaining 6,675 children, 5 per cent of the total, were 
not in any school in November, 1936. There was an increase 
from 1934 to 1936 in the number and per cent not enrolled in any 
school, probably due to the fact that an increased number were 
able to find employment as a result of improved economic con- 
ditions. 

TABLE 3 



Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Non-Public, and No School 
November, 1936 





Number 


Per Cent 


COLiNTY 




In 








In 






In 


Non- 


In No 




In 


Non- 


In No 




Public 


Public 


School 


Total 


Public 


Public 


School 




School 


School 






School 


School 


Total and Average: 
















1932 


115,870 


11,196 


6,623 


133,689 


86.7 


8.4 


4.9 


1934 


116,557 


11,644 


6,356 


134,557 


86.6 


8.7 


4.7 


1936 


115,973 


11,764 


6,675 


134,412 


86.3 


8.7 


5.0 




8,542 


1,301 


214 


10,057 


84.9 


13.0 


2.1 


Prince George's 


9,914 


944 


238 


11,096 


89.4 


8.5 


2.1 




13,195 


2,219 


519 


15,933 


82.8 


13.9 


3.3 




6,268 


417 


255 


6,940 


90.3 


6.0 


3.7 


Cecil 


3,550 


382 


152 


4,084 


86.9 


9.4 


3.7 


Talbot 


1,882 


15 


76 


1,973 


95.4 


.8 


3.8 


Charles 


1,552 


283 


78 


1,913 


81.1 


14.8 


4.1 


Caroline 


2,271 


19 


105 


2,395 


94.8 


.8 • 


4.4 


Harford 


4,447 


247 


230 


4,924 


90.3 


5.0 


4.7 


Baltimore 


17,328 


3,303 


1,066 


21,697 


79.9 


15.2 


4.9 


Howard 


2,340 


302 


141 


2,783 


84.1 


10.8 


5.1 


Carroll 


5,223 


212 


341 


5,776 


90.4 


3.7 


5.9 


Kent 


1,488 


30 


97 


1,615 


92.1 


1.9 


6.0 


Worcester 


2,319 


10 


151 


2,480 


93.5 


.4 


6.1 


St. Mary's 


1,113 


992 


138 


2,243 


49.6 


44.2 


6.2 




1,721 


23 


115 


1,859 


92.6 


1.2 


6.2 


Washington 


10,778 


397 


763 


11,938 


90.3 


3.3 


6.4 


Dorchester 


3,097 


9 


216 


3,322 


93.2 


.3 


6.5 


Somerset 


2,316 


6 


166 


2,488 


93.1 


.2 


6.7 


Garrett 


4,363 


65 


330 


4,758 


91.7 


1.4 


6.9 


Wicomico 


3,762 


41 


308 


4,111 


91.5 


1.0 


7.5 


Calvert 


827 


48 


75 


950 


87.1 


5.1 


7.8 


Frederick 


7,677 


499 


901 


9,077 


84.6 


5.5 


9.9 



10 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The range in the counties in the percentage of white children 
of compulsory school attendance ages, from seven to fifteen years 
inclusive, in public schools was very wide, from just under 50 per 
cent to over 95 per cent. In St. Mary's over 44 per cent and in 
five other counties from 11 to 15 per cent of the white children 
of ages seven to fifteen years, inclusive, were in non-public schools. 
(See Table 3.) 

CHART 1 



PER CENT OF 7.HITE CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 YEARS, INCLUSIVE, 
ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1936 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



County- 



Total 

No. of % In % 

White Public In No 

Children Schools Schooll 



Total and , _ . _ 
Co. Av. 134,412 



Mont. 

Pr. Geo. 

Allegany 

A. A. 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Charles 

Caroline 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Carroll 

Kent 

Worcester 
St. Mary's 
Q. A. 

Washington 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Frederick 



10,057 
11,096 
15,955 
6,940 
4,084 
1,975 
1,913 
2,595 
4,924 
21,697 
2,785 
5,776 
1,615 
2,480 
2,245 
1,859 
11,958 
5,522 
2,488 
4,758 
4,111 
950 
9,077 



86.: 



8-7 



J 



84.9 m_ 

89.4 BBZ 

82.8 EH 

90.5 1 
86.9 
95.4 
81.1 
94.8 QQ[ 
90.5 
79.9 
84.1 
90.4 
92.1 
95.5 
49.6 
92.6 
90.5 
95.2 
95.1 
91.7 
91.5 
87.1 
84.6 



13-0 



13.9 



9.+ 



14.8 



15.2 



10.8 



5.9 03 



6.o fEi 



1.3 



.4. 



1.2 



63. I 



6.4 




% In Private 
and Parochial 
Schools I i 



44.2 



School Census of White Children of Ages 7 to 15 Years 11 

The counties are ranked in Table 3 and Chart 1, according to 
the per cent of white children of compulsory school attendance 
ages, seven to fifteen years inclusive, not in any school, the coun- 
ty with the smallest percentage being ranked first. The per cent 
of children out of school ranged from less than 3 per cent in two 
counties to over 7 per cent in three counties. (See Table 3 and 
Chart 1.) 

The census enumeration indicates that only five counties had 
more white children of ages seven to fifteen years in public 
schools in 1936 than they had in 1934. The non-public school 
enrollment was higher in 1936 than in 1934 in eight counties. 
(See Table 3.) 

White Children Not in School 
TABLE 4 

White Non-School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 Mary- 
land Counties, Distributed According to Employment, Handicap, and 
Age Groups, November, 1936 



White Children of Ages 7-15 Years Not in School 



County 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Physically 
Handicapped 


Mentally 
Handicapped 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


Total— 1932 


253 


3,016 


519 


2,156 


301 


143 


150 


85 


1934 


242 


2,766 


350 


2,264 


317 


147 


178 


92 


1936 


180 


3,451 


291 


1,893 


368 


163 


203 


126 






137 


42 


253 


38 


19 


16 


14 




' ' 8 


81 


11 


101 


25 


14 


7 


8 


Baltimore 


45 


577 


41 


311 


42 


18 


17 


15 


Calvert 


1 


26 


11 


30 


3 


1 


3 




2 


82 




2 


8 


2 


6 


' " 3 


Carroll 


10 


245 


' ' 3 


41 


16 


13 


9 


4 


Cecil 


5 


69 


10 


54 


4 


1 


8 








27 


8 


31 


5 




4 


3 




' i4 


116 


10 


53 


7 


■ ' '4 


9 


3 




44 


486 


55 


238 


25 


12 


25 


16 




2 


112 


15 


154 


21 


6 


14 


6 




4 


133 


13 


62 


6 


3 


6 


3 


Howard 


8 


90 


3 


26 


6 


5 


3 




Kent 


3 


80 




1 


4 




9 






4 


100 


' 14 


39 


22 


' ' 3 


23 


' ' 9 






108 


3 


61 


37 


14 


9 


6 


Queen Anne's 


' ' '4 


66 


6 


27 




2 


3 






.... 


74 


3 


44 


6 


3 


5 


' ' 3 


Somerset 




57 


8 


74 


12 




4 


3 


Talbot 




50 


1 


14 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Washington 


' 23 


398 


32 


222 


46 


22 


12 


8 


Wicomico 




254 




12 


18 


5 


5 


14 


Worcester 


' ' 2 


83 




43 




6 


4 


4 



12 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Of the 6,675 white children of ages seven to fifteen years not in 
school, 531 were physically and 329 were mentally handicapped 
and 3,451 were over fourteen years and employed. This means 
that 65 per cent of those not attending school could be excused 
from attendance for legal reasons. Another 1,893, or 28 per 
cent, were over fourteen years old and unemployed, and 471 
white children of ages seven to thirteen years should according 
to law be in school. (See Table 4.) 

There were 949 physically handicapped and 232 mentally handi- 
capped children of ages 7 to 15 years attending school in 1936. 
(See Table 5.) 



TABLE 5 

Handicapped White School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 
Maryland Counties, Distributed According to Type of Handicap and Age 
Group, November, 1936 



White Handicapped Children in School 



County 


Physically Handicapped 


Mentally Handicapped 


Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 


Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 


Total— 1932 


634 


141 


210 


36 


1934 


838 


223 


184 


44 


1936 


749 


20.0 


178 


54 


Allegany 


89 


22 


37 


15 


Anne Arundel 


71 


27 


5 


2 




120 


36 


27 


13 


Calvert 












' 21 


' ' '4 


* ' 9 




Carroll 


41 


10 


10 


1 


Cecil 


15 


4 


10 


2 


Charles 


28 


4 


4 


2 


Dorchester 


19 


3 


2 






74 


17 


9 


"'3 


Garrett 


59 


11 


11 


3 




13 


4 


5 


1 


Howard 


12 


3 






Kent 












' '43 


"i2 


' i6 


"4 




13 


7 


3 




3 


4 


1 




St. Mary's 


33 


7 


3 






11 


1 


12 


"'2 


Talbot 












"55 




' ' ' 5 






14 


7 


7 


"*5 




15 


3 


1 





WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



DECREASE IN ENROLLMENT CHECKED 

The enrollment in the white county public elementary schools 
for 1937 totaled 110,955, an increase of 17 pupils over the year 
preceding. The gradual steady increase in enrollment in these 
schools evident until 1933 was followed by a slight decline each 
year until 1936. The small increase in 1937 reverses this down- 
ward trend. (See Tables 6 and 7.) 



TABLE 6 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
June, 1923, 1936 and 1937 



County 



Total Counties. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 
Prince George's 
Montgomery . . . 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



*106,069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
4,524 
8,505 
4,947 
5,902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



1936 



*110,938 



37 1 
694 
348 
937 
620 
361 
308 
999 
266 
1 IX 
652 
307 



1937 



*110,955 

17,490 
12,706 
11,111 
9,538 
9,039 
7,261 
6,313 
4,975 
4,269 
4,040 
3,607 
3,297 



County 



Dorchester . . . 

Howard 

Worcester . . . 
Somerset .... 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Kent 

St. Mary's. . . 
Calvert 

Balto. City . . 

Total State. . 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 



3,432 
2,241 
2,298 
3,059 
3,025 
2,105 
2,101 
1,803 
1,748 
2,117 
1,060 

t*79,124 

t*185,193 



1936 



3,003 
2,171 
2,180 
2,257 
2,182 
1,713 
1,610 
1,517 
1,416 
1,082 
789 

t*76,863 

t*187,801 



1937 



2,939 
2,204 
2,159 
2,150 
2,125 
1,709 
1,565 
1,493 
1,332 
1,014 
813 

t*75,118 

t*186,073 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and •nrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 282. 



The counties are arranged in Table 6 in order of size of public 
white elementary school enrollment in 1937. Only eight of the 
counties showed increases in enrollment from 1936 to 1937, and 
of these only two had an increase of 4 per cent or more, and only 
six had a larger enrollment in 1937 than in 1923. 

Enrollment in Baltimore City public white elementary* schools, 
75,118, was lower in 1937 than in any year preceding shown. 
There was a decrease of 1,745 from 1936. It will be noted that 
the City enrollment was 75,118, while the corresponding county 
public school enrollment was 110,955, giving an excess of 35,837 
for the counties. (See Tables 6 and 7.) 



* Includes all below last four years of high school. 

13 



14 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 7 



Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1937 

















*Non-Catholic 




*Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


114,096 


105,526 


107,200 


78,979 


6,536 


25,942 


*360 


*605 


1928, , , 


116,018 


107,440 


107,563 


79,247 


8,000 


27.285 


*455 


*908 


1929 


116,827 


107,984 


107,909 


78,398 


8,351 


28,274 


*567 


*1,312 


1930 , . . 


118,708 


109,864 


108,737 


78,838 


8,722 


29,111 


1,249 


1,915 


1931 


119,741 


109,634 


109,406 


78,202 


9,079 


29,560 


1,256 


1,872 


1932 , , , . 


122,002 


109,843 


111,370 


78,069 


9,414 


30,051 


1,218 


1,723 


1933 


123,200 


109,459 


112,509 


77,639 


9,636 


30,304 


1,055 


1,516 


1934 


122,848 


109,132 


111,907 


76,560 


9,876 


31,096 


1,065 


1,476 


1935 


122,531 


108,532 


111,696 


76,158 


9,622 


30,828 


1,213 


1,546 


1936 


121,957 


108,777 


110,938 


76,863 


9,798 


30,171 


1,221 


1,743 


1937 


122,247 


106,839 


110,955 


75,118 


9,785 


29,817 


*1,507 


*1,904 



* Data for non-Catholic non-public schools become increasingly complete each succeeding 
year as more of these schools send in returns. See Tables II to V, pages 282 to 287. 



TABLE 8 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates Per 1,000 White Population 

(Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department 

of Health) 



County 


Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


1920 


1930 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 




23.5 


17.4 


14.3 


14.0 


17.0 


17.0 




27.1 


22.2 


20.4 


21.2 


19.5 


19.9 


Anne Arundel 


20.2 


14.4 


13.8 


12.2 


16.9 


16.0 




21.5 


13.9 


8.1 


7.1 


14.5 


13.8 


Calvert 


26.6 


22.2 


19.8 


20.0 


20.6 


21.0 




23.1 


16.5 


16.6 


14.0 


19.5 


17.4 


Carroll 


22.1 


15.1 


13.0 


11.0 


16.5 


15.6 


Cecil 


22.4 


19.9 


15.7 


14.7 


17.7 


15.8 


Charles 


23.6 


20.1 


17.2 


16.3 


23.2 


23.5 




26.9 


19.2 


15.5 


16.9 


15.3 


16.6 


Frederick 


25.0 


20.2 


17.6 


18.4 


17.2 


18.1 




28.4 


24.2 


24.3 


23.0 


25.8 


24.6 


Harford 


18.6 


17.8 


14.0 


13.1 


16.7 


16.3 




22.8 


14.9 


13.9 


14.0 


19.1 


19.3 


Kent 


21.5 


12.6 


11.8 


10.8 


12.6 


11.9 


Montgomery 


20.9 


13.6 


14.9 


14.8 


18.7 


19.6 


Prince George's 


20.9 


11.4 


7.5 


7.4 


19.2 


19.7 




21.1 


18.1 


13.1 


15.3 


14.6 


18.8 


St. Mary's 


26.8 


26.7 


25.8 


26.7 


25.5 


25.3 




24.7 


17.9 


14.6 


14.0 


14.2 


14.8 


Talbot 


22.0 


19.4 


16.9 


23.1 


13.4 


17.9 


Washington 


26.9 


20.4 


17.5 


16.5 


17.7 


16.4 


Wicomico 


22.3 


18.4 


14.0 


15.0 


12.3 


13.1 




20.0 


15.7 


9.3 


11.8 


11.9 


14.4 


Baltimore City 


25.3 


17.6 


15.4 


15.0 


13.7 


13.1 


Entire State 


24.5 


17.5 


14.9 


14.5 


15.5 


15.1 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were based on births occurring in the indicated areas and are 
shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." 

For 1935 and 1936 birth rates are shown on this basis and also by residence of the mother. 



White Enrollment in Elementary Schools; Birth Rates; 15 
Length of Session 



Enrollment in white public elementary schools in individual 
counties included as few as 813 pupils and as many as 17,490. The 
average white elementary enrollment per county was 4,824 and 
the median 3,297. (See Table 6.) 

For white elementary enrollment in public and non-public 
school from 1925 to 1937, see Table 7. 

The decreases in elementary school enrollment are generally 
attributed to the lower birth rates reported by the Bureau of 
Vital Statistics, State Department of Health. Birth rates for 
1920, 1930, 1935, and 1936 are reported according to place of birth 
and for 1935 and 1936 also according to residence of mother. With 
the exception of St. Mary's and Talbot, the rates of birth for 1930, 
1935, and 1936 are considerably below those for 1920. The rate 
for 1930 is the one which is most closely affecting first grade 
enrollment shown in this report. (See Table 8.) 



LENGTH OF SESSION 

The county white public elementary schools were in session 
184.8 days, a decrease of 1.3 days under the year preceding. The 
average number of days open varied from 180.7 to 190.9 days. 
The opening dates in September, 1936, covered the period from 
September 1 to September 14, inclusive, while the closing dates 
had an even wider range from May 28 to June 18. (See Table 9.) 



TABLE 9 

Length of Session in White Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Cecil 

Howard 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Allegany 

Kent 

Carroll 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 

Washington 

Prince George's 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



184.8 

190.9 
188.2 
187.2 
186.8 
185.4 
184.8 
184.3 
184.0 
184.0 
183.9 
183.6 
183.4 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 

9/8 

9/2 

9/9 

9/9 

9/10 

9/2 

9/3 

9/9 

9/9 

9/8 

9/9 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/18 

6/18 

6/11 

6/18 

6/18 

6/18 

6/11 

6/9 

6/11 

tt 11 

6/11 

6/18 



County 



Dorchester. . . 

Garrett 

Montgomery . 
Wicomico. . . 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's 
Somerset .... 

Charles 

Worcester . . . 

Balto. City . . 

Total State. . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



183.4 
183.0 
183.0 
183.0 
182.6 
182.1 
182.1 
182.0 
182.0 
181.2 
180.7 

190.0 

187.0 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 

9/9 

9/14 

9/1 

9/9 

9/10 

9/9 

9/8 

9/1 

9/8 

9/1 

9/8 



1(5 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1937 there were 12 county white elementary schools in six 
counties open fewer than 180 days. In each of four counties, one 
school was open between 174 and 179 days. One county had 
two schools open 179 days. In one county four schools opened 
late in the year and two others were open 176 and 179.5 days, 
respectively. (See Table 10.) 

TABLE 10 



Number of County White Elementary Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 
Days, Year Ending June 30, 1937 





For All Counties by Year 




For 1937 by County 


Year 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


County 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


1926 


124 


109 


15 


Carroll 


*1 




1 


1927 


83 


68 


15 
8 


Frederick 


*1 


i 




1928 


33 


25 


Howard 


tl 
tl 




i 


1929 


62 


45 


17 


Montgomery .... 
Washington 


i 




1930 


28 


22 


6 


J2 
§°x6 


l 


i 


1931 


12 


7 


5 


Garrett 


6 




1932 


9 


8 


1 








1933 


5 


2 


3 










1934 


8 


6 


2 










1935 


34 


18 


16 










1936 


33 


21 


12 










1937 


12 


9 


3 























* 178 days. tl74 days. J 179 days. ° 176 days, x 179.5 days. 

§ Four schools in Garrett opened late in the year : one in October, two in December, and 
one in January. 



STATUS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

The per cent of attendance in county white public elementary 
schools, 91.2, was higher in 1937 than for the three years imme- 
diately preceding, but was lower than that for 1931, 1932, and 
1933. The highest attendance recorded in the year 1933 was 92.2 
per cent. The range in 1937 was from 87.6 per cent in the county 
with the poorest attendance to 94.1 in the county having the 
highest attendance. Fourteen counties showed gains in atten- 
dance from 1936 to 1937. (See Table 11.) 

In Baltimore City the 1937 per cent of attendance, 90.1, was 
below that reported for any year from 1925 to 1936, inclusive. 

As has usually been the case, attendance was lowest in the one- 
teacher schools, 89.3 per cent, next lowest in the two-teacher 
schools, 90.6 per cent, and highest in the graded schools, 91.3 per 
cent. Every type of school showed a gain in attendance over the 
year preceding. The greatest difference betwen the county hav- 
ing the lowest attendance and that having the highest attendance 
was found for the two-teacher schools, the extremes being 84.7 



Schools Open Fewer Than 180 Days; Per Cent of 17 
Attendance 

TABLE 11 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years End- 
ing in June, 1923, 1935, 1936 and 1937 



County 



1923 



1935 



1936 



1937 



County 



1923 



1935 



1936 



1937 



County Average 

Allegany 

Prince George's . 
Anne Arundel . . 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Kent 

Garrett 

Carroll 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Somerset 



84.2 

89.0 
84.9 
84.5 
74.5 
83.6 
86.7 
83.9 
79.4 
84.9 
86.5 
79.5 
83.3 



90.9 



*92.2 
f92.3 



91, 
90, 

T 91, 
90, 
89, 
90, 

*90 
91. 
88, 
91 



90.7 

*93.0 

f92.1 
91.6 
91.7 

t91.7 
87.7 
88.9 
90.9 

*90.5 
89.1 
90.0 
88.9 



91.2 

*94.1 

f92.0 
91.7 
91.7 

f91.7 
91.6 
91.4 
91.1 

*91.1 
91.0 
90.8 
90.7 



Baltimore 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Harford 

Worcester 

Howard 

Baltimore City. . 

Entire State .... 



84.0 
86.5 
85.4 
85.8 
79.9 
81.2 
81.9 
84.8 
84.5 
83.5 
84.0 

89.8 

86.7 



f90.5 
92.4 
91.5 
92.0 
85.0 
91.2 

*89.7 
90.1 
89.5 
90.8 
90.0 

♦90.4 

90.7 



f90.7 
90.4 
88.2 
91.3 
88.5 
88.2 

*90.4 
89.3 
88.7 
88.8 
88.1 

*90.6 

90.6 



T90.2 
90.2 
90.2 
90.2 
90.1 
90.1 

*90.0 
89.7 
88.8 
88.7 
87.6 

*90.1 

90.7 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 



and 95.7 per cent. The difference between the county having the 
minimum and maximum attendance was least for the graded 
schools. There were seven or eight counties in which attendance 
was lower in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 12.) 



TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1936 and 1937, 
by Types of White Elementary Schools 





Schools 


Having 




One Teacher 




CountyJ 


1924 


1936 


1937 


County Aver. 


80 


9 


87 


6 


89 


3 




77 


3 


90 





92 


7 


Kent 


84 


8 


86 


9 


92 


5 


Talbot 


87 


3 


92 


7 


92 


5 


Allegany .... 


82 


9 


88 


8 


91 


8 


St. Mary's. . . 


79 


3 


91 


5 


91 


6 


Wicomico . . . 


83 


9 


86 


7 


91 







81 


7 


88 


9 


90 


5 


Pr. George's. 


83 


3 


91 


8 


90 


4 


Worcester. . . 


77 





87 





90 


2 


Garrett 


81 


2 


86 


9 


90 


1 


Carroll 


78 


2 


88 


3 


90 


1 


Anne Arundel 


.77 


6 


90 


9 


89 




Queen Anne's 


82 


9 


89 


3 


89 


2 


Frederick , . 


79 


6 


87 


5 


88 


9 


Cecil 


81 


7 


88 


2 


88 


9 


Caroline 


88 


3 


88 


9 


88 


6 


Dorchester . . 


81 


3 


8 1 


9 


87 


8 


Washington . 


80 


1 


86 





87 


8 


Harford 


82 


7 


87 


5 


86 


8 


Calvert 


77 


2 


85 





85 


8 


Montgomery 


78 


1 


87 


7 


85 


7 


Howard 


82 


5 


86 


5 


8:, 


2 





Schools 


Having 




Two 


Teachers 


County 


1924 


1936 


1937 


County Aver. . 


.83. 


9 


90 





90 


6 


Allegany 


88. 


9 


94 


3 


95 


7 


Charles 


84 


3 


90 


4 


94 


3 


Anne Arundel . 


.81 


8 


93 


9 


93 


4 


Calvert 


81 


7 


91 


4 


93 


2 


Pr. George's. . 


.85 


8 


91 


8 


92 





Cecil 


86 


5 


91 


9 


91 


8 


Garrett 


87 


7 


90 


8 


91 


7 


Talbot 


86 


7 


85 


8 


91 


7 




83 


3 


88 


8 


91 


3 


Wicomico .... 


86 


3 


ss 





91 


1 




81 


4 


91 


1 


91 





Caroline 


87 


9 


90 




90 


9 


Frederick 


80 


3 


89 





90 


6 


Kent 


85 


8 


86 


5 


90 


6 


Dorchester. . . 


.86 


7 


88 


7 


90 


1 


Carroll 


81 


4 


90 


4 


89 


8 


Washington . . 


.80 


6 


87 


6 


89 







82 


5 


90 


5 


88 


9 


Montgomery . 
Queen Anne's. 


.80 


5 


90 





88 


8 


.86 


5 


88 


3 


88 


6 


Howard 


81 


9 


90 





87 


2 


Harford 


85 


6 


87 


9 


87 







82 


6 


8T, 


.9 


84 


.7 





G 


ra 


ded 


Schools 


County 


1924 


1936 


1937 


County Aver. . 


.88 


3 


91 





91 


.3 


Allegany 


92 


4 


*93 


2 


*94 


1 


St. Mary's 






93 


6 


93 


.7 


Garrett 


89 


9 


90 


2 


92 


3 


Pr. George's. . 


.89 





|92 


2 


t92 


1 


Kent 


88 


3 


88 


2 


92 


.0 


Frederick 


86 


4 


t92 


2 


f92 


.0 


Anne Arundel 


.87 


9 


91 


4 


91 




Washington . . . 




8 


*91 


4 


*91 


G 


Carroll 


84 


3 


91 


2 


91 


.3 


Wicomico. . . . 


89 


3 


89 


7 


90 


.9 


Somerset 


86 




89 





90 


.7 


Dorchester. . . 


89 


5 


89 





90 


6 


Queen Anne's. 


.88 


3 


88 


1 


90 


6 


Charles 


88 


4 


89 


9 


90 


4 


Caroline 


89 


9 


90 


6 


90 


.3 


Baltimore 


86 


2 


t90 


7 


t90 


.3 


Montgomerv . . 


86 


3 


*90 


5 


*90 


.2 


Talbot 


88 


5 


91 


4 


89 


.8 


Calvert 






87 


4 


89 


.6 


Harford 


SB 


.9 


89 


2 


89 


6 


Cecil 


87 


.3 


89 


.1 


89 


.6 


Worcester 


89 


.3 


89 


.3 


89 


.2 


Howard 


85 


8 


88 


2 


88 


.2 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 

t Baltimore County, which had no one-teacher schools for the vears ending June. 1936 and 
1937, had an attendance of 82.3 per cent for 1924. 



18 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Monthly attendance 

Enrollment was at its maximum in county white elementary 
schools in October, after which there was a decrease each suc- 
ceeding month. This was the case for one-teacher schools, but 
for two-teacher schools with the maximum in October, January 
enrollment exceeded that for November and December. The 
graded schools reached their maximum enrollment in November. 
(See Table 13.) 

TABLE 13 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1937 





Average Number Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Month 




















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 






mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


September 


104,760 


7,872 


9,333 


87,555 


95.7 


94.2 


95.1 


95.9 


October 


106,831 


8,110 


9,498 


89,223 


94.2 


92.6 


93.6 


94.4 


November 


106,818 


8,088 


9,394 


89,336 


92.6 


91.4 


92.3 


92.7 




tl05,768 


7,966 


9,426 


f88,376 


90.5 


89.6 


89.9 


90.6 


January 


tl05,670 


7,868 


9,441 


t88,361 


88.2 


85.6 


86.5 


88.7 




fl05,520 


7,826 


9,423 


t88,271 


87.4 


84.6 


86.3 


87.8 


March 


fl04,980 


7,781 


9,374 


f87,825 


88.3 


85.6 


88.2 


88.6 


April 


fl04,588 


7,746 


9,323 


187,519 


90.1 


88.5 


90.4 


90.2 


May 


104,461 


7,716 


9,288 


87,457 


91.5 


89.5 


91.7 


91.6 


June 


*97,028 


*6,969 


*8,500 


*81,559 


94.4 


93.2 


93.8 


94.5 


Average for Year. . . . 


105,635 


7,838 


9,386 


88,411 


91.2^ 


89.3 


90.6 


91.3 



* Somerset County reported no pupils enrolled in June. 

t Excludes enrollment in kindergartens in Montgomery County. 



Per cent of attendance was at its maximum in September, de- 
creased each succeeding month thereafter until the minimum 
was found in February, after which there was a gradual gain 
each succeeding month. (See Table 13.) 

Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days 

In all white elementary and in graded schools, the per cent of 
pupils who attended school under 100 and 140 days was lower in 
1937 than in any preceding year, except 1933. In one-teacher 
schools the per cent attending under 100 days was lower than 
ever before, but for those attending under 140 days the percent- 
ages were lower than in 1937 from 1932 to 1934. For two-teacher 
schools, the per cent of pupils who attended under 100 days was 
lower from 1933 to 1935 than for 1937, while the per cent who 
attended under 140 days was lower than in 1937 only in 1933. 
The one-teacher schools showed the highest per cent attending 
under 100 and 140 days while the graded schools had the lowest 
per cent attending only a short part of the year. (See Table 14.) 



Monthly Attendance; Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days 19 
TABLE 14 

Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 
and 140 Days for Ten Years Past and by County for 1936-37 



per cent of county white pupils attending 



Year 


Elementary 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


County 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY YEAR 



1927 


10.1 


21.9 


16.1 


33.7 


10.9 


24.8 


7.8 


17.1 


1928 


8.2 


18.2 


13.3 


28.3 


8.7 


19.7 


6.6 


14.7 


1929 


8.4 


19.3 


13.3 


29.4 


9.6 


22.5 


6.8 


16.0 


1930 


6.6 


15.2 


9.3 


23.2 


7.4 


17.2 


5.8 


13.1 


1931 


5.5 


12.9 


7.7 


18.3 


5.8 


13.8 


5.0 


11.7 


1932 


5.3 


12.3 


6.8 


16.6 


5.7 


13.4 


5.0 


11.4 


1933 


4.6 


11.0 


6.4 


15.7 


4.8 


12.0 


4.4 


10.3 


1934 


4.9 


12.8 


6.2 


17.1 


5.0 


14.0 


4.7 


12.2 


1935 


4.9 


12.4 


6.9 


18.0 


5.0 


14.5 


4.6 


11.5 


1936 


4.8 


12,4 


7.3 


19.6 


5.2 


13.9 


4.5 


11.5 


1937 


4.7 


12.0 


6.0 


17.6 


5.1 


13.0 


4.5 


11.4 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 1936-37 



Queen Anne's. 




6.1 




7.3 




8.5 




5.6 


Allegany 


3.5 


7.6 


5.5 


10.9 


1.9 


3.9 




7.7 


Pr. George's . . 


2.1 


8.0 


4.7 


15.9 


2.4 


9.7 


1.9 


7.5 


Kent 


1.8 


9.1 


1.6 


8.9 


3.2 


11.5 




7.3 


St. Mary's 


2.0 


9.5 


2.4 


12.6 


2.3 


9.0 


!5 


6.8 


Frederick 


2.8 


9.7 


2.6 


14.2 


3.5 


12.8 


2.7 


9.1 


Carroll 


2.7 


10.3 


5.5 


16.2 


4.7 


13.5 


2.4 


9.7 


Baltimore .... 


4.2 


10.3 






5.5 


12.6 


4.1 


10.2 


Anne Arundel 


6.5 


12.4 


2^9 


33^3 


5.1 


9.0 


6.4 


12.4 


Caroline 


2.5 


12.9 


.7 


14.8 


1.7 


9.5 


2.7 


12.9 


Dorchester . . . 


4.1 


12.9 


5.9 


18.7 


3.9 


13.7 


3.7 


11.4 


Garrett 


3.4 


12.9 


1.7 


15.5 


6.4 


13.6 


3.7 


10.3 


Wicomico .... 


5.3 


13.4 


3.7 


15.3 


6.0 


14.3 


5.5 


13.0 


Somerset 


6.2 


14.3 


7.0 


12.5 


4.4 


11.8 


6.4 


15.0 


Washington . . 


6.6 


14.5 


13.2 


25.9 


11.7 


20.8 


5.5 


12.7 


Harford 


4.9 


14.6 


9.5 


22.0 


6.6 


19.5 


3.6 


12.0 


Worcester .... 


5.5 


15.5 


3.8 


15.0 


6.4 


23.6 


5.4 


14.3 


Charles 


6.7 


15.6 


1.7 


3.4 


8.0 


11.0 


6.9 


16.5 


Cecil 


6.4 


15.6 


10.9 


22.2 


4.7 


9.1 


5.0 


14.5 


Talbot 


6.0 


16.4 


4.5 


15.0 


7.8 


20.3 


6.1 


16.4 


Calvert 


5.2 


16.9 


5.9 


17.6 


1.6 


8.9 


5.9 


18.5 


Howard 


7.4 


17.5 


3.6 


15.6 


8.9 


17.8 


8.2 


17.9 


Montgomery . 


8.7 


18.5 


8.8 


29.3 


8.7 


20.7 


8.7 


18.0 



The counties showed great extremes in the per cent of white 
elementary pupils who attended under 100 days, from none to 
nearly 9 per cent. For county white elementary pupils who at- 
tended under 140 days the extremes ran from 6 per cent to over 
18 per cent. Although these extremes seem large they are even 
greater for the one- and two-teacher schools. (See fable 14.) 



20 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Fewer White Elementary Pupils Enter School Late 

There were 907 county white elementary pupils who entered 
school after the first month because of employment, indifference 
or neglect, a smaller number and per cent than were ever reported 
before. However, it was found that not every county had defined 
late entrance after the first month in exactly the same way. Be- 
ginning with the school year which started in September, 1937, 
every teacher has been asked to include in this table on late en- 
trants data for all pupils who entered school 15 or more calendar 
days after the opening day of school. (See Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, 
or Neglect, for Ten Years Past and by County for 1936-37 







Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Year 


Total 
















Number 




Indiffer- 


*14 Yrs. 


*Under 


Indiffer- 


*14 Years 


*Under 


County 


Entering 


Total 


ence or 


or More, 


14 Years, 


ence or 


or More, 


14 Years, 




Late 




Neglect 


Employed 


Illegally 


Neglect 


Employed 


Illegally 












Employed 






Employed 


Late Entrants by Year 


1927 


4,720 


4.1 


1.4 


2.2 


.5 








1928 


3,703 


3.2 


1.1 


1.7 


.4 








1929 


3,525 


3.0 


1.0 


1.6 


.4 








1930 


2,744 


2.3 


.9 


1.2 


.2 








1931 


1,843 


1.6 


.7 


.8 










1932 


1,456 


1.2 


.6 


.4 


.2 








1933 


1,168 


1.0 


.6 


.3 


.1 








1934 


1,008 


.9 


.5 


.3 


.1 








1935 


1,045 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 








1936 


1,035 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 








1937 


907 


.8 


.5 


.2 


.1 









Late Entrants by County, 1937 



Wicomico .... 


6 




2 


.1 


.1 




3 


3 


1 


St. Mary's .... 


2 




2 


.2 






5 


1 


1 


Pr. George's . . 


28 




3 


.2 


!i 




4 


7 


1 


Baltimore. . . . 


70 




4 


.3 


.i 




7 


4 


9 


Frederick 


36 




5 


.2 


.3 




6 


11 


1 


Garrett 


20 




5 


.3 


.2 




11 


9 


1 


Cecil 


17 




5 


.3 


.1 


!i 


9 


6 


13 


Anne Arundel 


34 




5 


.4 


.1 




14 


5 


8 




84 




6 


.5 


.1 




15 


8 


7 


Charles 


12 




8 


.7 




!i 


20 


1 


12 


Worcester .... 


18 




8 


.3 


!4 


.i 


8 


15 


15 


Montgomery . 
Queen Anne's. 


79 




8 


.7 


.i 




18 


10 


10 


14 




9 


.4 


.4 


!i 


13 


16 


14 


Carroll 


59 


1 


1 


.3 


.5 


.3 


10 


19 


17 


Kent 


16 


1 


1 




.3 


.8 


1 


14 


22 


Washington . . 


156 


1 


3 


!8 


.3 


.2 


22 


12 


18 


Somerset 


30 


1 


4 


.6 


.7 


.1 


16 


21 


11 




62 


1 


4 


.6 


.5 


.3 


17 


17 


20 




32 


1 


4 


.3 


.8 


.3 


12 


22 


16 


Talbot 


28 


1 


6 


.7 


.9 




21 


23 




Dorchester . . . 


51 


1 


7 


.7 


.6 


!4 


19 


20 


21 




38 


1 


7 


1.1 


.3 


.3 


23 


13 


19 


Calvert 


15 


1 


8 


.1 


.5 


1.2 


2 


18 


23 



* 13 years, 1925-1931, inclusive. 



Late Entrants to and Withdrawals from White 
Elementary Schools 



21 



There is considerable variation among the counties in the pro- 
portion of pupils who are reported as late entrants. A part of 
this may be due to differences in definition of late entrance, but 
a part is certainly due to the attitudes of parents toward the im- 
portance of enrollment on the opening day of school if children 
are in normal physical condition, and a part also depends on the 
efforts made by teachers and school officials to inform parents of 
the opening day and to give special warnings to those families 
with whom late entrance in the past has appeared to be habitual. 



Withdrawals from White Elementary Schools 
TABLE 16 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Year, 1927 to 1937, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Year 
County 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 







Over and 






Mental 




Under 






and 


Employ- 


Compul- 




Other 


Physical 


ment 


sory At- 


Poverty 


Causes 


Inca- 




tendance 




pacity 




Age 







Withdrawals by Years 



1927 


12,570 


10.9 


6,017 


5 


9 


1.4 


2 


8 


.7 


.6 


.4 


1928 


12,416 


10.8 


5,473 


4 


7 


1.3 


2 


2 


.6 


.4 


.2 


1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4 


3 


1.2 


2 





. 5 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12,718 


10.9 


4,105 


3 


5 


1.0 


1 


7 


.4 


.2 


o 


1931 


11,479 


9.8 


3,642 


3 


1 


1.1 


1 


3 


.3 


.3 




1932 


12,008 


10.1 


2,966 


2 


5 


1.1 




8 


.3 


.2 




1933 


12,008 


10.0 


2,932 


2 


4 


.8 




9 


.3 


.3 




1934 


11,447 


9.6 


2,897 


2 


4 


1.0 




8 


.3 


.2 




1935 


11,295 


9.5 


3,036 


2 


5 


1.0 




8 


.4 


.2 




1936 


11,046 


9.4 


3,037 


2 


6 


.9 




9 


.5 


.2 




1937 


11,963 


10.9 


2,899 


2 


4 


.9 




8 


.5 


.1 





Withdrawals by County, 1936-37 



Queen Anne's. 


190 


11.6 


22 


1.3 


.6 




.4 




.1 


.2 


Carroll 


468 


9.0 


77 


1.5 


.5 




.8 


.2 






Pr. George's . . 


1,132 


11.4 


159 


1.6 


.8 




.3 


.5 






Harford 


648 


14.2 


77 


1.7 


.7 




.6 


.4 






Kent 


160 


11.5 


24 


1.7 


.6 




.6 


.2 






Cecil 


390 


11.3 


61 


1.8 


1.0 




.2 


.5 






Anne Arundel 


705 


10.8 


115 


1.8 


.7 




.4 


.5 


!i 


.1 


Caroline 


243 


10.9 


51 


2.3 


.9 


1 


.1 


.3 






St. Mary's 


136 


13.1 


24 


2.3 


.6 


1 


.2 


.3 






Garrett 


424 


10.0 


99 


2.3 


.8 




.6 


.4 


.2 


!3 


Calvert 


63 


7.6 


20 


2.4 


.9 




.8 








Wicomico .... 


481 


12.5 


93 


2.4 


1.0 


1 


.0 


!i 


!3 




Baltimore .... 


1,748 


9.6 


438 


2.4 


1.0 




.7 


.6 




!i 


Charles 


103 


6.7 


39 


2.6 


.7 




.9 


.3 


.6 




Allegany 


1,050 


7.9 


352 


2.7 


.7 




.7 


.9 


2 


'.2 


Montgomery . 


1,025 


10.9 


258 


2.7 


1.4 




5 


.4 


!3 


.1 


Howard 


333 


14.6 


63 


2.8 


1.1 




5 


1.0 






Talbot 


166 


9.2 


50 


2.8 


1.2 




8 


.8 






Dorchester. . . 


262 


8.6 


85 


2.8 




1 


3 


.5 




!i 


Frederick 


748 


9.7 


232 


3.0 


IA 


1 


1 


.2 


!s 




Washington . . 


1,197 


10.0 


393 


3.3 


1.0 


1 


3 


.6 


.3 


!i 


Worcester .... 


168 


7.6 


82 


3.7 


1.0 


1 


9 


.4 


.3 


.1 




123 


5.6 


85 


3.9 


1.5 


1 


4 


.2 


.6 


2 



22 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

There were nearly 12,000 county white elementary boys and 
girls who withdrew from school because they changed their res- 
idence and entered another school or because of death. They 
represented nearly 11 per cent of the total county white elemen- 
tary school enrollment. This was as large a percentage as has 
been found during the past ten years. One county had as few 
as 5.6 per cent who withdrew for removal, transfer, commitment, 
and death, while another had as many as 14.6 per cent who 
dropped out for these reasons. (See Table 16.) 

Withdrawals for physical and mental incapacity, employment, 
ages over or under those for compulsory school attendance, pov- 
erty, etc., were the same in number as in 1934, when they were 
smaller than ever before, and represented 2.4 per cent of the total 
county white elementary enrollment, excluding the withdrawals 
described in the preceding paragraph. There were reductions 
in the per cent who withdrew for employment, poverty, and phys- 
ical or mental incapacity. 

TABLE 17 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools 
for School Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Per Cent of 
















Attend- 


*Late 


fWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 




91.2 


.8 


2.4 










92.0 


.3 


1.6 


2 


3 


3 


St. Mary's 


91.7 


.2 


2.3 


4 


2 


9 




91.7 


.5 


1.8 


3 


8 


7 


Garrett 


91.4 


.5 


2.3 


7 


6 


10 




91.0 


.2 


2.4 


10 


1 


12 


Carroll 


91.1 


1.1 


1.5 


8 


14 


2 




94.1 


.6 


2.7 


1 


9 


15 


Kent 


91.6 


1.1 


1.7 


6 


15 


5 


Queen Anne's 


90.2 


.9 


1.3 


15 


13 


1 




90.2 


.4 


2.4 


13 


4 


13 




91.7 


.5 


3.0 


5 


5 


20 


Cecil 


89.7 


.5 


1.8 


20 


7 


6 




90.8 


.8 


2.6 


11 


10 


14 


Montgomry 


90.0 


.8 


2.7 


9 


12 


16 


Caroline 


90.2 


1.4 


2.3 


14 


19 


8 




88.8 


1.4 


1.7 


21 


18 


4 


Washington 


91.1 


1.3 


3.3 


9 


16 


21 


Calvert 


90.1 


1.8 


2.4 


17 


23 


11 




90.7 


1.4 


3.9 


12 


17 


23 


Talbot 


90.2 


1.6 


2.8 


16 


20 


18 


Worcester 


88.7 


.8 


3.7 


22 


11 


22 




90.1 


1.7 


2.8 


18 


21 


19 


Howard 


87.6 


1.7 


2.8 


23 


22 


17 



* Late entrance for employment, indifference, and neglect. The county having the small- 
est percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Withdrawals; Index of School Attendance; Grade 23 
Enrollment 

Efficiency in Getting and Keeping Children in School 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and 
withdrawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is con- 
sidered highest which has a high percentage of attendance ac- 
companying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. 
A county which makes little effort to get its children to school 
when they open and permits them to withdraw before the close 
of the year may keep them in regular attendance while they are 
enrolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all of its pupils to secure 
an education less well than a county which brings all of its chil- 
dren into school at the beginning of the year, discourages with- 
drawals, and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. (See 
Table 17.) 



GRADE ENROLLMENT IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The 1937 white enrollment in each of the first six grades was 
lower than it was in 1936. Part of this reduction is accounted 
for by an increase of 115 in special classes. Enrollment in the 
kindergarten, grades 7 and 8, and the last three years of high 
school showed increases over 1936. Enrollment in the first year 
of high school was stationary. The number of post-graduates 
was smaller than in the year preceding. (See Table 18 and 
Chart 2.) 

Enrollment in the first grade, 16,158, was considerably higher 
than that in any other grade, but was 40 fewer than in 1936. The 
fourth grade had the next highest enrollment, 14,806, the third 
had 14,729, the fifth grade 14,714, and the second, 14,610. Leav- 
ing out of consideration grade 1, the peak enrollment found in 
grade 4 dropped in each succeeding grade and year of high school 
until it was 5,768 in the last year. The small enrollment in grade 
8 was found in the three counties which have the 6-3-3 or 8-4 
plan of organization. The remaining counties have either the 
7-4 or 6-5 set-up for elementary grades and high school. (See 
Chart 2.) 

There were more boys than girls in each of the first seven 
grades, while there were more girls than boys in grade 8 and the 
last four years of high school. It is interesting to note that there 
were more boys than girls in the special classes reported by six 
counties. (See Chart 2.) 



24 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 2 



Grade 
or Year 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLED t BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 50, 1937 



Total 



Boys 



V77\ Girls 



Kgn. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Special 
Class 



528 



14,610 
14,729 
14,806 
14,714 



3,097 

336 



270 
258 



YZZZZZZZZZA 



7ZZZZZZZZA 



Hi 



|7,238 //////////////////////////////////////A 



7,072 



i4 > 127 EHHH 

13,621 



I c 72 & '//////////////////////////////////7, 



i 

ii 
in 

IV 




Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to institutions. 
Includes 27 boys and 66 girls, post-graduates. 



There were eight counties in which the 1937 enrollment in one 
or more grades above grade one was higher than it was in grade 
one. (See Table 18.) 

A comparison of white enrollment in each grade in Baltimore 
City showed for the first seven elementary grades and the four 
years of high school an enrollment approximately half as large 
as that in the counties. Baltimore City public school enrollment 
exceeded that in the counties in the kindergartens, special classes, 
and eighth grade. (See Table 18.) 



White Grade Enrollment 



25 



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26 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES AT PEAK 
CHART 3 



PER CENT OF GRAEUATES 
IN 1937 COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT t 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 


5,292 


5,703 


Cecil 


237 


192 


Somerset 


139 


131 


Carroll 


303 


295 


St. Mary's 


64 


47 


Pr. George's 


524 


551 


Garrett 


250 


216 


Talbot 


89 


104 


Worcester 


112 


129 


Caroline 


98 


134 


Queen Anne's 


85 


82 


Harford 


215 


227 


Howard 


98 


121 


Frederick 


383 


387 


Charles 


69 


88 


Kent 


78 


56 


Anne Arundel 


297 


296 


Dorchester 


114 


168 


Montgomery* 


393 


443 


Wicomico* 


166 


164 


Calvert 


38 


37 


Baltimore 


682 


798 


Allegany* 


471 


577 


Washington* 


387 


460 



Per Cent Boys EZZ2 Per Cent Girls 




Y7/7ZV7////////A 



77777Z\ 




^777A 

V/////////A 



V77A 




V//////////77A 



iQ-ft V////////////////////////////X 

1 il^^MM 




V//// /A 



//// ///A 



W 77A 



t Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment to institution, or death, and 
includes promotions from grade 7 in counties having 6-5 plan and from grade 8 in counties 
having 6-3-3 plan of organization. 

* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 

% Includes mid-year graduates. 



White Elementary School Graduates and Non-Promotions 27 

The 10,995 white graduates of elementary schools were the 
largest number ever completing the elementary school course. 
They represented 10.3 per cent of the enrollment in the elemen- 
tary grades. The number of boys graduated was larger than ever 
previously reported, while the number of girls graduated was 
only exceeded in one year preceding, 1935. The white boys grad- 
uated represented 9.6 per cent of the elementary enrollment, 
whereas the corresponding per cent for girls was 11.1 (See 
Table 19.) 

TABLE 19 



County White Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


*10.1 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


*10. 5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


*10.2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


no.i 


1933 


*5,121 


*5,653 


*10,774 


*9.1 


*10.9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


*10. 8 


no.o 


1935 


*5,190 


*5,719 


*10,909 


*9.2 


ni.o 


no.i 


1936 


*5,160 


*5,699 


*10,859 


*9.3 


ni.i 


no.i 


1937.'. 


*5,292 


*5,703 


*10,995 


*9.6 


ni.i 


no. 3 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



Seven counties had increases and two decreases compared with 
1936 in both boys and girls graduated, while the remainder had 
increases in either boys or girls graduated. In four counties the 
proportion of boy graduates in the elementary school enrollment 
was greater than that of girl graduates. (Note the longer black 
bars in Chart 3.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS DECREASE 

In only two years, 1930 and 1931, were there fewer non-promo- 
tions of white pupils in elementary schools than were reported 
in 1937, 14,590. This is a reduction of 200 under the number in 
1936 and a considerable reduction from the number reported as 
22,021 in 1923. The per cent of pupils not promoted was 13.7 
in 1937. Only in one year — 1935 — was the per cent of non-pro- 
motions lower, 13.6. (See Table 20.) 

The number of white boys who were reported by their teachers 
as not ready for the grades above those in which thev were 
found in 1936-37 was 9,200, or 16.6 per cent of those enrolled in 



28 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

white elementary schools. Corresponding figures for white girls 
were 5,390 and 10.5 per cent. The greater success of girls over 
boys in making their grades which has always been in evidence 
needs the continued study of teachers and supervisors. (See 
Table 20.) 

TABLE 20 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County AVhite Elementary 

Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 


1935 


9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10.5 


13.6 


1936 


9,283 


5,507 


14,790 


16.7 


10.7 


13.8 


1937 


9,200 


5,390 


14,590 


16.6 


10.5 


13.7 



Non-promotions for boys varied among the counties from 7.3 
per cent to 30.7 per cent, while for girls, the range was from 3.7 
to 16.5 per cent. Apparently, the promotion policy of the county 
in which schools are attended has much to do with the possibility 
of entrance to the next higher grade or the requirement that a 
grade be repeated. (See Chart 4.) 

Eleven counties decreased the number and per cent of failures 
for white elementary school boys and girls, six counties increased 
them, and in the remaining six counties there were more failures 
for either boys or girls and fewer for either girls or boys in 1937 
than in 1936. (See Chart 4.) 

In every county it will be noted that a larger number and per 
cent of boys than of girls failed. (See Chart 4.) 

Non-Promotions by Grades 

Non-promotions were lower in 1937 than in 1936 in number and 
per cent in grades 1 and 3 for both boys and girls, in grade 2 for 
boys, in grades 5 and 7 for girls. Part of the reduction may be 
explained by the increase in the pupils enrolled in special classes 
whose failure by grades was not reported. (See Chart 5.) 



White Elementary School Non-Promotions by County and 29 

Grade 



CHART 4 



AND 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY 
JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED .* 1927 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys 



EZZZ3 Per Cent Girls 



Total and 


*9 


,200 




Co. Average 






*5,390 


Montgomery 




312 


153 


Caroline 




127 


48 


Carroll* 




316 


139 


Talbot* 




103 


56 






418 


270 


Cecil 




198 


126 


Allegany* 






468 


Garrett 




275 


173 


Worcester 




185 


82 


Queen Anne ' s 




119 


70 


nari OfU 




319 


196 


Kent 




122 


54 


Somerset 




196 


106 


Washington 




935 


646 


Howard 




189 


100 


Prince George 


s* 


840 


502 


St. Mary's 




98 


43 


Wicomicot 




357 


189 


Anne Arundel 




601 


348 


Charles 




155 


84 


Dorchester 




299 


174 


Baltimore 


2 


,018 


1,501 


Calvert 




121 


62 




K-i -v/ > </ A 



1I2.C 



.1 



i 



* Includes non-promotions in special class (es). 

t Wicomico County reported no non-promotions in its special class. 



30 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 5 



NON-PROMOTIONS* BY GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE, 1937 



Grade 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 



Number 



Boys 


Girls 


2,155 


■ 

1,293| 


1,254 


68l" 


976 


563| 


1,067 


687| 


1,064 


660| 


1,184 


632| 


1,159 


705 [ 


273 


145[ 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 




* Excludes non-promotions in kindergartens and special classes. 

Non-promotions were highest in number and per cent in grade 
one, next highest in grade 7 and lowest in grade 3. In every 
grade the number and per cent of non-promotions were higher 
for boys than they were for girls. (See Chart 5.) 

Causes of Non-Promotions 

Teachers were asked to give the principal reasons why pupils 
would not be permitted to enter the grade above that in which 
they received instruction in 1936-37. Unfortunate home condi- 
tions with or without lack of interest on the part of children or 
parents were reported as responsible for the non-promotion of 
5 per cent of the white elementary children. Mental incapacity 
explained the failure of 2.1 per cent of the pupils, personal ill- 
ness accounted for the non-promotion of 1.8 per cent, and irreg- 
ular attendance not due to sickness for 1.3 per cent. A com- 
parison of these figures with previous years is shown in the upper 
portion of Table 21. 

Teachers reported that unfortunate home conditions with or 
without lack of interest affected the non-promotions of as few 
as 1.5 per cent of the white elementary pupils in one county and 



White Elementary Non-Promotions by Grade and Cause 



31 



TABLE 21 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1937, and for Preceding Ten Years 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



* to 
— - - 



| §8 

go* 



u >> 



§1 



BY YEAR 



1927 


16,076 


15.6 


3.9 


3 





1 


9 


2.2 


1.5 


.8 


.8 


1 


5 


1928 


16,428 


16.0 


5.0 


3 







9 


2.0 


1.3 


.8 


.5 


1 


5 


1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4.3 


2 


5 


1 


9 


2.0 


1.1 


.8 


.4 


1 


3 


1930 


14,333 


13.7 


4.5 


2 


7 




7 


1.4 


1.0 


.8 


.3 


1 


3 


1931 


14,524 


13.7 


4.8 


2 


7 




6 


1.2 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1 


5 


1932 


15,272 


14.2 


5.4 


2 


6 




8 


1.2 


.7 


.8 


.3 


1 


4 


1933 


16,747 


15.4 


5.8 


3 





1 


5 


1.3 


.7 


.8 


.2 


2 


1 


1934 


17,848 


16.5 


5.8 


3 


3 


2 


3 


1.5 


.6 


.9 


.2 


1 


9 


1935 


14,730 


13.6 


4.7 


2 


5 


1 


9 


1.3 


.7 




.1 


1 


7 


1936 


14,790 


13.8 


4.9 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1.4 


.8 


.7 


.1 


1 


9 


1937 


14,590 


13.7 


5.0 


2 


1 


1 


8 


1.3 


.8 


.8 


.1 


1 


8 



BY COUNTY, 1937 



Montgomery 


465 


5.5 


1.5 




8 


1.4 




6 


.5 


.2 


.1 


.4 


Caroline 


175 


8.8 


2.6 


1 


6 


2.0 




7 


.6 


.2 




1.1 


Carroll 


455 


9.5 


3.8 


2 


2 


1.1 


1 





.5 


.5 


li 


.3 


Talbot 


159 


9.7 


3.7 


1 


1 


2.4 




4 


1.4 


.4 


.1 


.2 


Frederick 


688 


9.9 


3.2 


2 




1.9 




5 


.6 


.5 


.1 


.4 


Cecil 


324 


10.5 


2.9 


2 


1 


3.0 




9 


.3 


.4 


.1 


.8 


Allegany 


1,365 


11.1 


3.5 


2 


9 


.8 


1 


3 


1.0 


.3 




1.3 


Garrett 


448 


11.7 


3.7 


2 


6 


2.3 




6 


.5 


.5 


.2 


1.3 


Worcester 


267 


13.0 


4.6 


1 


2 


1.8 


1 


5 


1.5 


.3 


.1 


2.0 


Queen Anne's 


189 


13.0 


6.3 




5 


1.1 




8 


.8 


.6 


.1 


2.8 


Harford 


515 


13.1 


5.8 




5 


2.0 


1 


7 


.7 


1.1 


.1 


1.2 


Kent 


176 


14.2 


5.9 




8 


2.3 




3 


.7 


1.2 


.3 


2.7 


Somerset 


302 


14.5 


5.9 


2 


4 


2.1 


1 


4 


.9 


.5 


.1 


1.2 


Washington 


1,581 


14.7 


5.9 


1 


5 


1.8 


1 


9 


1.2 




.1 


1.6 


Howard 


289 


14.7 


5.1 


3 


3 


1.8 


1 


4 


1.2 


.9 


.1 


.9 


Prince George's 


1,342 


15.2 


4.5 


4 


8 


2.1 




8 


.7 


1.3 


.2 


.8 


St. Mary's 


141 


15.5 


5.3 






.9 


3 


1 


.6 


1.5 




3.4 


Wicomico 


546 


16.2 


7.9 


2 


6 


2.2 






1.3 


1.2 


!i 


.9 


Anne Arundel 


949 


16.4 


6.2 


3 


4 


1.5 


1 


7 


.5 


1.2 


.2 


1.7 


Charles 


239 


16.8 


5.8 


3 


6 


1.3 


1 


8 


.8 


1.4 


.2 


1.9 


Dorchester 


473 


16.8 


5.6 


2 


8 


1.4 


3 


1 


1.6 


.4 




1.9 


Baltimore 


3,319 


20.2 


7.8 




5 


2.5 


2 


1 


1.0 


1.4 


;i 


4.8 


Calvert 


183 


23.7 


12.3 




6 


1.7 


2 


7 


.4 


.3 


.1 


5.6 



* 13 years, 1925-1931, inclusive. 



as many as 12.3 per cent in another county. Mental incapacity 
was reported as a cause of failure for less than one per cent of 
the white elementary pupils in seven counties and for nearly 5 
per cent in one of the counties. Personal illness affected the 
non-promotions of 3 per cent of the pupils in one county and less 
than one per cent in two counties, while irregular attendance not 
due to illness caused no failures in one county and in two others 
affected the non-promotion of over 3 per cent of the pupils. (See 
Table 21.) 



32 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TESTS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The eleven parts of Form A of the Unit Scales of Attainment 
were given to over 48,000 pupils in the elementary schools of 22 
Maryland counties between October, 1936, and January, 1937. 

The counties as a group were well above standard in all the 
tests. One county, however, had less than 50 per cent at stand- 
ard or above in arithmetic problems and spelling, and six counties 
had less than 50 per cent at standard or above in arithmetic fun- 
damentals. (See Table 22.) 

TABLE 22 



Per Cent of Maryland County White Pupils in Grades 4-7(8) At or Above 
Standard in Form A* of Unit Scales of Attainment 



Subject 


No. of 
Pupils 
Grades 
4-7(8) 
Tested 


Per Cent of Maryland County White Pupils in Grades 
4-7(8) at or Above Standard in Form A* of 
Unit Scales of Atainment 


Total 
Form A* 


Growth 

Over 
Form Bf 


in County 

Having 
Minimum 


in County 

Having 
Maximum 




48,332 


73.2 


4.5 


58.8 


80.4 


Geography 


46,658 


70.9 


6.8 


59.2 


70.9 


Literature 


46,656 


73.9 


19.4 


60.3 


73.9 


Science 


46,659 


77.4 


—1.4 


69.1 


77.4 


American History 


46,655 


79.2 


2.8 


68.0 


79.2 


Arithmetic 














48,311 


75.3 


3.4 


49.3 


85.4 




48,315 


57.2 


26.1 


26.5 


76.3 


Spelling 


47,516 


60.0 


4.9 


45.4 


79.0 


English 












Capitalization 


45,837 


84.9 


24.5 


77.4 


93.2 




45,838 


«2.1 


14.5 


73.6 


92.0 


Usage 


45,838 


79.4 


14.1 


69.5 


92.0 



* Given between October, 1936 and January, 1937. 
t Given in November, 1935. 

° Per cent at or above standard when Form A was given between Oct., 1936 and Jan., 1937. 



For the counties as a group, after eliminating results of the 
earlier testing with Form B which were not followed up by a re- 
test with Form A, there was a higher percentage at or above 
standard in Form A than in Form B in every subject, except 
science. The greatest gains appeared for arithmetic fundamen- 
tals, capitalization, literature, punctuation, and English usage. 

The results in READING were consistently good. The increase 
in per cent at standard or above in Grade 7 was particularly 
noteworthy. 

In GEOGRAPHY the sixth-grade results with Form A showed 
exceptionally great improvement over those with Form B. 

In SCIENCE the per cent of fifth- and sixth-grade pupils' at 
standard or above was lower in Form A than in Form B, but in 



State Wide Tests in White Elementary Schools 



33 



every grade every county had more than 50 per cent at standard 
or above. Since most of the questions on the SCIENCE tests 
measure general information from observation and experience, 
they can not be depended on to indicate success or lack of success 
with the type of science instruction which we are endeavoring 
to promote. 

In LITERATURE the improvements in test results in grades 
5, 6, and 7 were very marked. No county had less than 50 per 
cent at standard or above in Form A, whereas this was the case 
for all except a few counties when Form B was given earlier. 

The AMERICAN HISTORY test measured general information 
rather than specific history instruction planned for each grade. 
In no grade were less than 50 per cent of the pupils at standard 
or above. 

In ARITHMETIC PROBLEMS every county had over 50 per 
cent of the pupils in every grade at standard or above, excepting 
only one county in grades 6 and 7. 

ARITHMETIC FUNDAMENTALS, which in November, 1935, 
exhibited the greatest weakness, showed much better results in 
the second testing. In grade 5 in the second testing, six counties 
had more than 50 per cent of the pupils at standard or above, 
while in grades 4 and 6 all except two counties, and in grade 7 
all except six counties had more than 50 per cent of the pupils at 
standard or above. Since this test, especially in grades 5 to 7, 
is not geared to the objectives in our course of study, some op- 
erations we teach were not tested, while examples for other 
operations not taught were included in the test. 

In SPELLING, the earlier test results indicated that three 
counties in grade 4, ten counties in grade 5, eleven in grade 6, and 
three in grade 7 had fewer than 50 per cent of their pupils at or 
above standard. Considerable improvement appeared in the re- 
sults of the later testing, for there were no counties for grade 4, 
but four for grade 5, two for grade 6, and one for grade 7 in 
which fewer than 50 per cent of the pupils were at or above 
standard. 

In CAPITALIZATION, PUNCTUATION, and ENGLISH US- 
AGE, there were no counties in which fewer than 60 per cent of 
the pupils were at standard or above in the later testing. All 
of these results indicate gains over the November, 1935, test 
with Form B. 

Standard Tests Given by Individual C ounties 
Batteries of Achievement Tests 

In addition to the State-wide program of testing grades 4 to 7 
with the Unit Scales of Attainment*, several counties used the 
primary division of these tests, and one county used a third form 



* Published by Educational Test Bureau 



34 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

with grades 4 and 7. Howard County tested all pupils in grades 
1 to 3, Frederick all pupils in grade 2, and Queen Anne's pupils 
in grades 2 and 3 of one two-teacher and four one-teacher schools. 
Prince George's used Form C of the Unit Scales of Attainment 
with pupils in grade 4 and grade 7 in all graded schools. 

Prince George's used the Metropolitan Achievement Testf Pri- 
mary Form with the first-grade pupils of graded schools at the 
end of the year. 

Anne Arundel, Frederick, Howard, Queen Anne's, and Somer- 
set gave the Standard Graduation Examinationf to all seventh- 
grade pupils. 

Standard Reading Tests Used in Counties 

Talbot County used Marion Monroe's Reading Aptitude Test 
with first-grade pupils. 

Frederick County gave Gray's Oral Reading TestJ to first- 
grade pupils. 

Somerset tested first-grade pupils with the Basic Word Test**. 

Frederick used the Sangren Wilson Instructional Tests in Read- 
ing! with pupils in grade 3 and Iowa Silent Reading Testf (Re- 
vised) with pupils in grades 4, 5, and 6. 

Carroll helped standardize the Durrell Sullivan Reading Anal- 
ysis Testf by giving it to the fifth-grade pupils. 

St. Mary's gave the Shank Tests of Reading Comprehensionf f 
to pupils in grade 7. 

History and Arithmetic Tests Given 

Talbot tested sixth-grade pupils with the Renfrow Achieve- 
ment Testf f in sixth-grade history. 

Somerset used the Wisconsin Inventory Tests in Subtraction 
and Division! by W. J. Osburn. 

Intelligence Tests 

Washington County inaugurated a program of intelligence 
testing for all pupils in grades 1, 4, and 7. The Kuhlmann-An- 
derson Intelligence Tests* were used, and this policy is to be 
continued. 

The Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Abilityf Inter- 
mediate Form was given to sixth-grade pupils in Talbot County. 



* Published by Educational Test Bureau 

f Published by World Book Company 

° Published by Houghton Mifflin Company 

t Published by Public School Publishing Company 

** Published by Scott Foresman and Company 

tf Published by C. A. Gregory Company 



Standard Tests Used in Counties; Baltimore City Testing 35 



Testing in Baltimore City 

The following statement regarding the city-wide testing pro- 
gram is taken from the 1937 Report of the Board of School Com- 
missioners of Baltimore City 1 (See Table 23.) : 

'The value of standardized tests is no longer debated; instead, 
the attention of all who are concerned with the improvement of 
instruction is directed toward the problem of continually devel- 
oping tests of greater and greater usefulness. Scientific test 
construction has been found to be a highly stimulative activity, 
insistently challenging teachers, principals, supervisors, direc- 
tors, and superintendents to define and clarify their objectives. 
When teachers learn what it is they desire to measure, they 
simultaneously learn what they must teach if children are to at- 
tain the goals of the unit, the semester, or the year's work. In 
fact, the constant reevaluation of what we teach, and what we 
should teach, as well as hoic we teach is one of the major by- 
products of the Baltimore testing programs that may, indeed, 
be their greatest value. As the teaching staff becomes more and 
more familiar with the possibilities of machine-marked tests 



TABLE 23 

Scope of 1936-37 City-Wide Testing Program in Baltimore City 



Subject and Grade in Which 
Tests Were Given 


September 


February 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Elementary Schools: 










Intelligence, 1C-1B, 2C*-2B, 4B 


12,936 


4,872 


8,212 


3,925 


Reading, lA-2Ct, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A 


18,548 


7,556 


24,505 


7,892 


Reading, Special Classes 


3,631 


1,230 


3,885 


1,506 


Arithmetic, 3B, 4B, 6B 


12,896 


3,937 


9,144 


3,733 




3,631 


1,230 


3,885 


1,506 




4,431 


1,250 


3,393 


1.220 


Occupational Centers: 










Intelligence 


730 


201 


800 


251 




2,191 


602 


2,390 


752 




2,191 


602 


2,390 


752 


Junior High Schools: 












4,066 


721 


2 , 692 


720 


Reading, 7B-8B 


7,620 


1,416 


5,080 


1,348 


Arithmetic, 7B-8B-9B* Commercial 


7,604 


1,420 


5,907 


1,437 


History— Working Skills, 7B-8A 


6,327 


1,181 


5,968 


1,318 


Historv— Reading, 7A-9B 


5,551 


1.249 


5,760 


1,042 


Latin, 8B, 9B 


1,751 


634 


962 


576 


English Composition, 9B 






1,907 


424 


Senior High Schools: 










Intelligence, 10B 


3,201 


456 


1,686 


313 


Reading, 10B 


2,642 


453 


1,132 


309 



1 See 1937 Report of the Board of School Commissioners, pages 42 to 45. 
* Tested in February only, 
t Tested in September only. 

° See page 44. 1937 Report of Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City. 



36 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



through the facilities of the Bureau of Research, there is promise 
that a richer and richer testing program can be developed." 

The subjects included in the regular Baltimore city-wide test- 
ing programs of 1936-37 are shown in Table 23. 



SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN 

Special services were rendered to 109 physically handicapped 
children and 476 mentally retarded children in the counties of 
Maryland under the supervision of the State Department of Ed- 
ucation during the school year 1936-37. In addition, 15 crippled 
children in Baltimore City were transported to senior high schools 
at State expense. The total expenditure of $10,413 for 124 physi- 
cally handicapped children meant an average cost of $84 per 
physically handicapped child. The number of pupils helped and 
the State aid distributed to each county for home instruction, 
for transportation of handicapped children to regular classes, 
and for special classes for physically handicapped children are 
shown in Table 24. 



TABLE 24 

Physically Handicapped Pupils Provided for Through the Program of 
State Aid in 1936-37 



County 


Home Teaching 


Transportation 
to Regular Class 


Special Class 


Total 


Pupils 


Teachers 


Expendi- 
tures 


Pupils 


Expendi- 
tures 


Pupils 


*Expendi- 
tures 


Pupils 


Expendi- 
tures 


Total Counties 


71 


43 


t 

$5,106 


11 


$487 


27 


$3,488 


109 


$9,109 


Allegany 


5 


4 


355 






15 


1,715 


20 


2,070 


Anne Arundel . . 


6 


5 


510 






al 




7 


510 




19 


4 


1,661 










19 


1,661 


Caroline 


1 


1 


97 










1 


97 


Cecil 


4 


4 


278 










4 


278 


Dorchester. . . . 


1 


1 


19 


i 


' 46 






2 


65 


Frederick 


2 


1 


152 


2 


118 






4 


b298 




6 


6 


372 


3 


125 






9 


497 


Harford 


3 


3 


276 










3 


276 


Howard 


1 


1 


41 










1 


41 


Kent 


3 


1 


279 










3 


279 


Montgomery . . . 


2 


2 


130 










2 


130 


Prince George's 


4 


2 


191 


i 


57' 






5 


248 


St. Mary's 


1 


1 


13 










1 


13 


Somerset 


1 


1 


82 










1 


82 


Talbot 


1 


1 


43 










1 


43 


Washington . . . 


5 


2 


275 


3 


114 




1^773 


19 


2,162 




4 


1 


280 


1 


27 






5 


307 


Worcester 


2 


2 


52 










2 


52 


Baltimore City 








15 


1,259 




c45 


15 


1,304 


Entire State . . . 


71 


43 


$5,106 


26 


$1,746 


27 


$3,533 


124 


$10,413 


Average per 


















$84 


Pupil 






$72 




$67 




$131 





* Includes salary of teacher, transportation and special supplies. 

a This child attends the school for handicapped pupils in Baltimore City. 

b Includes $28 due for physiotherapy from previous year. 

c Tuition for Anne Arundel pupil attending Baltimore City school. 



Special Education for County Handicapped Children 37 



County Physically Handicapped Children 

Special classes for crippled children were conducted in Cumber- 
land and Hagerstown with a total enrollment of 26 pupils; 71 
county children were given instruction in their homes; 11 in the 
counties and 15 in Baltimore City were provided special trans- 
portation to regular schools. There was an increase of 24 over 
1936 in the number of county children given home instruction. 
Four full-time teachers and 39 part-time teachers were employed 
in the State program. (See Table 24.) 

The 124 physically handicapped children who received special 
education during 1936-37 included 97 orthopedic disabilities, 15 
cardiac, and 12 miscellaneous. 

Special Program for Hard of Hearing Children in Montgomery County 

The Montgomery County Board of Education conducted an ear 
clinic from October, 1936, to June, 1937. During this time, 14 
clinics were held by a leading otologist from Baltimore and 182 
children from 19 different schools were tested. Hearing difficul- 
ties were found in 64 cases and parents were advised of the treat- 
ment needed by these children. 

In addition to the ear clinic, Montgomery County conducted a 
4-A audiometer testing program in 12 different schools. A total 
of 2,333 children were tested by the school nurse and the county 
teacher of lip reading. As a result of the program, some children 
were referred to the ear clinic, others were recommended for 
changes in school placement, and 25 were enrolled for lip reading 
classes. 

The Montgomery County School Board has met with such suc- 
cess in this program that it expects to conduct all phases of it 
indefinitely. 

County Mentally Handicapped Children 
TABLE 25 



Special Classes for Retarded Children in Maryland Counties, 1936-37 





Number 




Average 


County 


of 


Enrollment 


Enrollment 




Classes 




per Class 


Total 


22 


476 


22 


Allegany 


8 


187 


23 


Carroll 


1 


33 


33 




3 


62 


21 


Kent 


1 


26 


26 


Prince George's 


1 


20 


20 


Talbot 


1 


16 


20 




6 


114 


19 




1 


18 


19 



38 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



During 1936-37, twenty-two classes for mentally retarded chil- 
dren were conducted by eight counties for an enrollment of 476 
pupils. (See Table 25.) 

Teacher Training 

Both the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University 
in 1937 continued their summer school program in special edu- 
cation by offering courses for teachers of handicapped children. 
The number of county teachers enrolled in special education 
courses during the summer of 1937 showed a decrease under the 
enrollment for the previous year. 

The usual practice of extending to the county teachers an in- 
vitation to visit special classes in Baltimore during the State 
Teachers' meeting in the fall was continued. 

Clinical Study of County Children 

During 1936-37 the program of Child Guidance Clinics held by 
psychiatrists connected with State, Baltimore City or local hos- 
pitals or institutions, who volunteered their services, was con- 
tinued in 21 of the 23 counties. Officials of the State Department 
of Education and the local school boards cooperated in securing 
data for many case histories for the psychiatrists holding the 
clinics. Teachers referred 278 of the cases scheduled for exam- 
ination. The State was districted and a regular schedule followed 
in each section. Eighty-nine clinics were held, the number vary- 
ing during the year from one in some of the counties to 5, 6, 8, 
11 and 12 clinics in other counties. 

The supervisor of vocational rehabilitation and special educa- 
tion cooperated with the crippled children services of the State 
Department of Health in conducting orthopedic clinics in 22 coun- 
ties of the State. (See page 66.) 

The Program for Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

The chief change from 1936 to 1937 in the Baltimore City pro- 
gram of class instruction for handicapped children was in the 
addition of seven opportunity, special, and shop center classes 
for 210 additional white children and eight classes for 360 addi- 
tional colored children, and of an open-air and mixed class for 
white physically handicapped pupils. (See Table 26.) 

The 39 classes for 941 white and the 10 classes for 187 colored 
physically handicapped children included open-air, orthopedic, 
sight and hearing conservation classes, and classes for deaf and 
junior high handicapped pupils. 



Special Education for County and Baltimore City 
Handicapped Children 



39 



TABLE 26 



Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1937 















Promoted Once or 














Twice or Making 








Returned 




Per Cent 


Satisfactory Im- 


Kind of Class 


No. of 


Net En- 


to 


Average 


of 


provement 




Classes 


rollment 


Regular 


Net 


Atten- 












Classes 


Roll 


dance 


















No. 


fPer Cent 



White Physically Handicapped Pupils 



Total 


39 


941 


16 


831 


91.5 


670 


80.8 


Open Air 


16 


431 


16 


374 


92.0 


310 


82.0 


Orthopedic 


11 


295 




258 


91.1 


188 


75.8 


Sight Conservation 


4 


73 




64 


88.6 


62 


95.5 


Hearing Conservation . . . 


2 


38 




36 


94.5 


25 


67.5 


Deaf 


2 


28 




26 


92.3 


19 


73.1 


Mixed* 


4 


76 




73 


91.8 


66 


88.1 


White Mentally Handicapped Pupils 


Total 


167 


4,292 


14 


3,963 


82.4 


3,183 


81.9 


Opportunity 


123 


3,225 


13 


2,952 


84.0 


2,380 


81.7 


Special Center 


8 


124 




124 


81.9 


101 


83.4 




36 


943 


i 


887 


77.1 


702 


82.6 


Colored Physically Handicapped Pupils 


Total 


10 


187 




169 


86.1 


129 


76.7 


Sight Conservation 


5 


84 




75 


87.3 


56 


72.7 


Orthopedic 


3 


66 




60 


86.7 


45 


77.5 


Open Air 


1 


24 




21 


76.2 


15 


75.0 


Deaf 


1 


13 




13 


92.3 


13 


100.0 


Colored Mentally Handicapped Pupils 


Total 


65 


1,768 


25 


1,650 


76.9 


1,153 


70.8 




41 


1,176 


1 


1,089 


78.8 


767 


70.5 


Special Center 


9 


217 


22 


185 


76.7 


129 


70.5 




15 


375 


2 


376 


71.1 


257 


72.3 



* For junior high school pupils. t Per cent of net roll. 



*"In addition to the separate classes provided for children who 
have handicaps of sight and hearing and of various body defi- 
ciencies, 187 children received lip reading instruction and 1,128 
speech training in their own schools, and 127 were enrolled for 
home teaching. A child receives speech training when he is un- 
able to speak plainly enough to be understood and his educational, 
social, and economic advancement would be seriously endangered 
if correction were not made. Lisping, for example, does not seri- 
ously retard educational and social adjustment in childhood, and 
hence is frequently condoned and smiled at, but its effect upon 
economic ajustment in adult life is serious, as many occupations 



* See pages 63 and 64. 1937 Report of the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore. Md. 



40 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



are closed to a person who lisps. While now offered only to non- 
mentally handicapped pupils in the elementary schools, there is 
a real need for an extension of speech training upward in the 
junior and senior high schools. 

'The children who received this remedial training were enrolled 
in 37 white elementary schools, and 13 colored schools. Ten re- 
ceived treatment at the Saturday morning clinic." 

Of the 1,128 pupils who received training in speech, 32 per 
cent showed an improvement of from 90 to 100 per cent, 32 per 
cent an improvement of 75-89 per cent, 24 per cent an improve- 
ment of 50-74 per cent, and 12 per cent an improvement of less 
than 50 per cent. 

*" Mentally handicapped children are identified for class place- 
ment as those who have failed four or more semesters in the 
regular grade work, are now failing, and who have Intelligence 
Quotients between 50 and 85. They are classified separately to 
reduce inferiority complexes and disciplinary conduct which arise 
from repeated failures in the, for them, too rapid and abstract 
work of the regular grades. Their accomplishment is typically 
fourth-grade and less. There are five types of classes according 
to the mental level and life age of the children: Special Center, 
Primary Opportunity, Intermediate Opportunity, Boys Shop Cen- 
ter, and Girls Shop Center. The shop center classes are terminal 
education for adolescent mentally handicapped boys and girls. 
The typical age of leaving school is either 15, by special work 
permit, or 16, the end of the compulsory education period. These 
classes are sociologically of great importance, for many of soci- 
ety's problems are here in their first stages. The purpose of all 
types of classes for mentally handicapped children is to lessen 
and, if possible, prevent the incidence of such problems through 
training appropriate to the child's ability and vocational outlook." 

Baltimore City also furnished instruction to 84 white and 72 
colored home-bound children who were crippled, cardiacs, epi- 
leptics, and who had other physical handicaps. The following 
standards of eligibility for such instruction have been set up: 

f"l. Parents must cooperate with the teacher and supervisor in re- 
gard to physical examinations and school work. 

2. Children must be not more than 16 years of age and not more 
than sixth-grade in achievement. 

3. They must have intelligence quotients in excess of 65. 

4. They are required to make at least six months of academic prog- 
ress in two years' time, based upon standardized test results and 
teacher judgment. 



* See page 63, 1937 Report of the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore. Md. 
f See page 65, ibid. 



Baltimore City Handicapped Children; Certification 41 
of Teachers 

5. They may be out of school because of non-contagious diseases. 

6. They may be children who are to be out of school at least two 
months or more but are eventually to return." 

*"During 1936-37, 4,543 problem children were referred to the 
Psycho-Educational Clinic which studies children of all ages and 
grades who are not making satisfactory educational adjustments. 
The majority of these present purely educational problems. All 
of the necessary examinations are made in the school and from 
the data obtained recommendations are prepared for the guid- 
ance of school officers. However, some of the children for whom 
examinations are requested exhibit other froms of maladjust- 
ment and for them every available clinical technique is used in 
the search for possible solutions. Special achievement, diagnos- 
tic, and aptitude tests are used in addition to the Stanford-Binet 
test of intelligence; physical and psychiatric examinations are 
arranged at hospital clinics; conferences are held with parents 
in the office ; the visiting teacher goes to the home and school when 
necessary ; and contacts are made with representatives of various 
social agencies to whom the child or his family is known. This 
type of detailed case study frequently requires much time before 
complete recommendations can be made." 

CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

Certification was reported for 2,734 county white elementary 
teachers in October, 1937, compared with 2,752 the year before. 
These figures exclude elementary teachers giving instruction to 
pupils in grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 of junior and junior-senior 
high schools. There were 243 holding the elementary principal's 
certificate, 173 the bachelor of science certificate in elementary 
education, 28 holding the high school teacher's certificate, and 
871 the advanced first-grade certificate. These figures represent 
increases of 18, 66, and 71, respectively, for these types of cer- 
tificate and indicate the increase in teachers who entered the 
service with these higher grade certificates or who became en- 
titled to them after earning additional credits. 

There were 1,355 teachers holding first, 24 second, and 13 
holding third grade certificates, which meant decreases under 
corresponding figures for October, 1936, of 199, 10, and 1, re- 
spectively. 

There was an increase in the number of substitutes from 18 
to 55, due chiefly to the dearth of teachers with the necessary 
qualifications. Because of this increase in the number of sub- 
stitutes, there was a reduction of 1 per cent in the proportion 
of teachers holding certificates of first grade or better. (See 
Table X, page 292.) 



* See page 67 of the 1937 Report of the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore. Md. 



42 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Six counties had 100 per cent of their teachers with certificates 
of at least first grade. One county had only 88.7 per cent of its 
teachers with certificates of first grade or better. (See Table X, 
page 292.) 

Similar data indicate 91.5 per cent of the teachers in one- 
teacher schools and 94.3 per cent of those in two-teacher schools 
held certificates of at least first grade. (See Table XI, page 293.) 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COUNTY 
WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

There were 608 white teachers in county public elementary 
schools, 22.2 per cent of the teaching staff in service in the fall 
of 1937, who attended summer school in 1937. In addition, there 
were six supervisors and one attendance officer who studied dur- 
ing the summer. The number and per cent of teachers who at- 
tended summer school were lower by 53 and 1.8 per cent than 
for the preceding year. The State Board regulations postponing 



TABLE 27 

County White Elementary School Teachers in Service in October, 1937, 
Reported by County Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer 
School Attendants in 1937 



County 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1937, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1937 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



Total and Average 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Cecil 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Prince George's . . 

Allegany 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel .... 

Howard 

Somerset 

Washington 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Garrett 



a608 


22.2 


66 


33.7 


12 


30.8 


25 


28.4 


34 


27.9 


96 


27.0 


31 


24.8 


t57 


24.1 


60 


22.6 


11 


22.4 


V 


21.9 


*32 


21.1 


12 


21.1 


12 


21.1 


t56 


20.0 


36 


19.1 


4 


19.0 


7 


17.9 


16 


17.8 


ttio 


12.7 


5 


12.5 


t5 


10.4 


5 


9.1 


9 


7.6 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland College 

Columbia University 

University of Delaware 

Duke University 

Harrisonburg State Teachers College 

Pennsylvania State College 

Shepherd State Teachers College 

George Washington University 

University of Virginia 

University of Wisconsin 

Catholic University 

University of Chicago 

Hyannis 

University of Maine 

State Teachers College, Radford, Va. 
Other 



b615 

de276 
dl56 
59H 
c30 
18 
16 

9 

6 

6 

5 

5 

4 

3 
d3 

2 

2 

2 

d\2y 2 



t Each dagger represents one supervisor excluded. c Includes 2 supervisors. 

* Excludes one attendance officer. d Includes 1 supervisor. 

a Excludes 6 supervisors and 1 attendance officer. e Includes 1 attendance officer. 

b Includes 6 supervisors and 1 attendance officer. 



Summer School Attendance; Resignations County White 43 
Elementary Teachers 

the requirements of summer school attendance because of sal- 
ary cuts in effect since September, 1933, has tended to reduce 
summer school attendance. However, this is offset by the desire 
of many teachers who have two and three years training to in- 
crease it so that they will be eligible to meet the requirements 
for the advanced first and bachelor of science certificate in ele- 
mentary education. (See Table 27.) 

The per cent of teachers who attended summer school from 
the individual counties ranged between 7.6 and 33.7 per cent. 

Of the white staff working in county public elementary schools 
who attended summer school in 1937, there were 80 per cent who 
attended the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, 
and Western Maryland College, the numbers attending these 
three institutions being respectively, 276, 156, and 60. Other 
universities attended by 10 or more of the white elementary staff 
were Columbia, Delaware, and Duke. (See Table 27.) 

SLIGHT UPWARD TREND IN WITHDRAWALS OF 
WHITE COUNTY TEACHERS 

TABLE 28 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers W T ho Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County White Elementary Schools* Between October of 
One Year and October of the Following Year 



Cause of Resignation 



Oct. 
to 
Oct. 


Marriage 


Retirement 


Inefficiency 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Teaching in Baltimore 
City, in State Teachers 
College, or Acting as 
Supervisor or Atten- 
dance Officer 


Illness 


Moved Away 


Death 


Teaching in Another 
State or in Private 
School 


Provisional Certificate 
or Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


| Position Abolished 


Rejected by Medical 
Board 


Other and Unknown 


Total 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Another 
County 


Transfer to Other Type 
of School Within County 


1927-28 


148 


14 


31 


43 


30 


24 


10 


10 


25 


37 






27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


1928-29 


164 


27 


27 


35 


23 


14 


8 


8 


48 


12 






18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


1929-30 


136 


27 


23 


36 


9 


15 


8 


7 


34 


15 






20 


330 


1>:5 


47 


12 


1930-31 


122 


19 


37 


10 


11 


9 


14 


6 


15 


12 






21 


276 


■2-2 


19 


34 


1931-32 


83 


24 


23 


2 


1 


9 


9 


7 


2 


9 


5 


3 


24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


1932-33 


81 


28 


12 


3 




4 


1 


7 


2 


1 


7 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 


1933-34 


93 


26 


6 


12 


3 


7 


3 


3 


5 


2 


3 




5 


168 


13 


7 


8 


1934-35 


71 


24 


9 


12 


3 


6 


1 


2 


5 


2 


1 




7 


143 


20 


10 


7 


1935-36 


89 


14 


11 


10 


8 


7 


6 


4 


3 


1 






4 


157 


23 


10 


8 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high 
schools are excluded from this table. They are included in Table 76. page 111. 



There were 157 white elementary teachers who left the service 
in the county schools between October, 1935, and October, 1936, 
an increase of 14 over the preceding year. This shows a slight 
tendency to reverse the downward trend which has been evident 



44 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

almost continuously in the past nine years, except between Oc- 
tober, 1933, and October, 1934. The contrast of October, 1927, 
to October, 1928, when there were 399 withdrawals from the 
county white elementary schools with October, 1935, to October, 
1936, when there were 157 withdrawals, shows the change which 
has come about due in part to the depression. (See Table 28.) 

TABLE 29 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the Ele- 
mentary Schools of Each Individual County during the School Year 
1936-37, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Year 

AND 

County 


New to 
County 


(^nange in 
N"umber 
of 

Teaching 

October 
to 

October 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 


XT 

Num- 
ber 


.r er 
ven t 


T 

Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


In 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 


Expei 

But 
New 

to 
State 


lenced 

From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 

or 
Regular 

High 
School 


Substi- 
tutes 


*County Total and 




















Average: 




















1930-31 


°343 


11.8 


—24 


238 


56 


29 


44 


5 


15 


1931-32 


°275 


9.5 


— 61 


210 


32 


17 


19 


5 


11 


1932-33 


°149 


5.3 


—81 


102 


29 


2 


10 


6 


10 


1933-34 


°174 


6.2 


—29 


115 


30 


12 


3 


5 


12 


1934-35 


°195 


7.0 


—13 


155 


21 ' 


10 


7 


3 


6 


1935-36 


°166 


6.0 


—7 


115 


33 


7 


10 


3 


8 


1936-37 


°204 


7.4 


+ 14 


141 


35 


19 


10 


3 


6 


Kent 




. . f 


—3 














Carroll 


i 


.8 


—5 


i 












Dorchester 


i 


1.2 




1 












Somerset 


i 


1.6 


—2 














Queen Anne's 


l 


2.4 


—1 












i 


Harford 


4 


3.2 


—3 


i 










2 


Wicomico 


3 


3.3 


—2 


l 






i 






Talbot 


2 


4.1 


+ 1 


l 






l 






Allegany 


12 


4.5 




7 






l 


2 




Anne Arundel 


7 


4.6 


—4 


3 






i 






Worcester 


3 


5.3 




2 














15 


5.4 


+ 6 


11 






i 






Cecil 


7 


7.6 


+2 


6 














29 


8.3 




26 


2 




i 






Frederick 


16 


8.4 


— i 


11 


3 




l 






Caroline 


5 


9.3 


—l 


5 












Howard 


6 


10.3 


+ 2 


4 


2 












4 


11.4 


+ 1 


3 


1 










Garrett 


14 


11.9 


+ 7 


13 


1 










Charles 


6 


15.4 


—1 


4 


2 










Montgomery 


31 


15.7 


+ 8 


17 


6 


■7 




'i 




Prince George's .... 


42 


18.8 


+ 8 


21 


5 


11 


3 




*2 


Calvert 


4 


19.0 


+ 2 


3 


1 










Baltimore City: 




















Elem. and Occup. 


127 


8.2 


—30 


115 


10 


2 








Vocational 


10 


13.0 


+ 5 


8 




1 


i 







* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools excluded 
from this table. They are included in Table 77, page 112. 

° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



Resignations and Turnover of White Elementary Teachers 45 



The chief reason reported for leaving the teaching service is 
marriage. Between October, 1928, and October, 1929, there were 
164 county white elementary teachers who resigned for this rea- 
son, while between October, 1934 and October, 1935, the smallest 
number, 71, left for marriage. There were 89 county white ele- 
mentary teachers for whose resignations marriage was desig- 
nated as the cause between October, 1935 and October, 1936, an 
increase of 18 over the preceding year. (See Table 28.) 

Other causes of withdrawal are retirement; inefficiency; posi- 
tions in fields other than teaching; teaching positions in Balti- 
more City, the State teachers colleges, or positions as supervis- 
ors or attendance officers; illness. (See Table 28.) 



TURNOVER OF TEACHERS SHOWS SLIGHT UPTURN 

The number of teachers new to the teaching service in the 
county white elementary schools bears a close relation to the 
number withdrawing from the county service, the number on 
leave of absence, the number taking positions in high schools, 
and the number of additional positions necessary to take care of 
increases in enrollment. The number and per cent of teachers 
new to the county white elementary school service in 1936-37, 204 
and 7.4 per cent, were much lower than seven years ago when the 
corresponding figures were 343 and 11.8 per cent, but are some- 
what above the low point for the elementary schools in 1932-33 
when the number and per cent new were only 149 and 5.3 per 
cent. (See Table 29.) 

TABLE 30 



Turnover of White Elementary and Occupational Teachers in Baltimore City 









Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 






Total 


















Number 


















New to 








Who Were Experienced 






Baltimore 


Change in 














Year 


City White 


Number 














Elementary 


of 


Inex- 




But Not 










and Occu- 


Teaching 


per- 


From 


in 


In 


In Other 






pational 


Positions 


ienced 


Other 


Service 


County 


Type of 


Other 




Schools 






States 


Preced- 


Preced- 


Baltimore 














ing 


ing 


City 














Year 


Year 


School 




1929-30. . . . 


160 


+ 12 


138 


6 


9 


3 


3 


1 


1930-31 .... 


185 


+ 44 


160 


2 


7 


8 


6 


2 


1931-32 


115 


—69 


69 


17 


10 


4 


14 


1 


1932-33 


67 


—221 


12 


6 






48 


1 


1933-34 


84 


—6 


GO 


1 


"is 






1 


1934-35. . . . 


155 


+ 43 


132 


3 


11 


5 




4 


1935-36 


116 


+ 16 


100 


7 


7 


1 






1936-37 


127 


—30 


115 


2 


10 




:::: 





46 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The number of inexperienced teachers appointed to the county 
staffs in 1936-37 totalled 141. (See fourth column in Table 29.) 

The per cent of turnover in the white elementary teaching staff 
of individual counties ranged from to 19 per cent. (See Table29.) 

The turnover of Baltimore City white elementary and occupa- 
tional teachers in 1936-37 was 127, of whom 115 were inexper- 
ienced teachers. This was an increase over the number in 1935- 
36, and the years 1931-32, 1932-33, and 1933-34. (See Table 30.) 



MORE MEN TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 258 white men teaching in the first seven (eight) 
grades of the county elementary schools, an increase of 12 over 
the preceding year, continuing the trend evident since 1929-30 
for the proportion of men to increase. The men represented 8.7 
per cent of the staff in these grades in 1936-37. Only in one year 
since 1922-23 has there been a larger number and per cent of men 
employed in county white elementary schools than in 1936-37. 
(See Table IX, page 291.) 

The number of men employed in elementary school grades 
varied from none in six counties to 49 and 55 in the counties 
employing the largest numbers. (See Table IX, page 291.) 

NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER DECREASES 

The average number of pupils per county white elementary 
teacher, 35.4, was smaller than it has been at any time since 1933 
when the number was 36.2. In 1934 and 1935 the average was 
36.1 and in 1935, 35.8 pupils. The 1937 figure is higher than it 
was at any time from 1923 to 1932 inclusive. The range for 1937 
among the counties was from 26.3 to 41.7 pupils, four counties 
having an average of fewer than 32 pupils per teacher, and three 
having over 38 pupils per teacher. (See Table 31 and Chart 6.) 



TABLE 31 



Average Number of Pupils Belonging per County White Elementary 
Principal and Teacher 





Average Number 




Average Number 




Belonging 




Belonging 


Year 


per Teacher 


Year 


per Teacher 


1923 


31.7 


1931 


34.0 


1924 


31.5 


1932 


34.9 


1925 


32.1 


1933 


36.2 


1926 


32.0 


1934 


36.1 


1927 


32.3 


1935 


36.1 


1928 


32.8 


1936 


35.8 


1929 


32.9 


1937 


35.4 


1930 


33.6 







Men Teachers; Average Number of Pupils per White 
Elementary Teacher 



CHART 6 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Pr. George's 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Washington 

Queen Anne ' s 

Howard 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Garrett 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Harford 

St. Mary' 8 



1955 
56.1 

41.9 
56.9 
56.7 
56.4 
57.4 
56.0 
55.6 
56.5 
56.9 
56.0 
54.5 
56.5 
55 .1 
54.0 
55.5 
54.7 
55.4 
52.6 
55.7 
55.2 
51.6 
52.6 
28.5 



State 



1956 
55.8 

41.6 
57.2 
57.9 
56.6 
59.2 
55.9 
54.9 
56.1 
56.2 
56.2 
55.1 
56.1 
54.4 
55.5 
54.2 
55.5 
55.5 
55.5 
55.8 
52.2 
50.1 
51.5 
29.7 



1957 





Balto. City 54.5 55.5 



55.5 55.0 




t Excludes 26.8 pupils for junior high and 18.9 pupils for vocational schools. 

The average of 33.1 pupils per teacher and principal in Balti- 
more City is lower than the average for the counties. This is 
probably explained by the large number of non-teaching princi- 
pals and vice-principals and by the extensive provision of small 
classes for physically and mentally handicapped pupils found in 
the City and available in the larger centers in eight counties. 



48 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average size of 322 one-teacher schools for white pupils was 
24.4, a decrease of 19 schools and 1.1 pupils from the preceding 
year. The range in average size was from 17.6 to 30.5 pupils in 
individual counties. (See Table 32.) 



TABLE 32 

Number of Teachers and Average Size of Class in County White Elementary 
One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded Schools for Year Ending 
July 31, 1937 



Schools Having 


Two Teachers 




A.V8r3,gG 


T\Jn m Vipt 


Number 


of 


Be- 


Teachers 


longing 




Per 




Teacher 


306 


30.6 


26 


36.2 


22 


34.7 


20 


34.6 


12 


33.1 


24 


32.7 


5 


32.7 


10 


31.8 


4 


31.6 


15 


30.9 


6 


30.8 


8 


30.8 


26 


30.3 


26 


30.1 


2 


30.0 


4 


29.2 


8 


29.0 


14 


28.6 


10 


26.7 


10 


26.4 


18 


26.4 


24 


25.6 


8 


24.8 


4 


24. 5 

1 



County 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



County 



Schools Having 
Three or More 
Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average .... 

Pr. George's 
Charles. . . . 
Worcester. . 

Cecil 

Allegany. . . 
Washington 
Wicomico . . 
Dorchester . 
Howard. . . . 
Garrett. . . . 
Harford .... 
Frederick . . . 
Anne Arundel 
Queen Anne's 
Somerset .... 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Kent 

St. Mary's. . 
Montgomery 

Carroll 

Calvert 



322 

10 

2 
3 
27 
20 
38 
16 
20 
15 
58 
22 
8 
1 
7 
12 



24.4 

30.5 
29.4 
26.1 
26.0 
25.8 
25.4 
25.3 
25.2 
25.1 
24.9 
24.5 
23.7 
23.4 
22.6 
22.6 
21.8 
21.7 
21.4 
21.2 
20.7 
19.0 
17.6 



Average . . . 

Baltimore . 
Allegany. . 
Garrett. . . 

Cecil 

Frederick . . 
Howard. . . 

Carroll 

Calvert . . . 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 
Worcester . . . 
Washington . 
Pr. George's. 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 
Montgomery 
Wicomico . . 
Somerset . . . 
St. Mary's . 
Harford .... 
Dorchester . 
Charles. . . . 



Average 

Baltimore . . . 

Garrett 

Pr. George's. 
Wicomico . . . 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 
St. Mary's . . 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Somerset .... 

Carroll 

Howard 

Dorchester . . 
Worcester. . . 
Washington . 

Kent 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Allegany .... 

Talbot 

Harford 

Montgomery 



2,344 

357 
41 

194 
65 
43 

141 
5 
16 
29 
33 
40 

111 
39 
56 
46 

242 
16 

163 
53 

297 
39 
80 

238 



For the 306 white teachers in schools with a two-teacher organ- 
ization the average number of pupils per teacher was 30.6, a 
decrease of 9 teachers and one pupil under the year before. The 
variation in average number of pupils per teacher was from 24.5 
to 36.2 in individual counties. (See Table 32.) 

For the 2,344 white teachers in graded schools the average num- 
ber of pupils per teacher was 37.5 in 1936-37, a decrease of .4 of 
one pupil under 1935-36. The number of teachers in these schools 
increased by 52. The smallest average number of pupils per 
teacher was 32 and the largest 42 in individual counties. (See 
Table 32.) 

It will be noted that the one-teacher schools were smallest in 
size, 24.4 pupils, the two-teacher schools next with 30.6 pupils per 
teacher, and the graded schools largest with 37.5 pupils per 
teacher. (See Table 32.) 



Average Number of Pupils and Average Salary Per White 49 
Elementary Teacher 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER HIGHER 

CHART 7 — Average Salary per County White Elementary Principal 
and Teacher. 1923 to 1937 

Si, 500 1 



$1,200 



$ 900 




* 500 



192; 



1925 



1927 



192? 



1931 



1^: 



1937 



TABLE 33- 



-Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary 
School Teacher and Principal. 1923-1937 



Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 
White 
Elementarv 
School 
Teachers 


Year Ending June 30 






1923 


$990 
1.030 
1.057 
1.103 
1.126 
1.155 
1.184 


1931 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 


1934 


1927 


1935 


192S 


1936 


1929 


1937 


1930 


1.199 





Average 
Salary- 
White 
E".rrr.er.:ary 
School 
Teachers 



$1 


217 


1 


B 


1 


231 


1 


122 


1 


135 


1 


2<\ 2 


1 


220 



50 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average salary per county white elementary teacher and 
principal showed increases each year from 1923 to 1933, due to the 
additional years given to preparation and further training which 
entitled the staff to higher certificates, and to the greater number 
of years teachers are staying in the service. The average salary 
was $1,231 in 1932-33. In consequence of the salary cuts which 
went into effect in most of the counties in September, 1933, the 
average salary dropped in 1934, since which time with restoration 
of cuts in whole or in part there has been a gradual increase to 
$1,220 in 1936-37 which is still lower than the average paid in 

CHART 8 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 1935 1935 1936 1937 
Co. Average $1231 $1135 $1202 

Baltimore 1453 

Montgomery 1366 

Allegany 1314 
Anne Arundel 1270 

Pr. George's 1231 

Frederick 1139 

Cecil 1226 

Washington 1168 

Wicomico 1143 
Harford 
Kent 

Q. Anne's 
Talbot 



Carroll 
Garrett 
Howard 
Calvert 



1151 
1175 
1183 
1121 
1095 
1144 
1104 
1150 



St. Mary's 1099 

Somerset 1119 

Worcester 1118 

Dorchester 1104 

Caroline 1115 

Charles 1100 

Balto.City 1701 1667 1681 

State 1405 1330 1378 




t Excludes $1,910 for junior high and $1,893 for vocational school salaries. 



Average Salary Per White Elementary Teacher; Cost Per 51 
White Elementary Pupil 

1932 and 1933. It was not until September, 1937, that salary cuts 
were restored in full in all counties. (See Table 33 and Chart 7.) 

During 1936-37 the average salary per teacher and principal 
varied from $1,006 and $1,009 in the two counties with the small- 
est salaries to $1,316, $1,390, and $1,570 in the three counties with 
the highest average salaries. (See Chart 8.) 

Eleven of the counties showed increases in salary from 1936 to 
1937. In those counties in which the average salary was station- 
ary or decreased it was due to the resignation of teachers who had 
received increments in salary for experience and their replace- 
ment by inexperienced teachers who were entitled to receive only 
the minimum beginner's salary. In all, except four counties, the 
average salary in 1937 was lower than that in 1933. (See Chart 8.) 

The average salary per elementary teacher and principal in 
Baltimore City, $1,743, was 43 per cent higher than the average 
salary in the counties and 11 per cent higher than the average 
paid in Baltimore County which had the highest salary for any 
county in the State. (See Chart 8.) 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL 

The average current cost, excluding general control and fixed 
charges, per county white elementary pupil increased gradually 
from 1923 to 1931, after which it decreased until 1934, and since 
then has increased. The averages in 1936 and 1937 of $48.90 and 
$51.24 included for the first time the estimated expenditures by 
the county health offices for services to public school children. 
(See Table 34.) 

TABLE 34 



Average Current Expense Cost, Excluding General Control and Fixed 
Charges, per County White Elementary Pupil, 1923 to 1937 





Average Cost 




Average Cost 


Year 


per Pupil 


Year 


per Pupil 




Belonging 




Belonging 


1923 


$39.84 
43.06 
43.67 
46.02 
47.26 
47.81 
49.49 
49.78 


1931 


$50.17 
49.27 
46.95 
44.36 
45.16 
*48.90 
♦51.24 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 


1934 


1927 


1935 


1928 


1936 


1929 


1937 


1930 





* Part of this amount is due to inclusion of estimated expenditures on public white elemen- 
tary school children by county health offices from State and county funds. These figures were 
first included in 1936. 



52 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The cost per white elementary pupil in individual counties in 
1937 ranged between $43 and $66, five counties spending $60 or 
more and five $47 or less per pupil. The average cost increased 
from 1936 to 1937 in every county, except one, due in part to 
decrease in average size of class and in part to increase in average 
salary per teacher and principal. (See Chart 9.) 



CHART 9 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County- 


1935- 


1936 


Co. Average 


£ 45 


$ 49 


Montgomery 


57 


63 


St. Mary's 


55 


56 


Calvert 


56 


61 


Charles 


53 


54 


Kent 


51 


59 


Queen Anne's 


51 


54 


Talbot 


48 


53 


Anne Arundel 


49 


51 


Allegany 


45 


52 


Garrett 


44 


49 


Baltimore 


44 


49 


Worcester 


45 


48 


Frederick 


44 


47 


Cecil 


46 


47 


Dorchester 


44 


47 


Harford 


44 


47 


Carroll 


46 


47 


Howard 


43 


43 


Somerset 


43 


46 


Caroline 


43 


48 


Wicomico 


42 


46 


Pr. George's 


43 


44 


Washington 


57 


41 


Balto. City 


62 


65 


State 


51 


54 




t Excludes $88 for junior high and $147 for vocational schools. 



Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 



53 



Cost per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 

The 1937 current expense cost, exclusive of general control, 
supervision, and fixed charges, per county white elementary pupil 
belonging averaged over $56 in one-teacher, over $52 in two- 
teacher, and over $49 in larger schools. In one-teacher schools 
the range in cost per pupil among the counties was from an 
average of $41 to over $125, in two-teacher schools from $41 to 
$73, and in graded schools from $41 to nearly $70. (See Table 35.) 



TABLE 35 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1937, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision, and Fixed Charges 



One-Teacher 




Two-Teacher 


Schools 


County 


Schools 












Cost 






Cost 


No. 


Per 




No. 


Per 




Pupil 






Pupil 


324 


$56.12 


County Average 


153 


$52.35 


1 


125.32 


Montgomery. . . . 


7 


73.43 


12 


84.48 


Kent 


7 


64.36 


1 


78.73 


Calvert 


2 


63.87 


9 


62.73 


Talbot 


1 


63.58 


12 


62.08 




5 


63.41 


7 


61.15 


Anne Arundel . . . 


4 


60.52 


8 


60.08 


Worcester 


4 


60.06 


59 


59.35 


St. Mary's 


9 


58.23 


7 


59.24 


Queen Anne's. . . 


3 


56.07 


9 


58.43 




2 


55.67 


13 


58.20 


Prince George's . 


13 


53.89 


20 


55.58 




13 


53.43 


12 


54.65 




4 


51.67 


27 


54.32 


Charles 


2 


49.65 


20 


53.50 


Frederick 


12 


49.30 


3 


52.45 


Harford 


12 


48.91 


16 


52.38 




6 


47.84 


38 


50.20 


Somerset 


5 


46.86 


15 


50.04 


Allegany 


11 


45.68 


23 


49.91 


Garrett 


10 


45.42 


10 


49.02 


Washington 


13 


44.19 


2 


40.98 


Carroll 


5 


44.08 






Howard 


3 


41.14 



County 



County 



County Average 

Anne Arundel . . 
Montgomery . . . 

Calvert 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's. . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Dorchester. . . . 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Howard 

Harford 

Prince George's 
Charles 



County Average 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's. . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Kent 

Baltimore 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Howard 

Carroll 

Harford 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Dorchester. . . . 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Wicomico 

Washington .... 



Cost per Pupil in Baltimore City 

The expenditure per white elementary pupil in Baltimore City, 
$67.40, was higher than that found in any county, due to higher 
salaries of teachers and higher costs of operating buildings. On 
the other hand, the expenditure for auxiliary agencies, transpor- 
tation, health, and libraries was considerably below the amount 
spent in any individual county. (See Chart 9 and Table 36.) 



54 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Analysis of Cost per White Elementary Pupil 

The average current cost per county white elementary pupil 
included $34.49 for salaries, $8.20 for auxiliary agencies (trans- 
portation, health, and libraries), $3.89 for operation, $1.75 for 
maintenance (repairs and replacements), $1.73 for books, mater- 
ials, and other costs of instruction, and $1.18 for supervision. 
Each of these items showed increases over expenditures for the 
preceding year, auxiliary agencies and books and materials show- 
ing the largest per cent of increase. 

TABLE 36 



Cost Per Pupil in White Elementary Schools, Grades 1-7, (8), for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control, for the 
Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Text Books 
and Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Opera- 
tion 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies * 


Total 
Current 

Ex- 
penses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average . . . 


$1 


18 


$34 


49 


$1 


73 


$3 


89 


$1 


75 


$8 


20 


$51 


24 


$10 


60 


Allegany 


1 


18 


37 


25 


2 


13 


4 


77 




75 


6 


48 


52 


56 


3 


94 


Anne Arundel 




99 


32 


87 


1 


74 


3 


88 


3 


52 


11 


15 


54 


15 


4 


01 


Baltimore 




82 


37 


80 


1 


55 


4 


07 


1 


20 


5 


89 


51 


33 




81 


Calvert 


2 


92 


28 


37 


1 


90 


4 


24 


1 


09 


25 


43 


63 


95 


12 


41 


Caroline 


1 


31 


27 


83 


1 


59 


2 


83 




91 


12 


52 


46 


99 


3 


52 


Carroll 


1 


02 


29 


95 


1 


35 


3 


28 




90 


12 


34 


48 


84 


6 


29 


Cecil 


1 


00 


34 


88 


1 


88 


2 


82 


1 


65 


6 


87 


49 


10 


7 


33 




1 


49 


28 


08 


1 


92 


4 


72 


6 


16 


17 


99 


60 


36 


11 


98 




1 


81 


30 


99 


1 


35 


3 


19 


1 


23 


10 


45 


49 


02 


19 


10 


Frederick 


1 


10 


32 


72 


1 


43 


3 


18 


1 


37 


9 


45 


49 


25 


2 


51 




1 


43 


32 


43 


1 


24 


2 


45 


2 


63 


12 


00 


52 


18 


9 


87 


Harford 


1 


28 


35 


25 


1 


13 


3 


10 


2 


26 


5 


86 


48 


88 


1 


20 




1 


26 


"30 


58 


1 


98 


3 


39 


1 


84 


9 


72 


48 


77 


1 


95 


Kent 


2 


36 


34 


88 


1 


21 


5 


12 


3 


35 


13 


27 


60 


19 




11 


Montgomery 


1 


24 


44 


48 


2 


78 


6 


82 


2 


49 


8 


42 


66 


23 


20 


65 


Prince George's . . . 
Queen Anne's 


1 


23 


31 


74 


1 


86 


3 


68 


3 


15 


3 


95 


45 


61 


16 


39 


1 


79 


31 


30 


2 


67 


3 


30 


1 


72 


16 


90 


57 


68 




54 


St. Mary's 


2 


39 


38 


94 


1 


81 


2 


26 


1 


95 


16 


62 


63 


97 


8 


80 




1 


24 


31 


11 


1 


70 


3 


57 




26 


9 


48 


47 


36 


9 


69 


Talbot 


1 


80 


32 


61 


1 


87 


4 


62 


2 


33 


12 


11 


55 


34 




15 


Washington 




87 


32 


46 


1 


58 


3 


03 


1 


00 


3 


90 


42 


84 


11 


88 


Wicomico 


1 


41 


31 


21 


1 


37 


2 


76 


1 


48 


8 


32 


46 


55 


111 


02 




1 


25 


28 


87 




78 


4 


05 


1 


79 


14 


25 


50 


99 






Baltimore City .... 


1 


34 


57 


96 


2 


53 


7 


79 


2 


78 


1 


46 


73 


86 


4 


98 


Elementary 


1 


35 


52 


64 


1 


86 


7 


11 


2 


64 


1 


80 


67 


40 


6 


50 


Junior High .... 


1 


.34 


71 


35 


3 


79 


8 


80 


2 


49 




39 


88 


16 




34 


Vocational 




96 


100 


01 


12 


43 


21 


15 


11 


24 




89 


146 


68 


2 


19 


Total State (Elem.) 


$1 


.24 


$40 


77 


$1 


.77 


$5 


00 


$2 


06 


$5 


99 


$56 


83 


$9 


18 



* Includes estimated expenditures by State Department of Health on services to school 
children. 

See also Table XXIII, page 305, for actual expenditures. 



Salary costs per county white elementary pupil determined by 
salaries paid and size of classes showed a range among the counties 
between $28 and $44, the former counties having low salaries and 
large classes, and the latter county having high salaries and small 
classes. 



Analysis of Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 



55 



Operation costs per pupil for heating and cleaning buildings 
ran all the way from less than $2.50 in counties which had small 
buildings without janitorial service and low fuel costs to nearly 
$7 in a county with large buildings having central heating plants 
and requiring janitorial service. 

Expenditure per pupil for maintenance fluctuated between less 
than one dollar in four counties to over $6 in one county. In some 
counties repairs made through the Works Progress Administra- 
tion relieved the county of expenditures on maintenance. (See 
Tables 167 and 168, pages 230 and 231.) 

The expenditure per pupil for books, materials, and costs of 
instruction other than salaries varied from less than one dollar 
in one county to more than $2 in three counties. State aid for 
books and materials totalled 89 cents per pupil belonging. Only 
one county reported spending less than the State's contribution, 
while the average county duplicated from the county levy the 
State's contribution, and one county levied more than twice as 
much as the aid from the State for each child for these purposes. 

Supervision costs per pupil were one dollar or less in four 
large counties, all of which employed fewer supervisors than 
the number for whom they were entitled to receive State aid, while 
at the opposite extreme three small counties, each employing only 
one supervisor, spent between $2 and $3 for this purpose. (See 
Table 36.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies 
varied among the counties from just under $4 in two counties 
to over $25 in the county with the smallest enrollment. Since 
the term "auxiliary agencies" covers such diverse items as 
transportation, libraries, and health, further analysis has been 
made of the costs and services rendered under these three classifi- 
cations. In Table 36, counties have been listed in the order of 
their expenditure per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies, the county with the highest expenditure appearing first. 

Transportation Service for County White Elementary Pupils 

Transportation services absorbed 79 per cent of the expendi- 
tures shown for auxiliary agencies for county white elementary 
pupils in 1936-37. The total county expenditures for transporting 
white elementary pupils increased over the preceding year by 
$42,000 to $673,501; the pupils transported increased by 1,400 
to 34,076 ; the per cent of county white elementary pupils trans- 
ported was higher than the preceding year by 1.4, making the 
1937 percentage 31.9; and the cost per white elementary pupil 
transported increased by 43 cents, bringing the total to $19.76 in 
1937. Improvement in the type of bus used as well as elimination 
of overcrowding were brought about in a number of the counties. 
(See Table 37.) 



56 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 37 



Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools — Year Ending July 31, 1937 





Transportation 


Libraries 


Healthf 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 
per 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
For 
Libraries 


Amount per 


Total 

ditures 

for 
Health 


Amount 
per 
Pupil 


N^umber 


Per 
Cent 


OCIlUOl 


1 eacner 


Total 


34,076 


31.9 


$673,501 


$19.76 


$11,284 


$14.12 


$3.80 


$171,221 


$1.63 


Calvert 


553 


71.5 


16,622 


30.06 


10 


1.43 


.48 


2,645 


3.49 


Charles 


943 


66.2 


20,763 


22.02 


168 


16.83 


4.31 


4,213 


3.01 


Queen Anne's. 


772 


53.3 


19,935 


25.82 


188 


11.07 


4.48 


4,245 


2.94 




450 


49.6 


12,298 


27.33 


168 


7.65 


4.83 


2,521 


2.76 


Worcester 


1,144 


55.7 


23,727 


20.74 


168 


10.50 


2.95 


4,680 


2.32 


Kent 


466 


37.6 


11,265 


24.17 


422 


22.22 


10.58 


4,691 


3.79 




1,066 


53.5 


20,145 


18.90 


273 


16.03 


5.05 


4,052 


2.07 


Carroll 


2,745 


57.6 


52,098 


18.98 


501 


15.18 


3.75 


5,458 


1.16 


Talbot 


572 


35.0 


15,763 


27.56 


156 


9.74 


3.14 


3,375 


2.10 




1,222 


31.9 


37,283 


30.51 


926 


12.03 


7.85 


7,077 


1.86 


Anne Arundel . . . 


2,920 


50.4 


53,482 


17.80 


555 


21.35 


3.69 


10,170 


1.76 


Dorchester 


1,024 


36.4 


22,073 


21.56 


189 


5.56 


2.24 


6,805 


2.45 




806 


41.0 


14,688 


18.22 


389 


15.55 


6.60 


4,165 


2.10 


Somerset 


759 


36.4 


14,708 


19.38 


50 


2.17 


.81 


4,517 


2.22 




2,780 


39.9 


56,574 


20.35 


351 


8.15 


1.80 


7,991 


1.16 


Montgomery 


2,828 


33.7 


50,614 


17.90 


591 


14.08 


2.24 


17,129 


2.08 




971 


28.8 


18,641 


19.20 


597 


18.10 


6.56 


7,582 


2.34 


Cecil 


815 


26.4 


14,249 


17.48 


174 


4.35 


1.88 


6,385 


2.10 


Allegany 


2,638 


21.5 


48,494 


18.38 


1,164 


18.48 


3.44 


25,363 


2.12 


Baltimore 


4,620 


28.2 


77,016 


16.67 


3,095 


55.27 


8.08 


13,755 


.86 




802 


20.4 


17,949 


22.38 


301 


6.40 


2.37 


4,409 


1.12 


Prince George's . 


1,619 


18.3 


27,258 


17.76 


481 


9.43 


2.09 


6,789 


.77 


Washington . . . 


1,561 


14.5 


27,856 


17.84 


367 


4.47 


1.20 


13,204 


1.24 



f Includes $160,075, estimated expenditures of the county health offices for public school 
services. Also includes $9,685 for school nurses, dental clinics, and transporting children to 
clinics: in Allegany ($1,636), Anne Arundel ($1,179), Calvert ($20), Charles ($110), Howard 
($150), Kent ($288), Montgomery ($4,126), Prince George's ($1,876), and Queen Anne's ($300) ; 
$658 for physiotherapy: in Frederick ($209), Garrett ($98), Harford ($43), and Washington 
($308) ; $609 for P. A. L. and health buttons: in Caroline ($12), Carroll ($279), Queen Anne's 
($35), and Washington ($283); $180 for physical examinations in Dorchester; and $18 for 
miscellaneous in Wicomico. 



The number of county white elementary pupils transported 
varied among the counties from 450 and 466 in two counties to 
4,620 in the county having the largest school population. In gen- 
eral those counties at the top of the list in Table 35 are those which 
transport a large proportion of their white elementary pupils and 
those at the bottom are those which transport the smallest propor- 
tion of these pupils. The range in per cent of pupils transported 
was from less than 20 in two counties to over 66 per cent in two 
counties. The expenditure was $11,265 in the county spending 
the smallest amount and $77,016 in the county spending the 
largest amount for transportation of white elementary pupils. 
Cost per white elementary pupil transported was $16.67 in the 
county spending least and $30.06 and $30.51 in the two counties 
spending most. (See Table 37.) 



Transportation and Library Service for White 57 
Elementary Pupils 

Baltimore City provided for transportation of 476 white physi- 
cally handicapped pupils to the schools especially equipped to care 
for their needs. 

Library Opportunities for County White Elementary Pupils 

Expenditures for libraries from county levy funds totalled 
$11,284 in 1936-37, an increase of $1,483 over those for 1935-36. 
This meant an expenditure per white elementary school of $14.12, 
an increase of $2.23 over the year preceding, and per white 
elementary teacher of $3.80 or 48 cents more. (See Table 37.) 

The county levy included payments to white elementary schools 
for library books varying from $10 to $3,095. According to Sec- 
tion 167 of the School Law, it is required that ten dollars be paid 
by the county school commissioners out of the State school fund 
to any schoolhouse district as library money if the people of the 
district raise the same amount annually. Some counties which 
have large consolidated schools pay the $10 to any room which 
raises at least $10. The law was passed in 1904 when many of 
the county schools had only one teacher. 

In addition to these public funds, the teachers, patrons, and 
pupils raised funds which were used for purchase of library books 
and equipment. For both white high and elementary schools in 
certain counties these additional amounts are reported in Table 
187, page 258. 

SERVICES OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 

In addition to the use of library facilities in a number of schools 
which have been improved so much that their teachers are better 
able to supply their own needs, a number of teachers took advan- 
tage of the privilege of securing books from the public libraries 
in the counties, cities, and towns, or from the Maryland Public 
Library Advisory Commission with offices in the Enoch Pratt 
Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Because of the cut in the State appropriation for books, the 
Library Commission was not in a position to supply all of the 
books requested. Also the requirement that the cost of trans- 
porting cases and packages of books be met entirely by the school 
requesting them deterred some teachers who had requested a 
supply. The number of books sent to county white elementary 
school teachers which totalled 8,255 in 1937, was an increase of 
1,226 over the number supplied in 1936. Ten counties showed an 
increase from 1936 to 1937 in the number of volumes borrowed 
from the Commission for white elementarv schools. (See Table 
38.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period 
of four months at the end of which time they may be returned and 
exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 



58 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, 
but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transporta- 
tion must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimbursement 
for lost or damaged books is required. 



TABLE 38 

Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White Elementary Schools, School Year 1936-37 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 




T. otal 


(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in 


each) 
















Year 


No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




and 


Volumes 














County 


















Supplied 






















1 raveling 






Package 






benoois 


1 eacners 


Libraries 


bcnools 


1 eacners 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


1931 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 


1932 


9,799 


165 


206 


275 


79 


84 


266 


1933 


16,606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


1934 


8,609 


96 


128 


225 


91 


107 


210 


1935 


8,675 


81 


144 


219 


77 


88 


247 


1936 


7,029 


66 


80 


184 


46 


56 


150 


1937 


8,255 


f44 


f52 


207 


56 


73 


237 


Allegany 


al68 


a3 


a4 


a 5 


al 


al 


al 


Anne Arundel. . . 


bc259 


bc4 


bc6 


bc7 


bc3 


bc3 


bc7 


Baltimore 


1,918 


8 


9 


33 


13 


23 


132 


Calvert 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


Caroline 


46 








3 


3 


8 


Carroll 


c332 


"c5 


' c6 


' c9 


c3 


c3 


c8 


Cecil 


e21 


e. . . . 


e. . . . 


e. . . . 


el 


el 


elO 


Charles 


bcl29 


bcl 


bc3 


bc4 


bcl 


bcl 


bcl 




c242 


c3 


c3 


c4 


cl2 


cl6 


c32 


Frederick 


c556 


c5 


c6 


cl6 


cl 


cl 


c5 


Garrett 


95 


1 


1 


3 








Harford 


bcl£7 


bc4 


bc4 


bc5 


bc4 


bc4 


bc6 


Howard 


82 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


Kent 










... 






Montgomery .... 


f3^795 


f! '. '.'. 


{'.'.'.'. 


fl08 




' i 


4 


Prince George's. 


201 




4 


6 


1 


1 


1 


Queen Anne's. . . 


35 




1 


1 




. ... 


. ... 


St. Mary's 


3 








"i 




Somerset 


24 








2 


3 


8 

be. . . . 


Talbot 


be. . . . 


be. '. '. '. 


be.'.'.'. 


be.'.'.'. 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 




d70 


dl 


dl 


d2 


d 


d 


d 


Wicomico 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


Worcester 


92 


2 


2 


2 


7 


8 


10 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
In addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the 
days when the library is open. 

d County-wide library takes care of book service to schools. 

e Elementary school library books centralized in the School Board Office in Elkton. Books 
circulated to schools of county from that office. 

f All traveling libraries borrowed by School Board and re-circulated to schools of the county 
from that office, therefore, number of schools and teachers served is not available. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs, or professional needs of the teachers. These are loaned for 
one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to 
a public library. 



Library and Health Services for White Pupils 



59 



The new Montgomery County Public Library at Rockville, 
reorganized and opened to the public in 1937 in the remodeled 
Rockville Academy, is a part of the educational system of the 
county under the control of the County Board of Education. 

Works Progress Administration library projects were carried 
on in 16 counties and in the office of the Commission under the 
supervision of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commis- 
sion. School and library books to the total of 76,790 were recon- 
ditioned so that they could be put back into use and school li- 
braries were organized and catalogued at a cost of $78,559. Books 
from thirteen Baltimore County elementary schools were brought 
to the Commission office for organization and cataloguing. Seven 
counties had no library projects chiefly because suitable workers 
were not available. (See Table 174, page 240, for expenditures by 
counties.) 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher- 
librarians inaugurated at Western Maryland College in the sum- 
mer of 1936 was also given in 1937 and is to be continued. Four 
elementary teachers were enrolled in 1937. 

Several librarians in elementary schools joined the State Asso- 
ciation of School Librarians which was organized to stimulate 
school library service and further professional interest. It holds 
one of its two annual meetings at the time the State Teachers' 
Association is in session. 

Expenditures from Public Funds for Health and P. A. L. Activities 

Exenditures for health and P. A. L. activities for county white 
elementary pupils are estimated as $171,221 in 1936-37, $50,000 
more than for 1935-36, due chiefly to Federal aid extended to the 
health program in the counties. Added to the expenditures of 
$11,146 by County Boards of Education is an estimated amount 
of $160,075 for State and county funds spent by county health 
offices on services to public school children. These amounts were 
calculated on the assumption that one-half of the State and county 
public funds reported by the Health Department as expended were 
used for health work among public school children. (See right 
part of and note under Table 36, Table 39, page 61, and Table XXI, 
page 303.) 

In some communities in other states the health program is a 
responsibility of the school authorities instead of, as in Maryland, 
a responsibility of the health authorities working in cooperation 
with the school authorities. Expenditures for health service ren- 
dered directly by the school authorities have, of course, always 
been reported in school costs to the U. S. Office of Education, 
whereas until 1935-36, for Maryland counties, no amounts were 
included to cover estimated costs of similar services rendered by a 
public agency other than the schools. 



60 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Nine county boards of education spent directly $9,685 for school 
nurses, dental clinics, and transportation of children to clinics. 
Four of these counties paid the salaries of one or two school 
nurses, but these nurses were also considered a part of the staff 
of the health offices in these counties. Four county boards of edu- 
cation spent $658 for physiotherapy of crippled children, a service 
which as a result of 1937 legislation has now been transferred 
completely to the health departments. The county boards of edu- 
cation spent $807 for miscellaneous activities, some of which were 
connected with the P. A. L. meets. (See note to Table 37, page 56.) 

The amounts included as estimated expenditures for health 
services to white elementary public school children varied from 
less than $2,650 in two counties to over $10,000 in five counties. 
The estimated amount spent per white elementary pupil was less 
than $1.25 in six counties and over $3 in three counties. (See last 
two columns in Table 37, page 56.) 

health services for school children given by state and county* 

Staff and Finances for Health Services 

Every county had the services of one full-time health officer, 
although one officer served both Charles and St. Mary's Counties, 
and three counties — Allegany, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore — 
each had also a full-time assistant health officer. In addition, 
Baltimore and Carroll Counties each had 14 part-time county 
health officers. The counties employed 80 nurses, the number 
varying from 2 to 8 according to size of county, and 28 clerks. 
There were 47 additional employees giving service in county clin- 
ics and bacteriological laboratories. (See Table 39.) 

Of $441,942 spent for health offices in 1937, the counties con- 
tributed $163,413, the State $153,703, the Federal government, 
$101,650, and other agencies $23,176. It has been estimated by 
the Health Department officials that one-half of the expenditures 
through county health offices were used for services which affect 
the health of school children. The Health Department figures in 
Table 39 include a part of those allocated to health by the County 
Boards of Education. By using figures in Table 39 together with 
those reported by the County Board of Education, it has been pos- 
sible to estimate the State, Federal, and county funds used for 
health service to school children included in the third column 
under auxiliary agencies in Table XXI, page 303. These estimated 
receipts and disbursements are also included in Tables XVI, XVII, 
and XVIII, pages 298 to 300. 

The funds for health service in the 23 counties averaged 35 per 
cent from the State, 23 per cent from Federal funds, 37 per cent 
from the county levy, and 5 per cent from other county sources. 



* Data prepared by Gertrude B. Knipp with the approval of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director 
of the Maryland State Department of Health. 



Health Services for White Pupils 



61 



The per cent of aid for health ranged among the counties for State 
aid between 16 and 68 per cent, for Federal aid between 4 and 57 
per cent, from the county levy between 7 to 70 per cent, and from 
other county sources from less than one per cent to 20 per cent. 
(See Table 39.) 

TABLE 39 



Cost of County Health Offices in Maryland Counties for Year Ending 
September 30, 1937 

(Data furnished by the Maryland State Department of Health) 





Number of 




Per Cent From 




Health 






Total 










fCOUNTY 


Officers 






Budget 


















Clerks 










Other 








Nurses 


and 




tState 


Federal 


County 


County 




Full 


Part 




Other* 






Aid 


Levy 


Sources 




Time 


Time 














Total Counties. 


25 


29 


80 


98 


$441,942 


34.8 


23.0 


37.0 


5.2 


Dorchester. . . . 






3 


7 


20,363 


68.3 


16.2 


9.8 


5.7 


Talbot 






2 


2 


10,256 


54.4 


19.1 


24.8 


1.7 


Kent 






2 


6 


14,873 


52.4 


11.0 


34.3 


2.3 








2 


2 


10,998 


50.7 


40.0 


7.3 


2.0 


Carroll 






2 


1 


11,318 


45.7 


21.2 


31.5 


1.6 


Queen Anne's. . 






2 


3 


11,823 


45.5 


27.4 


24.1 


3.0 


Washington . . . 






4 


8 


28,850 


44.8 


12.5 


31.9 


10.8 


Worcester 






3 


2 


15,037 


44.7 


34.7 


19.4 


1.2 


Charles 


o-j 




3 


3 


16,983 


42.5 


43.5 


11.8 


2.2 


Calvert 






2 


2 


12,450 


42.2 


32.7 


23.2 


1.9 








2 


2 


11,011 


40.9 


15.0 


39.0 


5.1 


Garrett 






4 


4 


14,136 


38.1 


38.1 


22.5 


1.3 


Prince George's 






3 


4 


15,688 


37.6 


23.5 


36.1 


2.8 


Cecil 






3 


2 


14,738 


36.8 


27.0 


32.5 


3.7 








3 


2 


15,149 


34.1 


41.8 


23.5 


.6 


Montgomery . . . 






7 


10 


37,361 


28.3 


9.6 


53.6 


8.5 


Wicomico 






5 


4 


21,707 


26.9 


44.2 


25.8 


3.1 


Frederick 






2 


4 


18,239 


26.8 


20.5 


48.6 


4.1 


St. Marys' 


°1 




2 


3 


10,827 


26.2 


57.2 


13.6 


3.0 


Harford 






2 


3 


13,031 


25.8 


12.3 


41.7 


20.2 


Allegany 


2 




8 


15 


51,927 


24.3 


4.3 


68.5 


2.9 


Anne Arundel . . 


2 




6 


6 


31,903 


20.0 


45.8 


24.1 


10.1 




2 


ii 


8 


3 


33,274 


16.0 


5.6 


70.3 


8.1 



t Counties are arranged in order of per cent of aid received from State from highest to lowest. 
* Includes employees in venereal disease clinics, clinicians, social workers, clerks, janitors : 
bacteriologists, technicians and laboratory helpers in branch laboratories. 
Charles and St. Mary's included in district served by one health officer. 



Services Rendered Schools 

Health protection activities in the schools under the direction 
of the State and County Departments of Health were concerned 
primarily with the general health supervision of the children in 
the elementary grades, the prevention, or control, of communi- 
cable diseases in the schools, the protection of the children against 
certain avoidable infectious diseases, and the sanitary supervision 
of water supply systems and of sewage disposal arrangements. 
Dental clinics arranged by the Division of Oral Hygiene, and the 



62 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



medical examination of preschool children in preparation for their 
admission to school, under the joint auspices of the Bureau of 
Child Hygiene of the State Department of Health and the County 
Departments of Health were also part of the regularly organized 
school health program. 



Medical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

As a part of the health supervision program, and on the invi- 
tation of the school authorities, 48,169 children in the elementary 
grades were given a complete physical examination by the county 
health officers assisted by the public health nurses. These figures 
rather than the number of inspections are included for the first 
time for 1937. (See Table 40.) 



TABLE 40 



Examinations of School and Pre-School Children by State and County 
Health Officers, 1937 



County 


Number 
School 
Children 
Examined 


Pre-School Children 
Examined During 1937 


Per Cent of Pre-School 
Children Examined 


Number 


Per Cent 


Requiring 
Vaccination 
vs. Smallpox 


Not 
Immunized 
vs. Diphtheria 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total 


48,169 


5,138 


1,600 


36.7 


50.4 


49.5 


49.7 


38.6 


37.1 


Allegany 


13,705 


795 




50.0 




44.4 




24.3 




Anne Arundel . . 


2,503 


462 


116 


58.5 


32^7 


15.8 


21.6 


18.8 


is! i 


Baltimore 


8,297 


1.042 


196 


47.3 


87.1 


66.0 


58.2 


47.6 


54.1 


Calvert 


709 


34 


67 


30.9 


45.0 


8.8 


4.5 


5.9 


4.5 


Caroline 


1,300 




14 




18.2 










Carroll 


7,473 


' 18 




3^4 




77!8 




66i7 




Cecil 


1,183 


69 


' 29 


15.6 


76!7 


76.8 


44^8 


43.5 


i3!8 


Charles 


21 


44 


192 


23.7 


100.0 


72.7 


72.9 


59.1 


59.4 


Dorchester. . . . 


63 


17 


48 


5.1 


29.3 


100.0 


87.5 


94.1 


83.3 


Frederick 


1.870 


448 


32 


48.4 


30.5 


61.2 


93.8 


41.3 


18.8 




165 


397 




76.6 




23.7 




38.5 




Harford 


330 


209 


32 


40.3 


29!i 


32.1 


53! i 


59.8 


56!6 


Howard 


1,230 


171 


61 


60.4 


70.9 


13.5 


14.8 


8.8 


1.6 


Kent 


298 


88 


118 


61.1 


100.0 


23.9 


17.8 


30.7 


13.6 


Montgomery . . . 


4,059 


139 


84 


13.1 


44.4 


12.9 


4.8 


15.1 


9.5 


Prince George's 


1.809 


257 


63 


18.6 


15.7 


82.5 


82.5 


60.7 


63.5 


Queen Anne's. . 


95 


61 


113 


32.8 


100.0 


60.7 


84.1 


14.8 


43.4 


St. Mary's 


196 


32 


53 


14.0 


38.1 


68.8 


60.4 


56.3 


60.4 


Somerset 


19 


80 


142 


35.4 


83.5 


11.8 


33.1 


77.5 


47.2 


Talbot 


1,018 


50 


91 


18.9 


65.5 


74.0 


64.8 


10.0 


7.7 


Washington .... 


141 


548 


16 


45.1 


50.0 


87.6 


100.0 


57.5 


37.5 


Wicomico 


1,678 


177 


133 


46.0 


76.4 


8.5 


57.1 


16.9 


43.6 


Worcester 





















Special attention was paid in the routine physical examinations 
to the general health of the children, to weight and other indica- 
tions of good or faulty nutrition, to the nose, throat, teeth, heart, 
lungs, vision, and hearing. The examinations were limited in the 
larger schools to the pupils in the lower grades, and to those in 



Medical Examinations of School and Pre-School Children 63 



the upper grades scheduled for re-examination, or for whom ex- 
amination was requested by the teachers. All of the children in 
the smaller schools were examined. Parents were welcome at all of 
the examinations and were present by invitation in a number of 
counties. Conditions in need of attention were reported to the 
parents who were urged to take their children to their family 
physicians. 

Largely through the interest of the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions, and through the follow-up visits of the nurses to the homes, 
each year has shown a steady increase in the attention that has 
been given to conditions in need of correction. The men's service 
clubs have taken active interest in providing means for special 
treatments, and in financing the purchase of glasses or other 
equipment for children in families unable to make the necessary 
expenditures. 

To avoid possible outbreaks of communicable diseases in the 
schools control measures were instituted and 101,875 inspections 
were made by the county health officers and their staff nurses, at 
the request of the school authorities, of children with symptoms of 
transmissible diseases or who had been exposed to scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, measles, chickenpox, and other infectious diseases. 
The figures for 1937 regarding inspections have not been included 
in Table 40. 

Physical Examination of Pre-school Children 

The examination of children approaching school age in prepa- 
ration for their admission to school, was continued during the 
year, at the regularly scheduled child health conferences, held at 
conveniently accessible centers in each county, under the joint 
direction of the State Bureau of Child Hygiene and the County 
Departments of Health. Through the cooperation of the County 
Superintendents and the Parent-Teacher Associations, lists of 
incoming children were furnished the County Departments of 
Health, and many of the conferences during the spring and 
summer months took place in school buildings. 

There were eleven counties in wiiich the examinations of the 
prospective first graders were organized, and in many instances 
completed, before the schools closed for the summer vacation. 

Special "Summer Round Up" committees organized in a number 
of communities under the auspices of the Maryland Congress of 
Parents and Teachers aided greatly in both the preparatory and 
the follow-up work in connection with the visits of the new health 
trailer of the Bureau of Child Hygiene to certain sections of the 
State. The staff of the healthmobile included a physician, a den- 
tist, and a public health nurse. The itinerary for each county was 
arranged by the county health officer. 

The total number of children examined in preparation for 
admission to school was 6,738, of whom 5,138 were white and 
1,600 colored, an increase of 250 over the total examined in 1936. 
(See Table 40.) 



64 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The aim of the conferences was to enable young children to enter 
school as free as possible from the strain of avoidable physical 
handicaps. The purpose of the examinations was to discover 
conditions in need of correction, to point them out to the parents, 
and to advise them as to the importance of having such conditions 
attended to promptly. 

Of the 5,138 white pre-school children examined, 1,082 or 21 
per cent were free from conditions in need of correction ; 954 or 18 
per cent gave evidence of faulty nutrition ; unfavorable conditions 
of the throat were observed in 2,032 or 39 per cent, and of the 
nose, in 1,010 or 19 per cent. There were 3,122 or 61 per cent in 
need of dental attention; defects of vision were observed in 76, 
and of hearing in 33 ; faulty posture was recorded for 354. 

Vaccination against smallpox had been neglected for 2,054, 
nearly half of the total number examined ; and 1,983 or 38 per cent 
had not been protected against diphtheria. The parents of chil- 
dren for whom these services had been neglected were urged to 
have them attended to promptly. They were also reminded of the 
State law which will not permit any child who has not been vacci- 
nated against smallpox to be enrolled in any public school in the 
State. (See Table 40.) 

Immunization Activities Against Diphtheria, Typhoid Fever, Smallpox, and Scarlet Fever 

Immunization of children against certain infectious diseases 
is a part of the regular program of all of the County Departments 
of Health. Over 18,800 children of pre-school and of school age 
were protected against diphtheria during the year. Over 8,200 
persons, including a large number of boys and girls in the schools, 
were immunized against typhoid fever, and many pre-school 
children were included in the total of over 6,800 persons vacci- 
nated against smallpox. 

Intensive campaigns against scarlet fever were carried on in 
Allegany and Garrett Counties, in connection with which over 
3,600 children were protected against that disease. Children were 
Dick tested in a number of other counties and those with positive 
reactions were immunized against the disease. 

Tests for Tuberculosis 

A special effort was made in a number of counties to discover 
incipient cases of tuberculosis among girls and boys of high 
school age, in order that control measures could be instituted 
before the disease was deeply entrenched. Tuberculin tests were 
made on the pupils in nearly all of the high schools in Washington 
County, and on selected groups of pupils in Garrett, Kent, St. 
Mary's, Talbot, Wicomico, and other counties. Follow-up X-ray 
examinations were made on all of the pupils giving a positive 
tuberculin reaction. Individual conferences were held with pupils 



Examinations of Pre-School Children; Immunization; 65 
Dental Clinics 

and parents ; the significance of the X-ray findings was explained 
to them and any necessary treatment or alteration of daily activ- 
ities was advised. The addition to the field equipment of the State 
Department of Health of portable X-ray machines of the type 
used especially for chest and orthopedic examinations has made 
these tests possible. 

Dental Clinics 

There were examinations of 23,506 children and treatments of 
11,483 in the school dental clinic service under the joint direction 
of the Division of Oral Hygiene of the Maryland State Department 
of Health, the county health officers, and the county superinten- 
dents of schools. Total operations, exclusive of examinations, 
numbered 42,030. The Healthmobile service during July and 
August, 1936, and May and June, 1937, was given to nine counties 
of Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore. Services of den- 
tists ranged from full-time to part-time. (See Table 41.) 



TABLE 41 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health, August 1, 1936 to July 31, 1937 



County 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore. . . . 

Calvert} 

Cecil t 

Chariest 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

KentJ 

Montgomery . . 
Pr. George's:]: . 
Queen Anne's J 
St. Mary's! . . . 

Talbot! 

Washington . . 
WicomicoJ . • • 

Healthmobile 







Number of 














Time Given 


Children 




Number of 




W 

— c 
















°.S 


to Servicef 


Exam- 
















ined 




Fillings 


Teeth 






Total 


Ji C 




by 


Treated 


In- 


Ex- 


Clean- 


TWt- 


Opera- 


18 




Den- 




serted 


tracted 


ings 


men's 


tions 






tists 












*36 




23,506 


11,483 


19,296 


16,340 


4,632 


1,762 


4^,030 


1 


Full 


2,294 


1,878 


1,477 


4,817 


462 


510 


7,266 


5 


Part 


3,375 


1,478 


3,111 


2,258 


592 


100 


6,061 


4 


Part 


4,138 


989 


1,404 


1,068 


574 


44 


3,090 


1 


Part 


422 


346 


486 


322 


18 




826 


1 


Half 


574 


199 


832 


495 


180 


i45 


1,652 


2 


Part 


1,500 


308 


779 


542 


155 


10 


1,486 


2 


Half 


1,608 


1,472 


2,261 


1,134 


236 


58 


3,689 


4 


Part 


204 


165 


185 


226 


87 


5 


503 


2 


Part 


371 


357 


766 


366 


310 


13 


1,455 


1 


Half 


814 


256 


1,247 


431 


26 


6 


1,710 


1 


Half 


725 


424 


669 


390 


331 


34 


1,424 


1 


Half 


745 


695 


2,202 


1,244 


470 


417 


4,333 


1 


Part 


1,116 


867 


823 


530 


198 


177 


1,728 


1 


Half 


572 


178 


730 


222 


161 


85 


1,198 


1 


Part 


1,186 


217 


404 


321 


107 


33 


865 


1 


Part 


115 


95 


130 


86 


25 


44 


285 


3 


Part 


267 


267 


137 


796 


37 


41 


1,011 


1 


Half 


1,277 


567 


845 


569 


496 


4 


1,914 


3 


Full, 4 mos. 


2,203 


725 


808 


523 


167 


36 


1,534 



* Excluding duplicates. 

t The scope of service varies from full-time and half-time service to "part-time" meaning 
one or more one day clinics per month. 

t See also Healthmobile at bottom which operated full-time for four months in Calvert. 
Charles, Cecil. Kent. Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's. Talbot and Wicomico Counties. 



66 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Services for Crippled Children 

By an Act of the 1937 Legislature, the Maryland State Depart- 
ment of Health was designated as the agency of the State to 
administer and supervise the program of other than educational 
services for children under 21 years of age who are crippled or 
who are suffering from conditions which lead to crippling. The 
purpose of the State program is to extend and improve the service 
for locating such children, to arrange for medical, surgical, cura- 
tive and other care, and to develop increased facilities for diag- 
nosis, hospitalization and after care. 

Of 1,064 county minors, of whom 925 were white and 139 
colored, receiving orthopedic care on the active list as of August, 
1937, 255 were under 6 years of age, 272 were of ages 6 to 10 
years, and 537 were in the age group from 11 to 20 years. 

Poliomyelitis was responsible for the disability in 198 of the 
cases, 145 were due to birth injury, 105 were congenital, 77 were 
due to accidents, 64 to rickets, 63 to club feet, 48 to osteomyelitis, 
and 46 to tuberculosis. 

Patients are being hospitalized at the rate of about 90 per month 
and the seven physiotherapists, located in the counties, have 
made approximately 1,400 visits each month since the service was 
organized, to the homes of the patients for treatment and for after 
care of orthopedic cases as outlined by the orthopedic surgeons 
in attendance. In addition to the work of the physiotherapists, 
two orthopedic nurses have made an average of 300 visits each 
month. 

Approximately $300 has been expended per month for braces, 
shoes, artificial limbs and other orthopedic appliances. 

Sixty clinics are planned for the counties for the fiscal year 
eftdi x June 30, 1938. As in the past, the clinics will be conducted 
in c jperation with the Maryland League 1 for Crippled Children, 
bv orthopedic surgeons from Baltimore. The clinics and their 
administration have become a part of the regular activities of 
the local health departments, the local staff being assisted by per- 
sonnel from the League and the Service for Crippled Children of 
the State Department of Health. 

The State Service will supplement the activities of the Maryland 
League for Crippled Children and of the local clubs and organiza- 
tions that have contributed so generously to the undertaking in 
the past. The continued cooperation of all private agencies is 
necessary in order that the greatest possible amount of restoration 
to normal activities may be assured for the greatest number of 
those individuals who are so unfortunate as to have suffered some 
physical handicap, and that ways to all available opportunities to 
become self-suporting citizens may be opened to them. 

For educational opportunities available to physically handi- 
capped children see pages 36-40, and for those available to adults, 
see page 212. 



Crippled Children Services; Capital Outlay; Size of White 
Elementary School 



CAPITAL OUTLAY INCREASES FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

The capital outlay devoted to the needs of white elementary 
pupils totalled over $1,113,500 in 1936-37, making the average 
outlay per pupil nearly eleven dollars. Most of the counties making 
large capital outlays received grants from the Federal Public 
Works Administration for their school building programs. (See 
Table 175, page 241, last column in Table XXIII, page 305, and 
last column in Table 36, page 54.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS INCREASES 

During the school year 1936-37 there were 799 county schools 
in which white elementary pupils received instruction, a decrease 
of 25 under the preceding year. The largest reductions occurred 
in the number of one-, two-, and three-teacher elementary schools, 
there being 325 one-teacher, 150 two-teacher, and 57 three-teacher 
schools, which represented 18 fewer one-teacher, 8 fewer two- 
teacher, and 7 fewer three-teacher school organizations than were 



TABLE 42 



Number of County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7 (8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers, School Year 1936-37 



County 


Total No. Schools 


County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7 (8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers 


* 


CO 

* 


eo 


* 


* 


* 


* 


00 
* 


* 




* 


* 


* 


CO 

* 




* 


* 


2 
1 


00 
3 


* 

1 
1 


O 
* 




OJ 

> 



* 

6 
1 


Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 
Baltimore 


799 

62 
26 
55 
7 
17 
33 
40 
10 
34 
44 
77 
47 
25 
19 
42 
52 
17 
22 
23 
16 
82 
33 
16 


325 

20 
1 

i 

7 
13 
27 

2 
20 

8 
59 
23 
tl6 

9 
12 
10 

7 
12 
12 

9 
38 
16 

3 


150 

11 
4 

13 
2 
2 
5 
6 
2 
4 

12 

10 

12 
2 
5 
7 

13 
3 
9 
5 
1 

13 
5 
4 


57 

5 
7 
2 
2 

i 

3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
6 
4 

2 
1 
8 
3 


49 

1 
2 
4 
1 

i 
i 

i 

7 
1 
1 
1 

2 
7 
2 

2 
7 
3 
5 


43 

2 
5 
3 

3 
1 

4 
2 
4 
2 
4 

2 

3 


20 

2 

2 
1 
1 

3 

i 
i 

'2 
i 


31 

6 
1 
6 


27 

4 
2 
4 


21 

2 
2 
4 


15 
2 

3 


5 

2 
1 


14 

3 


4 
1 


5 


6 

1 
1 


10 

3 

i 


3 










3 


2 


Calvert 
















1 

2 
3 
1 

3 
2 
1 
1 


3 


2 
























Carroll 


2 












1 










Cecil 




1 




1 


































Dorchester 


2 
1 

i 
2 
1 
1 
2 


2 

i 


2 

i 






















Frederick 










2 


1 






















Harford 
















1 








Howard 


1 
















Kent 
























Montgomery .... 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 
St. Mary's 


2 
1 
1 


2 


1 
1 


1 

5 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


i 






1 


















1 
1 

2 

2 
1 
































Somerset 


1 




1 














1 














Talbot 


















1 








Washington 


3 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 


3 










3 




2 








2 


Wicomico 
















Worcester 























































* The figure at the top of each column indicates that this number of teachers was em- 
ployed during the entire year or part of the year. 

f Includes a one-teacher school with a two-teacher organization. 



68 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in operation in 1935-36. In 1936-37 there were 6 white elementary 
schools with more than 20 teachers, one fewer than in 1935-36. 
(See Table 42.) 

Seven counties had from 7 to 19, and five had from 52 to 82 
schools for white elementary pupils. The number of schools was 
smaller than in the preceding year by from one to five schools in 
fourteen counties and was larger by one and four in two counties. 
(See Table 42.) 

Fewer One-Teacher Schools 

There were 283 one-teacher schools for white elementary pupils 
in the fall of 1937, a decrease of 41 under the preceding year. 
Fewer than ten per cent of the county white elementary teachers 
gave instruction in one-teacher schools, the per cent being 9.6. 
In 1920 there were 1,171 of these one-teacher schools and each 
succeeding year there have been fewer, the total reduction in the 
eighteen-year period being 888 and the average annual decrease 
being 49. This is a most tangible evidence of the progress of 
school consolidation accompanied by transportation of pupils. 
(See Table 43.) 

TABLE 43 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1937 







County White Elementary Teachers 




School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 






Total 












Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


2,992 
3,037 
3,054 
3,063 
3,065 
3,047 
3,067 
3,088 
3,070 
3,078 
3,050 
3,049 
3,022 
2,954 
2,947 
2,941 
2,949 
2,972 
2,948 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


1,149 
1,124 
1,093 
1,055 
1,005 
956 


37.8 


1922 


36.8 


1923 


35.7 


1924 


34.4 


1925 


33.0 


1926 


31.2 


1927 


898 


29.1 


1928 


823 


26.8 


1929 


739 


24.0 


1930 


663 


21.7 


1931 


586 


19.2 


1932 


489 


16.2 


1933 


407 


13.8 


1934 


377 


12.8 


1935 


365 


12.4 


1936 


342 


11.6 


1937 


324 


10.9 


Fall, 1937 


283 


9.6 







In 1936-37 the number of one-teacher schools varied all the way 
from ten counties having as few as to 9 to the four counties 
having from 23 to 59 one-teacher schools. In 1936-37, the 7,838 
pupils in one-teacher schools included 7.4 per cent of the total 
white elementary enrollment. Nine counties had from none to 



One- and Two-Teacher Schools for White Pupils 



69 



TABLE 44 



Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1937 





Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Oil MTV 
V/UU1N 1 I 


Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Total and Average 


324 


10.9 


7,838 


7.4 


Caroline 


7 


13.0 


152 


7.8 








Queen Anne's. . . 


7 


16.7 


158 


11.0 














16 


17.6 


405 


12.0 


Anne Arundel .... 


i 


* ' '.7 


23 


' ' \i 


Talbot 


9 


18.1 


196 


12.2 


Frederick 


8 


4.1 


190 


2.8 


Harford 


23 


18.1 


538 


13.7 


Prince George's . . 


10 


4.3 


305 


3.5 


Somerset 


12 


19.4 


271 


13.3 


Montgomery 


12 


4.6 


249 


3.0 


Kent 


9 


22.6 


193 


15.6 


Calvert 


1 

2 
3 
20 
13 
38 


4.8 
5.1 
5.3 
5.9 
9.7 
12.4 


18 
58 
79 
515 
248 
966 


2.4 
4.1 
3.9 
4.2 
5.3 
9.1 


Dorchester 


20 
15 
27 
12 
59 


23.7 
25.5 
29.2 
34.5 
50.0 


503 
376 
705 
254 
1,436 


18.1 
19.0 
23.2 
27.8 
37.7 




Howard 


Worcester 


Cecil 


Allegany 


St. Mary's 


Carroll 


Garrett 


Washington 





TABLE 45 



Number of Schools and Pupils in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Oct., 1937, Compared with No. of Schools, 1920 



County 


One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 


Number 


Pupils Oct., 1937 


Number 


Pupils Oct., 1937 






Oct., 




Per 




Oct., 




Per 




1920 


1937 


No. 


Cent 


1920 


1937 


No. 


Cent 


Total 


1,171 


283 


6,887 


6 


5 


255 


143 


8,658 


8 


2 




40 










43 


11 


806 


5 





Caroline 


38 










4 


2 


108 


5 


6 




41 


" i 


' 25 




4 


11 


5 


306 


5 


2 


Calvert 


32 


l 


16 


2 


1 


2 


2 


121 


15 


8 


Charles 


44 


2 


57 


4 


2 


7 


2 


97 


7 


2 




33 


2 


50 


2 


5 


8 


4 


233 


11 


9 




39 


5 


186 


2 


2 


12 


8 


330 


3 


9 


33 


5 


125 


8 


9 


8 


3 


170 


12 


1 


Frederick 


111 


8 


187 


2 


7 


16 


11 


716 


10 


4 




43 


8 


169 


5 





8 


5 


205 


6 







24 


9 


184 


14 


.9 


5 


7 


460 


37 


2 




28 


9 


199 


10 





11 


3 


160 


8 




Talbot 


25 


9 


161 


10 


.4 


10 


1 


63 


4 






42 


10 


296 


3 


.3 


15 


9 


689 


7 


1 




48 


11 


228 


28 





5 


8 


423 


52 





Carroll 


97 


12 


238 


5 


2 


12 


4 


241 


5 


2 


Howard 


30 


15 


359 


18 


.4 


7 


3 


158 


8 


1 




51 


19 


540 


4 


.4 


18 


10 


654 


5 


4 




57 


20 


500 


18 


.7 


9 


4 


238 


8 


9 


Cecil 


57 


22 


599 


20 


.2 


5 


7 


390 


13 




Harford 


51 


23 


564 


14 


.5 


12 


11 


569 


14 


7 


Washington 


81 


36 


844 


8 


.0 


16 


13 


815 


7 


8 


Garrett 


126 


56 


1,360 


36 


.3 


11 


10 


706 


18 


9 



70 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



4.2 per cent of their white elementary pupils in one-teacher 
schools, while three counties had 23, 28, and 38 per cent of their 
white elementary pupils in these small schools of many grades. 
(See Table 44.) 

A comparison of the number of white one- and two-teacher 
schools in 1920 with the number in October, 1937, shows what 
each county has done in consolidating these small schools during 
the eighteen year period. One county has reduced the number of 
one-teacher schools by 103, another by 85, and a third by 70, while 
the four counties showing the smallest reductions during the 
period decreased the number by from 15 to 19. (See Table 45.) 

The two-teacher schools which numbered 255 in 1920 have 
decreased to 143 in October, 1937. (See Table 45.) 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 49 county supervisors in service in the white elemen- 
tary schools in 1936-37, one of these giving only part-time service 
while university work was carried on. Ten counties were entitled 
to employ one supervisor since they had on their staff fewer than 
80 white elementary teachers; four counties with 80 to 119 white 
elementary teachers were entitled to employ two supervisors, but 
one of these employed only one ; all three counties eligible to have 
three supervisors, since they had from 120 to 185 white elemen- 
tary teachers, employed only two ; one of the three counties eligible 
to employ four supervisors had only three; one of the two coun- 
ties which could have employed five supervisors with State aid 
employed only four ; and the county with the largest white elemen- 
tary staff eligible to have seven supervisors employed six. For 
number of supervisors in each county, "see Table IX, page 291, 
and for salaries and expenses of supervisors in white elementary 
schools, see Table XXIII, page 305. 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

ENROLLMENT CONTINUES TO INCREASE 

The enrollment in the last four years of county white public 
high schools in 1937 increased to 33,959, a gain of 848 over the 
preceding year. This meant a continuation of the steady growth 
noted over a long period of years. For Baltimore City, the first 
decrease in enrollment in the last four years of high school 
appeared with a reduction of 523, bringing the total in 1937 to 
18,346. This is partly offset by a gain of 103 in the enrollment in 
vocational schools. (See Chart 10 and Table 46.) 



CHART 10 



GROWTH IN "WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



Counties 



Balto, City 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1932 

1932- 1933 

1933- 1934 

1934- 1955 

1935- 1936 

1936- 1937 




: ,-, .. .. .. m 



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856 

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546 



71 



72 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average number belonging in the 23 counties increased by 
746 to 31,938 in 1937 and in Baltimore City decreased by 374 to 
17,624. Average attendance of white high school pupils in the 
counties was 30,026 in 1937, an increase of 765 over 1936, and in 
Baltimore City was 16,549, a decrease of 345 under 1936. (See 
Table 46.) 

TABLE 46 



White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June, 1920 to 1937 



Year Ending 


23 Counties 


Baltimore City 














June 30 




Average 






Average 






Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 






Belonging 


Attendance 




Belonging 


Attendance 


1920 


9,392 


* 


7,798 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


1921 


10,900 




9,294 


6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922 


12,815 




11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923. . 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924 


16,026 


14,842 


13,969 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


1930 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


1933 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


1934 


31,036 


29,017 


27,292 


17,807 


17,018 


15,823 


1935 


31,786 


29,723 


27,963 


18,557 


17,793 


16,567 


1936 


33,111 


31,192 


29,261 


18,869 


17,998 


16,894 


1937 


33,959 


31,938 


30,026 


18,346 


17,624 


16,549 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 



For enrollment in public and non-public secondary schools for 
white pupils during the period from 1927 to 1937, see Table 47. 

TABLE 47 



Comparison of White High School Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1937 

















Non-Catholic 




Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 




















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


21,885 


14,246 


20,358 


11,391 


969 


2,549 


558 


306 


1928 


23,255 


14,290 


21,811 


11,792 


533 


2,143 


911 


355 


1929 


24,874 


15,994 


23,371 


12,899 


525 


2,491 


978 


604 


1930 


27,525 


16,790 


24,760 


13,434 


1,112 


2,478 


1,653 


878 


1931 


30,175 


18,594 


26,998 


14,549 


1,491 


3,191 


1,686 


854 


1932 


31,628 


20,485 


28 , 547 


16,053 


1,427 


3,598 


1,654 


834 


1933 


33,639 


22,001 


30,778 


17,707 


1,503 


3 , 570 


1,358 


724 


1934 


33,760 


22,190 


31,306 


17,807 


1,376 


3,699 


1,348 


684 




34,803 


23,339 


31,786 


18,557 


1 , 572 


4 , 023 


1,445 


759 


1936 


36,249 


23,891 


33,111 


18,869 


1 , 587 


4,211 


1 , 551 


811 


1937 


37,313 


23,699 


33,959 


18,346 


1,707 


4,435 


1,647 


918 



White Enrollment and Length of Session in High Schools 



73 



There were 1,052 county and 456 Baltimore City white public 
and non-public high school pupils who received Federal aid 
through the National Youth Administration, in return for ser- 
vices rendered. 

The white enrollment in the last four years of public high 
schools in the counties is 85 per cent greater than it is in the City, 
due in part to the larger white population in the counties, to the 
larger enrollment in City than in county non-public high schools, 
to the opportunity to attend vocational schools in the City, and 
to the greater availability of jobs for City youth. (See Tables 
46 and 47.) 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN HIGH SCHOOLS 

The county high schools for white pupils were in session on the 
average 185.1 days in 1936-37, a decrease of 1.3 days under the 
year preceding. Among the counties length of session varied from 
close to 181 days in two counties to 191 days in one county. Balti- 
more City Schools were open 190 days. (See Table 48.) 



TABLE 48 

Length of Session in White High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Harford 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Kent 

Washington .... 

Carroll 

St. Mary's 



185.1 

191.0 
189.9 
188.5 
188.0 
187.0 
184.9 
184.5 
184.0 
184.0 
183.9 
183.8 
183.6 



9/8 

9/9 

9/8 

9/2 

9/9 

9/10 

9/9 

9/9 

9/2 

9/8 

9/3 

9/9 



6/18 

6/18 

6/18 

6/11 

6/18 

6/18 

6/11 

6/11 

6/11 

6/11 

6/9 

6/10 



Dorchester. . . 
Wicomico .... 
Montgomery . . 
Frederick. . . . 
Prince George': 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's . 
Worcester. . . . 
Charles 

Baltimore City 

Total State . . . 



183.4 
183.0 
183.0 
182.7 
182.2 
182.0 
182.0 
182.0 
182.0 
180.9 
180.8 

190.0 

186.8 



9/8 

9/1 

9/14 

9/9 

9/9 

9/9 

9/1 

9/10 

9/8 

9/1 

9/8 

9/8 



The dates for opening county high schools covered the period 
from September 1 in three counties, all of which closed schools on 
or before the first of June, to September 14 in one county. The 
first closing date in 1937 was May 28 and the last June 18. (See 
Table 48.) 



74 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The county high schools for white pupils had 94 per cent of the 
average number belonging in average attendance, an increase of 
.2 over the preceding year. Baltimore City's per cent of attend- 
ance, 93.9, was just .1 below that in the counties. Attendance 
varied among the counties from 91.8 to 95.5 per cent. (See Table 
49.) 

TABLE 49 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1935, 1936 and 1937 



County 



1923 


1935 


1936 


1937 


County 


1923 


1935 


1936 


1937 


91 


9 


94.1 


93 


8 


94.0 


Queen Anne's 


91.9 


94 


1 


92.2 


93 


7 














Worcester 


91.7 


94 


4 


94.2 


93 


1 


91 


5 


95.1 


95 


5 


95.5 


Talbot 


93.2 


93 


4 


92.4 


92 


7 


92 


3 


95.9 


94 


9 


95.4 




90.2 


92 


5 


91.2 


92 


7 


94 


8 


95.5 


95 





95.4 


Cecil 


92.0 


91 


4 


91.5 


92 


6 


93 


1 


95.4 


95 





95.3 


Howard 


89.9 


94 


5 


92.8 


92 


6 


88 


7 


94.0 


95 


1 


94.7 


St. Mary's 


86.8 


92 


8 


92.9 


92 


5 


91 


4 


95.1 


94 


5 


94.5 


Montgomery 


88.9 


93 


5 


92.7 


92 


5 


91 


8 


94.3 


94 


1 


94.4 


Harford 


91.2 


93 


4 


92.3 


92 


3 


92 


4 


95.2 


93 


7 


94.3 


Caroline 


91.2 


91 


9 


92.2 


92 


1 


92 


1 


93.7 


93 


9 


94.1 


Kent 


90.2 


89 


6 


90.7 


91 


8 


93 


5 


92.4 


93 


1 


94.1 
















88 


7 


93.3 


93 


8 


94.1 


Baltimore City .... 


91.5 


93 


1 


93.9 


93 


9 


91 


3 


93.9 


94 





94.0 




























91.6 


93 


7 


93.8 


94 






County Average 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Washington 

Charles 

Somerset 

Prince George's . 

Dorchester 

Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Baltimore 



For attendance in 1937 by counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 289. 



For county white high school pupils the average number belong- 
ing was highest in the month of October and the average number 
attending was highest in September, after which the enrollment 
and attendance decreased each succeeding month. Per cent of 
attendance was highest in September, decreased each succeeding 
month to February, the lowest point, and thereafter increased 
until June when it was almost as high as it was in September. 
(See Table 50.) 

TABLE 50 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Last Four Years of Mary- 
land County White High Schools, by Months, for School Year 
Ending in June, 1937 



Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


September 


31,584 
31,537 
31,137 
30,330 
30,041 
29,416 


32,702 
33,087 
32,844 
32,560 
32,278 
31,888 


96.6 
95.3 
94.8 
93.1 
93.1 
92.2 


March 


29,122 
29,007 
28,688 
26,967 

30,025 


31,468 
30,999 
30,545 
27,959 

31,937 


92.5 
93.6 
93.9 
96.5 

94.0 


October 




November 


May 




June 


January 

February 


Average for Year. . 



White High School Attendance; Ratio of High to Total 75 
Enrollment 



RELATION OF ENROLLMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL 
TO TOTAL WHITE ENROLLMENT 

Of every 100 white pupils attending county public elementary 
and secondary schools, 23.8 attended high schools in 1936-37. 
This was an increase of .5 over 23.3 in 1935-36. For Baltimore 
City corresponding ratios were 20.8 in 1937 as against 20.4 in 
1936. (See Chart 11.) 

CHART 11 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1957 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City V77A 



1917 

1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1950 
1931 
1952 
1955 

1954 
1955 
1956 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1925 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1950 

1951 
1952 
1955 
1954 

1935 
1956 
1937 



HE 



V////////////777777, 



l 



m ■ 



^2 



y//////////7T^A 







l 



22 + 



76 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The ratio of white pupils belonging in high schools to the aver- 
age white enrollment in high and elementary schools combined 
varied among the counties from 17.9 to 29.3. Counties in which 
the enrollment in white elementary schools is declining naturally 
show a higher percentage in high school than counties in which 
white elementary school enrollment is increasing. Sixteen coun- 
ties showed increases from 1936 to 1937 in ratio of pupils in high 
school. (See Table 51.) 

TABLE 51 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Last Four Years of White High Schools to 
"Number Belonging" in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined 



County 



County Average . 

Kent 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Harford 

Worcester 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Wicomico 



1924 



13.3 

15.2 
18.7 
3.0 
5.5 
14.8 
18.9 
14.3 
10.2 
18.3 
15.2 
18.8 
19.9 



1935 



21.8 

26.6 
30.1 
24.4 
25.6 
24.4 
25.9 
25.8 
24.6 
25.0 
23.4 
26.0 
25.7 



1936 



22.7 

27.7 
29.8 
25.0 
25.5 
25.2 
27.1 
26.1 
27.3 
24.5 
23.8 
25.5 
26.2 



1937 



23.2 

29.3 
28.3 
27.2 
27.0 
26.8 
26.8 
26.5 
26.5 
25.3 
25.3 
25.3 
24.9 



County 



Dorchester 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Prince George's. 

Howard 

Montgomery*. . 

Allegany* , 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Washington* . . . 

Baltimore City* 

State Average . . 



1924 



16.7 
13.7 
15.5 
14.9 
11.6 
12.7 
13.9 
13.5 
11.0 
8.4 
11.1 

9.7 

11.8 



1935 



22.2 
23.9 
24.1 
20.5 
21.1 
21.6 
18.6 
20.5 
20.7 
18.8 
17.2 

19.6 

20.9 



1936 



24.0 
24.4 
24.5 
22.3 
22.3 
22.8 
20.0 
21.6 
21.7 
19.6 
17.6 

20.1 

21.7 



1937 



24.9 
24.1 
23.9 
23.7 
23.1 
22.9 
22.2 
22.0 
21.8 
20.6 
17.9 

20.2 

22.0 



* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization as against 7-4 plan in remaining counties. 

If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 
years of high school attendance by every elementary school grad- 
uate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in 
the four years of high school would be 33.3 in counties having the 
8-4 or 6-3-3 plan and 36.4 per cent in counties organized on the 
7-4 plan. These percentages assume that there is a uniform num- 
ber entering school each year, which naturally is not the case. (See 
Table 51.) 

NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES REACHES PEAK 
There were 5,472 white graduates from the county high schools 
in 1937, an increase of 150 over the preceding year. This con- 
tinued the upward trend noted in every year since 1919, with the 
exception of 1935. Of the graduates 2,361 were boys and 3,111 
girls. Baltimore City also showed an increase of 106 in the num- 
ber of graduates, making the total 2,865 in 1937. (See Table 52.) 

The counties varied in number of graduates from 48 in the 
county with the smallest to 725 in the county with the largest 
white school population. Twelve of the counties had more grad- 



Ratio of High School to Total Enrollment; White 
High School Graduates 



77 



uates in 1937 than in 1936. In every county there were more 
girls than boys graduated, but the reverse was true in Baltimore 
City. (See Chart 12.) 

CHART 12 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

1937 



r + Total 
Count y 1936 1937 



Boys 



P771 Girl! 



Balto . 702 725 \^) )))))))))))) U) ))?)))) H) )) U U U U U ll\ 
AHegany 580 ))))))))))))))/)))))))) A 

544 420 HH fbzzzn 



P. G. 

Mont. 
Wash. 
A. A. 
Fred. 



424 374 gig ff/////\ 



298 319 



ZZZ3 



Carroll 295 268 
Harford 248 266 



Dorch. 125 19?|f35Jg3z2 
Wicomico 217 i 96 g^^^f^ 

Garrett 178 176 ^^^ 

156 l^H5zzz3 

133 



Cecil 

Caroline 138 
Worcester 144 
Somerset 98 120 
Talbot 
Charles 
Kent 
Q. A. 



133 129 gg| 

88 



zzza 



Howard 84 
St. Mary's 65 
Calvert 46 



102 106 gjg, 

88 IQ6 lRz23 



Balto. 2?59 2865 1,494 
City 1,371 



78 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 52 



Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1937 



Year 


rJoys 


23 COUNTIES 

\JlTlS 


1 otal 


Baltimore 
City 


1919 


323 


681 


i r\c\A 


boo 


1920 


378 


1 14 


1 1 KC\ 

1 , lou 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1,528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 


1934 


2,220 


2,902 


5,122 


2,485 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


4,839 


2,469 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


5,322 


2,759 


1937 


2,361 


3,111 


5,472 


2,865 



PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION INCREASES 

If the number of graduates in 1937 is compared with the first 
year enrollment of 1934, it is possible to obtain a rough estimate 
of persistence to high school graduation of those who were classi- 
fied as in the first year of high school in 1934. Although the first 
year enrollment includes repeaters of the preceding year, these 
are partially offset by the pupils who enter high school after the 
first year. 

TABLE 53 



Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 







Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 






Four Years Later 


Year 


First Year 










Enrollment 












Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6,772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 


1932 


9,662 


50.1 


42.1 


58.3 


1933 


10,548 


50.5 


42.6 


58.6 


1934 


10,629 


51.5 


44.7 


58.2 



White High School Graduates; Persistence to High School 79 
Graduation 



The average per cent of persistence to high school graduation 
in 1937 was 51.5, which included 44.7 for boys and 58.2 for girls. 
There was greater persistence than for 1937 for the boys who 
graduated in 1933 and 1934, and for the girls who graduated from 
1932 through 1936. (See Table 53.) 



CHART 13 



PER CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 
First Year 

County Enrollment Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 
1934 1937 ■■Boys I i Girls 



SSSJeSSe 10,689 81.6 gg 



Montgomery 
Charles 
Kent 
Calvert 
Caroline 
Garrett 
Dorcnester 
Talbot 
Harford 



577 70.4 
160 68.8 



164 64.8 



78 61.5 



257 60.7 



ft fa 2. 

299 58.9 



336 58.6fBC 

226 57.1 u 

468 56.8pSj 

Queen Anne's 193 54.9^ 

Carroll 489 54. 

Anne Arundel 692 54.0^ 

Washington 737 52.5^pjf 

Pr. George's 802 52.4^ 

Worcester 266 5Q.offljj 

645 49. 5P?| 



Frederick 
Allegany 
Somerset 
Howard 



1,100 48. 7ga 
267 44.9 



186 44.lgg 
Baltimore 1,675 43.3 
St. Mary's 123 41.5 



Cecil 
Wicomico 



392 41.1H5? 
497 39.4 






80 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For the counties, the per cent of persistence in 1937 varied 
from 39.4 to 70.4, thirteen of the counties showing gains over 1936 
persistence. In every county except one, persistence was greater 
for girls than for boys. For boys the range in per cent of per- 
sistence was from 31.3 to 70.4, and for girls from 44.5 to 76.5. 
(See Chart 13.) 

FEWER GIRLS ENTER STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES IN 1937 

CHART 14 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS ENTERING MARYLAND 
TEACHERS COLLEGES THE FALL FOLLOWING GRADUATION 



County 



County 
Average 



Number 
1935 1936 1937 



93 131 118 



Wicomico 
Allegany 
Kent 
Caroline 
Worcester 
Cecil 
Garrett 
Charles 
Frederick 
Harford 
Carroll 
Talbot 
Washington 
Queen Anne's 3 
Baltimore 14 
Anne Arundel - 
Howard 1 
Pr. George's - 
Montgomery 1 
Calvert 
Dorchester 5 
St. Mary's 2 
Somerset 3 



19 
12 
5 
10 
4 
2 
4 
1 
2 



10 
1 

S3 
2 




State 



3 




12.5 


2 




2.5 


1 




2.5 


5 




8.9 


96 


72 


. - E 


227 


190 


5.1|| 




1937 High School Graduates Entering State Teachers 81 
Colleges 

The 118 girl graduates of 1937 who entered the State Teachers 
Colleges at Towson, Frostburg, and Salisbury in the fall of 1937 
were 13 fewer than for the preceding year. They represented 3.8 
per cent of the girls who graduated in 1937 as against 4.3 per cent 
for 1936. The entrants to the State Teachers Colleges in 1937 
ranged from none in four counties to 22 and 17 from the 
counties in which Frostburg and Salisbury are located. Nine 
counties sent fewer girl graduates of 1937 to the State Teachers 
Colleges than they did of the 1936 graduates. From Baltimore 
City public high schools 72 girl graduates of 1937 went to Towson 
compared with 96 the year preceding. (See Chart 14.) 

The girl graduates of 1937 who entered the State Teachers 
Colleges included from to 14.9 per cent of the total number of 
the graduates from individual counties and 5.3 per cent of those 
from Baltimore City, making the State average 4.2 per cent. (See 
Chart 14.) 

Corresponding data for boys indicated 52 entrants to the State 
Teachers Colleges in 1937 from thirteen counties and 17 from 
Baltimore City, compared with 48 and 21 for the preceding year. 
As with the girls, the largest number of county boys who entered 
came from the counties in which the State Teachers Colleges at 
Salisbury and Frostburg are located. (See Table 54.) 

TABLE 54 



Bov Graduates from White Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
State Teachers Colleges, 1937 



County 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


County 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 








Caroline 


60 


2 


3.3 


Average 


2,361 


52 


2.2 


Harford 


105 


2 


1.9 










63 


1 


1.6 


Wicomico 


82 


15 


18.3 


Baltimore 


302 


4 


1.3 


Somerset 


49 


4 


8.2 


Anne Arundel .... 


159 


2 


1.3 


Charles 


46 


3 


6.5 


Prince George's . . 


182 


1 


. 5 




65 


4 


6.2 








Queen Anne's. . . . 


37 


2 


5.4 


Baltimore City. . . 


1,494 


17 


1.1 


Talbot 


42 


2 


4.8 










Allegany 


264 


10 


3.8 


Entire State 


3,855 


69 


1.8 







OCCUPATIONS IN 1936-37 OF 1936 WHITE GRADUATES 
OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

The discussion on the preceding pages was concerned with 
graduates of 1937. The check Mp of the 2,283 white boys and 
3,039 girls who graduated from Maryland county public high 
schools in 1936 to show their occupations in 1936-37 indicated that 
a larger number of boys than was ever previously reported were 



82 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



continuing their education beyond high school and for girls the 
number pursuing higher educatian in 1936-37 was exceeded in 
only 1929 and 1930. Of the white county boy graduates in 1936 
there were 613 studying in colleges and universities, commercial 
and vocational schools, college preparatory schools, high schools 
taking post graduate courses, art and music schools, and military 
and naval academies. The 980 girls continuing their education 
were in colleges, special schools for training in physical education, 
home economics, kindergarten teaching, commercial and voca- 
tional schools, hospitals for training as nurses, post graduate high 
school courses, college preparatory, and art and music schools. 
(See Tables 55 and 56.) 

TABLE 55 



Occupations of 1936 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 
High Schools in 1936-37 





Number 


Per Cent 


Occupations 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Continuing Education 


613 


980 


26.9 


32.3 


Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities 


311 


319 


13.6 


10.5 


State Teachers Colleges 


47 


134 


2.1 


4.4 


Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, Agriculture and Ministry . 


13 


2 


.6 


.1 




23 




1.0 




Physical Education, Home Economics, and Kindergarten Train- 














18 




.6 


Army and Navy Academies 


' ' 2 




' '.i 






133 


320 


5.8 


i6!5 


College Preparatory Schools 


61 


20 


2.7 


.7 




16 


30 


.7 


1.0 




7 


9 


.3 


.3 


Hospitals for Training 




128 




4.2 


Staying at Home 


t 93 


438 


4.1 


14.4 


Working in Own or Others' Homes 


151 


397 


6.6 


13.0 






201 




6.6 


Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, Business 


303 


310 


13.3 


10.2 


Manufacturing, Mechanical, Building, Mining 


348 


128 


15.2 


4.2 


Farming, Fishing, Forestry, C. C. C 


278 




12.2 






129 


326 


5.6 


ioli 


Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 


102 


4.5 


Communication, Newspaper, Telephone and Telegraph Operators. 


21 


' 42 


.9 


1A 




41 




1.8 








15 




' ' .5 




' ' 6 


6 


' ' .3 


.2 


Died 


8 


2 


.3 


.1 


Miscellaneous and Unknown 


190 


194 


8.3 


6.4 


Total 


2,283 


3,039 


100.0 


100.0 



Since the total number of high school graduates has been 
increasing while the number continuing their education beyond 
high school graduation has been relatively stationary, the per cent 
continuing their education showed a gradual decrease from 1926 
to 1933, but from 1933 to 1936 has shown slight gains. There 
were 49 per cent of the white boys and 54 per cent of the white 



Occupations in 1936-37 of White High School Graduates 83 

of 1936 

girls who graduated in 1926 who followed their high school course 
with further study. Corresponding percentages in 1933 dropped 
to 22 for boys and 25 for girls. Since 1933 these figures have 
increased so that the percentages of 1936 graduates going on for 
further study in 1936-37 reached 27 for boys and 32 for girls. (See 
Tables 55 and 56.) 

TABLE 56 



Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year Following 
Graduation, 1926 to 1936 



Graduates 
of 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


Number 


Per Cent 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21.2 


46.4 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


498 


800 


367 


1,172 


24.3 


28.7 


17.9 


42.0 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


613 


980 


244 


1,036 


26.9 


32.3 


10.7 


34.0 



On the other hand, the number of county boy graduates staying 
or working at home the year following their graduation showed 
rather consistent gains from 1926, when there were 88, to 1932, 
when the number was 495, but since this peak there has been a 
decline in number to 244. The number of white county girl grad- 
uates staying or working at home or married increased from 323 
in 1926 to 1,453 in 1933, since which time there has been a drop to 
1,036 for the 1936 graduates. (See Tables 55 and 56.) 

The proportion of white county boy graduates staying or work- 
ing at home increased from 8.5 per cent for the 1926 graduates 
to 27.9 per cent for those who completed their high school work 
in 1932, and then declined to 10.7 for 1936 graduates. For girls 
married, and working or staying at home the proportion showed 
gains from 20.5 for graduates of 1926 to 51.8 for those who com- 
pleted high school work in 1933, since which year there has been 
a decrease to 34 per cent for the girl graduates of 1936. (See 
Tables 55 and 56.) 

The occupations of 929 boys or over 40 per cent were in busi- 
ness, manufacturing, mechanical, building and mining industries, 
farming, fishing, forestry, and CCC camps. For the girls 764 or 
over 25 per cent were in office work, business, and factories. (See 
Table 55.) 



84 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The high school courses in agriculture, industrial arts, trades 
and industry for the boys and of homemaking for girls meet the 
needs of the large group of boy and girl graduates who are finding 
their vocations at home or on the farm. Many of these boys and 
girls formerly did not go to high school, but if they did go, they 
did not complete the course, because they had no interest in the 
college preparatory work which was the chief offering available. 
Now, these high school pupils are finding the advantages and 
benefits of the newer courses in preparing them for the fields of 
work in which they are interested and will spend their after-school 
life. 

The occupations of 1936 graduates in 1936-37 varied consider- 
ably among the counties. For example, in one county only 8 per 
cent of the boys continued studying, while in two other counties 
42 and 44 per cent of the boys continued their education. For 
girls the extremes were 14 and 72 per cent. The availability of 
institutions of higher education in close proximity to the home of 
the graduate, financial status, faith in the availability of better 
positions for those with more training, interest in further edu- 
cation fostered by teachers, parents and friends, and lack of avail- 
able positions all probably were factors in determining whether 
graduates continued their education beyond high school gradu- 
ation. (See columns 3 to 11 in Table 57.) 

At one extreme as few as 2 per cent of the boys and 3 per cent of 
the girls from one county and at the other extreme as many as 33 
per cent of the boys and 25 per cent of the girls went to liberal arts 
colleges and universities. Teachers colleges and schools for 
teacher training shown separately had no entrants from one coun- 
ty and as many as 17 per cent of the boys and 13 per cent of 
the girls from another county in which a teachers college was 
located. Two per cent of the boys and girls from one county went 
to commercial and vocational schools compared with 14 per cent 
of the boys and 33 per cent of the girls from another county which 
offered no comercial work in its public high schools. From two 
counties no girls entered training for the career of nursing, while 
from another county 13 per cent entered hospitals for training. 
In two counties no graduates returned for post graduate high 
school work or attended college preparatory schools, but in two 
counties as many as 7 per cent of the boys and in two others as 
many as 9 per cent of the girls continued study in this form. (See 
Table 57.) 

The 1936 graduates staying or working at home or working in 
the homes of others, including married girls, varied from for 
boys in two counties to 33 per cent in one county and for girls 
from 16 per cent to 72 per cent. (See Table 57.) 



Occupations in 1936-37 of White High School Graduates 85 

of 1936 



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Occupations in 1936-37 of White High School Graduates 87 

of 1936 

The per cent of boy graduates engaged as clerks in stores or as 
salesmen ranged from 4 to 24 per cent in individual counties, 
while corresponding extreme percentages for girls were 2 and 16. 
The minimum and maximum percentages for boys engaged in 
manufacturing, mechanical, mining and building trades were 
in one county and 41 per cent in another having the largest indus- 
trial center for the counties. No girls were reported in factory 
work in six counties, while in the county showing the highest 
proportion there were 15 per cent. The extremes for boys work- 
ing at farming, fishing, forestry, or in CCC camps were 3 and 30. 
Office work and the telephone and telegraph business became the 
work of no boy graduates in one county and 18 per cent in another, 
while the corresponding extremes for girls were 1 and 26 per cent. 
The business of transportation including work on railroads and 
acting as chauffeurs attracted no boys from five counties and 11 
per cent from one county. (See Table 57.) 

The high school principals of two counties reported the occupa- 
tions of every one of their white boys who graduated in 1936, 
while at the other extreme one county reported the occupations 
of 26 per cent as "other or unknown." Four counties reported 
the occupations of every 1936 girl graduate, but in one county 
the occupations of 21 per cent of the girls were reported as "other 
or unknown." (See Table 57.) 

A number of high school principals and teachers have been 
making followup studies of their graduates and withdrawals over 
a period of five, ten, and even fifteen years, in order that data 
may be secured which will make it possible to adjust the curricu- 
lum more closely to the needs of pupils and also to secure informa- 
tion which will make vocational guidance more helpful. 

Maryland Colleges Attended by 1936 Graduates 

The 1936 graduates attended Maryland institutions of higher 
education in 1936-37 in greatest numbers if they were located in 
the county of or adjacent to that of the residence of the gradu- 
ates. The only exception to this is the large enrollment at the 
University of Maryland from Baltimore County. (See Table 58.) 

ENROLLMENT OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 

BY YEAR 

The white high school enrollment during the period from 1925 
to 1937 increased 66 per cent for the first-year pupils, 100 per 
cent for the second-year pupils, 127 per cent for the third- 
year pupils, and 108 per cent for fourth-year pupils, compared 
with an average increase of 94 per cent in all four years. Another 
way of showing change in distribution of enrollment in the four 



88 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

years is a comparison of the per cent classified as first- and fourth- 
year pupils in 1925 and 1937. In 1925, 39.3 per cent of the white 
high school pupils were classified with the first-year group and 
15.8 per cent with the fourth-year, while in 1937 corresponding 
figures were 33.8 and 17 per cent, respectively. (See Table 59.) 

TABLE 59 



Enrollment in Each Year of Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools, by Year, 1925-1937 



Year 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Post- 
Graduates 


Total 


1925 


6,772 


4,453 


3,281 


2,732 




17,238 


1926 


7,558 


4,777 


3,610 


2,748 




18,693 


1927 


7,871 


5,363 


3,856 


3,067 




20,157 


1928 


8,487 


5,636 


4,257 


3,178 




21,558 


1929 


8,587 


6,100 


4,694 


3,612 




22,993 


1930 


9,038 


6,292 


5,080 


3,981 


' 26 


24,417 


1931 


9,777 


6,969 


5,490 


4,338 


21 


26,595 


1932 


9,662 


7,636 


6,070 


4,646 


153 


28,167 


1933 


10,548 


7,658 


6,720 


5,207 


169 


30,302 


1934 


10,629 


8,016 


6,381 


5,404 


91 


30,521 


1935 


11,072 


8,162 


6,731 


5,110 


153 


31,228 


1936 


11,267 


8,749 


6,927 


5,526 


127 


32,596 


1937 


11,267 


8,907 


7,456 


5,675 


93 


33,398 



The increase in second-, third-, and fourth-year enrollment in- 
dicates in part greater holding power of the high schools due to 
introduction of courses meeting the needs of pupils who formerly 
dropped out, and better adaptation of instruction in academic 
subjects to the various levels of ability now in high school, as 
well as the lack of opportunity for employment of youth due to 
the depression and the higher educational requirements demand- 
ed of prospective employees. (See Table 59.) 

WHAT WHITE BOYS AND GIRLS STUDY IN 
COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were increases from 1936 to 1937 in the number of white 
county high school boys and girls taking the academic subjects 
— English, social studies, and Latin, and in boys taking science. 
Mathematics and French for both boys and girls, and science for 
girls showed a decrease in enrollment. (See Table 60.) 

Since English is a required subject for four years, all pupils, 
except post graduates and irregulars, were enrolled. Of the 
33,745 white county boys and girls who took high school English 
in 1936-37, 33 per cent were taking first-year work, 27 per cent 
second-year, 22 per cent third-year, and 18 per cent fourth-year 
work. The per cent of boys enrolled in the first- and second-year 
work was 4 points higher than that of girls, indicating greater 
persistence of girls in completing the work of the later years. 
(See Tables 60 and 61.) 



White High School Enrollment by Year and Subject 89 
TABLE 60 



Distribution of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools by Subjects Taken for Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Subject 


Number Enrolled 


Per Cent 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
Offering 
Subject 


Per Cent of 
Total Enroll- 
ment Enrolled 
in Schools 

Which Offer 
Each Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


_ , 


1 ^ 1P.7 
10 , /Oi 


1 7 

1 1 , Dol 






1 AS 




„ ... 


15,680 


17,521 


99.4 


99.4 


Ho 


LVU . u 




13,307 


14,804 


84.4 


84.0 


IAS 
LIB 


100 . 


Science 


11,549 


11,643 


73.2 


66.0 


148 


100.0 


Mathematics 


11,297 


10,985 


71.6 


62.3 


148 


100.0 


Latin 


2,141 


3,218 


13.6 


18.3 


88 


81.6 




1,589 


2,617 


10.1 


14.8 


115 


90.1 




36 


29 


.2 


.2 


1 


2.8 




10 


3 


.1 




1 


1.7 




7.996 


14 


50.7 


' ' !i 


81 


83.0 


General Ind. Arts 


7.475 


14 


47.4 


.1 


80 


79.8 




521 




3.3 




9 


15.0 




5 


9^503 




53^9 


117 


89.9 


General 


5 


8,179 




46.4 


92 


80.7 






1,324 




7.5 


39 


25.5 


Agriculture 


1^643 


1 


io'.i 




48 


27.6 




4.112 


5,807 


26.1 


32^9 


68 


81.2 




5,483 


5,276 


34.8 


29.9 


40 


52.3 


Music 


7,579 


9,422 


48.1 


53.4 


112 


88.2 


Art 


535 


594 


3.4 


3.4 


11 


17.0 



TABLE 61 



County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 
English Taken in 1936-37 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


I 


11 .072 


5,536 


5,536 


32.8 


34.6 


31.2 


II 


9,060 


4,343 


4,717 


26.9 


27.1 


26.6 


Ill 


7,568 


3,459 


4.109 


22.4 


21.6 


23.2 


IV 


6.045 


2.671 


3,374 


17.9 


16.7 


19.0 


Total 


33,745 


16.009 


17,736 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



Social studies were studied in 1936-37 by 84 per cent of the 
enrollment. During the four-year course at least two units of 
social studies, one of w r hich must be United States History, must 
be taken, but most pupils take three units and a considerable 
number four years in the fields of history, civics, and economics. 
There is a general trend toward greater election of the social 
studies. (See Table 60 and top of Table 66, page 96.) 

Over 73 per cent of the boys and 66 per cent of the white county 
high school girls took work in science in 1936-37. Only one unit 



90 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of science is required, but most pupils take at least two, a con- 
siderable number three, and a number four units in science during 
the four-year course. There is a general trend toward more elec- 
tion of science in county high schools. (See Table 60 and top 
left of Table 67, page 97.) 

Nearly 72 per cent of the boys and 62 per cent of the girls took 
mathematics in 1936-37. During the four-year course only one 
unit of mathematics is required, but most pupils take two; a 
number, especially boys, take three ; and a few, chiefly boys, take 
four years of work in mathematics. The per cent of the enroll- 
ment taking mathematics was 4 points lower in 1937 than it was 
in 1931. (See Table 60 and top right of Table 67, page 97.) 

The Number Studying Foreign Languages Shows Little Change 

In 1937 Latin was taught in county high schools enrolling 82 
per cent of the county white high school pupils. Although the 
total white county high school enrollment has almost doubled, 
the number of pupils taking Latin has not shown great variation 
during the period from 1925 to 1937. The number of pupils en- 
rolled for Latin in 1925, 5,409, increased to 6,242 in 1932, but 
dropped again to 5,359 in 1937. This would seem to indicate that 
there is a relatively stable number of boys and girls who continue 
to study Latin, because of the traditional values attributed to it 
or because it is the only foreign language offered in certain 
smaller high schools. The per cent of high school pupils taking 
Latin, however,, was 17 per cent, in 1937 compared with 31 per 
cent in 1925. (See Tables 60 and 62.) 

TABLE 62 



Enrollment in the Foreign Languages * for Years Ending June 30, 1925 to 1937 



Year ending June 30 


Latin 


French 


Spanish 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1925 


2,076 


3,333 


1,411 


2,306 


38 


39 


1926 


2,154 


3,497 


1,400 


2,428 


31 


29 


1927 


2,335 


3,535 


1,379 


2,532 


24 


17 


1928 


2,494 


3,510 


1,420 


2.690 


19 


10 


1929 


2,271 


3,475 


1,656 


2,751 


34 


26 


1930 


2,338 


3,446 


1,567 


2,713 


46 


57 


1931 


2,534 


3,684 


1,598 


2,786 


22 


13 


1932 


2,559 


3,683 


1,762 


2,967 


53 


26 


1933 


2,421 


3,713 


1,989 


3,237 


46 


26 


1934 


2,460 


3,746 


1,850 


3.149 


30 


28 


1935 


2,272 


3,409 


1.601 


2.966 


36 


52 


1936 


2,106 


3,208 


1,604 


2,872 


36 


48 


1937 


2,141 


3,218 


1 ,589 


2,617 


36 


29 



* Excludes 8 boys and 10 girls taking German in 1924-25 ; 6 boys and 2 girls in 1925-26 ; 
10 boys and 3 girls in 1936-37. 



White High School Enrollment by Subject 



91 



French which was offered in schools attended by 90 per cent 
of the 1937 enrollment shows trends similar to those for Latin. 
There were 3,717 white county pupils who took French in 1925. 
With fluctuations up and down, a peak enrollment of 5,226 was 
reached in 1933, while in 1937 there was a decline to 4,206, repre- 
senting 13 per cent of white county pupils in 1937 as against 22 
per cent in 1925. The proportion of girls taking Latin and French 
was approximately 5 per cent higher than that of boys taking 
these languages. (See Tables 60 and 62.) 

One county high school offered Spanish and one German. These 
two languages were taken by 78 county pupils in 1937. (See 
Tables 60 and 62.) 

Industrial Arts, Trade and Industrial Work, Agriculture. 
Home Economics Enrollment Increases 

There has been an almost steady increase in the number of 
white county boys enrolled in industrial arts and trade and in- 
dustrial work. In 1926 the number enrolled in shop work was 
4,256, when all boys in the larger county high schools had wood- 
work and mechanical drawing for two periods a week. In 1937 
the enrollment of 7,489 in industrial arts offered in 80 high schools 
included many boys who were at work in the general shop which 
provides experience with wood, sheet metal, electricity, cold 
metal, concrete and automobiles as media three, four, or five 
periods a week during the first and second years. Trade and in- 
dustrial work for ten periods a week was elected by 521 white 
county boys in 9 high schools in 1937, as compared with 69 in 
1929. Over one-half of the white county high school boys took 

TABLE 63 



Enrollment in Industrial Work, Agriculture and Home Economics for Years 
Ending June 30, 1925 to 1937, Inclusive 



Year Ending June 30 


Industrial Work 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 


Industrial 
Arts 


Vocational 
Industrial 


General 


Vocational 


1925 


4.333 




853 


6,258 


465 


1926 


4.256 




936 


6,595 


546 


1927 


4,905 




922 


7.304 


618 


1928 


5.349 




949 


7,798 


587 


1929 


5.534 


"69 


985 


8,085 


516 


1930 


5,721 


117 


933 


7,766 


497 


1931 


6,450 


225 


1,100 


7,753 


566 


1932 


6,043 


418 


1,264 


7.464 


770 


1933 


6,388 


520 


1 ,260 


7,827 


720 


1934 


6,536 


410 


1 .278 


7,908 


780 


1935 


6,873 


403 


1,389 


8,065 


1,040 


1936 


6.928 


772 


1.482 


8.259 


1,330 


1937 


7.489 


521 


1 ,644 


8.184 


1,324 



92 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



industrial arts or trade and industrial work, which were taught 
in 81 schools, enrolling 83 per cent of the county high school boys. 
(See Tables 60 and 63.) 

Boys in 48 county high schools, enrolling 28 per cent of the 
county pupils, could obtain instruction in agriculture. The 1937 
enrollment of 1,643 was nearly double that found in 1925 and in- 
cluded 10.4 per cent of all county white high school boys. (See 
Tables 60 and 63.) 

Girls in 117 high schools enrolling 90 per cent of all county 
high school pupils had a chance to take work in home economics, 
which includes not only cooking and sewing, but training in home- 
making. The girls develop appreciation of the necessary and 
important functions of a home, experience pleasure in perform- 
ing in the home tasks which promote the welfare of the family 
as a group or as individuals, study the contributions of science 
and art to homemaking, and learn self-development through at- 
tention to intimate personal and social problems. In 1925 in the 
larger county high schools 6,258 or 65 per cent of the girls en- 
rolled were taking general home economics for two periods a 
week during the entire four-year course. Under the present 
arrangement most of the high schools have required courses in 
the first and second years for five periods a week and elective 
courses in the last two years. The enrollment of 8,184 in 92 
schools in general home economics in 1937 therefore means that 
for the 46 per cent of the girls enrolled considerably more time 
and attention is given to the subject than was formerly the case. 
(See Tables 60 and 63.) 

The number of girls taking vocational home economics has in- 
creased from 465 in 1925 to 1,324 in 1937 enrolled in 39 schools. 
These enrollments represented 4.8 per cent of the total high 
school enrollment of girls in 1925 against 7.5 per cent in 1937. 
These girls are required to carry on and manage home projects 
in which the theory and practice of homemaking given in the ten 
school periods a week of homemaking and related art and science 
are applied and adapted to home conditions. (See Tables 60 and 
63.) 

More Pupils Taking Commercial Subjects 

Commercial subjects offered in 68 county high schools which 
enroll 81 per cent of all white county high school pupils were 
taken by 4,112 boys and 5,807 girls in 1937. They included 26 
per cent of all county white high school boys, and 33 per cent of 
the girls. Corresponding figures in 1931 showed an enrollment 
of 2,410 boys and 3,705 girls representing 19.5 and 26 per cent 
of the total number of boys and girls, respectively. (See Table 
68, page 99.) 



White High School Enrollment by Subject 



93 



Music, Art, and Physical Education 

Approximately one-half of all white county high school boys 
and girls had instruction in music, which was offered in 112 
schools enrolling 88 per cent of all high school pupils. The num- 
ber of boys enrolled for music increased from 7,119 in 1931 to 
7,579 in 1937, and the corresponding figures for girls were 8,645 
in 1931 and 9,422 in 1937. (See Table 60.) 

The enrollment in art, 535 boys and 594 girls, which represented 
only 3 per cent of the county white high school enrollment in 1937 
has fluctuated between 300 and 750 since 1931. A number of 
additional art teachers were appointed in the county high schools 
in September, 1937, which means that the opportunities for in- 
struction in this field have been increased. (See Table 60.) 

Opportunities for work in physical education were available to 
35 per cent of the boys and 30 per cent of the girls in county high 
schools, although instruction for credit is available in only 40 of 
the larger high schools, enrolling 52 per cent of the county high 
school pupils. The number of boys enrolled has increased from 
3,594 in 1931 to 5,483 in 1937, and the corresponding gain for 
girls has been from 3,614 to 5,276. With the appointment of a 
State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation on the 
staff of the State Department of Education, the opportunities in 
this field should soon show further gains. (See Table 60.) 

English Enrollment in Individual Counties by Year 

In two counties 28 per cent of the English enrollment was 
found in the first year, while in another county nearly 37 per 
cent of the high school English enrollment was taking first year 
work. The extremes were even greater for the county having 
the lowest and highest per cent in the fourth year work — 13.5 
and 24 per cent. (See Table 64.) 

Enrollment in Individual Counties in the Social Studies 

In the individual counties there was a range in the per cent of 
boys and girls taking the social studies from 68 and 69 per cent 
to 99 and 100 per cent. (See Table 65.) 

The enrollment taking European and United States history, 
economics, sociology, industrial history, and economic geography 
was larger in 1937 than in 1936. On the other hand, there were 
decreases in number enrolled for civics, world history, and prob- 
lems of democracy. The fluctuations evident in the yearly en- 
rollment taking world and European history are due in part to 
the different ways in which these courses have been designated 
by high school principals. In the last two years an attempt to 



94 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 64 



Per Cent of County Enrollment Taking English in Each Year of High School, 

1936-37 





Number 


Per Cent Enrolled 


in English in Years 


County 


Enrolled 
in 
















English 


I 


II 


III 


IV 




33 , 745 


32.8 


26 


9 


22 


4 


17.9 


All 


O j ( ID 


32.2 


27 


2 


23 


6 


17.0 






29.8 


29 


6 


22 





18.6 




4 , ooo 


34.1 


27 


1 


21 


9 


16.9 




249 


33.7 


22 


1 


24 


5 


19.7 




700 


31.7 


23 


7 


21 


7 


22.9 


Carroll 


1 , 040 


31.3 


27 


8 


22 


6 


18.3 


Cecil 


1 1 Oft 


34.8 


26 


5 


24 


4 


14.3 


Charles 


517 


31.7 


24 





23 





21.3 


Dorchester 


979 


28.3 


25 


1 


22 


9 


23.7 


Frederick 


2,265 


36.8 


28 


1 


20 


1 


15.0 


Garrett 


1 ,048 


34.8 


27 


6 


20 





17.6 


Harford 


1,517 


34.2 


25 





22 


3 


18.5 


Howard 


625 


33.4 


27 


5 


25 


6 


13.5 


Kent 


543 


29.1 


25 


1 


21 


7 


24.1 


Montgomery 


2,540 


29.9 


27 





23 


2 


19.9 




2,763 


35.3 


27 


1 


20 


8 


16.8 


Queen Anne's 


505 


30.5 


23 


6 


24 


1 


21.8 


St. Mary's 


354 


33.9 


28 


5 


22 


3 


15.3 




719 


33.5 


28 


3 


21 


4 


16.8 


Talbot 


658 


28.3 


25.2 


25 


5 


21.0 




2,418 


33.9 


26 


8 


22 


5 


16.8 




1,200 


31.6 


25.0 


24 


4 


19.0 


Worcester 


771 


32.1 


25 


7 


22 


6 


19.6 



standardize this nomenclature has been made. For United States 
history and problems of democracy, the fluctuations in enroll- 
ment from year to year are due in part to the practice of small 
schools in offering each of these subjects every other year; and 
also to the fact that in some high scliools preparing pupils for 
college courses in sociology, economic geography, and economics 
are offered in place of courses with somewhat similar subject 
matter designated problems of democracy. (See Table 66.) 

Courses in Science in Individual Counties 

Science courses were reported as taken by as few as 59 per cent 
in one county and as many as 88 per cent of the white high school 
boys in another county. Corresponding extremes for girls were 
54 and 86 per cent. (See Table 65.) 

The enrollment in biology and chemistry increased in 1937 over 
1936, while that in general science and physics decreased. Four 
counties showed no enrollment for physics. One of these coun- 
ties offers physics in alternate years only. (See Table 67.) 



White High School Enrollment by Subject 



95 



o 

o 
°3 

3 

s 


Girls 


co co wt-^ • m tp -mcc- xmc~t- — x -co >ONVO 
co m m m to -to oi -TpTPtctot-xcoccTp -co ■t-eucic 

0» 


Boys 


Ci OC iflOt- ■ O to •if5C>mi , Mt~M>iC ■ Tp • in m CO CO 
t- Tf tp to m ■ tP X C0C0i-OtOC~[~CC— tp • tP ■ tO lO l-O lO 

in 
t> 


Physical 
Education 


Girls 


to o t-oiioTj" -to • -tocoo ■ so -oo • • • • — eo • 

CO 

la 


Boys 


CO UO Tf TfMrf -SO • • SO TP — -CO • X C7i ■ • • • IC i— • 
X CO lOPqOSi-H -rH • •CCCCtH -CO • LQ CO • • . ■ CO- 
tP_ 

lO 


Commer- 
cial 
Subjects 


Girls 


t- CO CO tp — •C!(OHHMMt-C!M-*'*iOifiWOTfiCOt> 
O CO tP CO CO -CC^N-f — — CO CO CO CO — TP m in CO CO 
00 

in 


Boys 


co so co w so •05Cooc--H«£>iccoco<-iiocoTrxoa5Coooo5 
— co t co • — so co co tp — — — co co co co co co — — — oi 


Voca- 
tional 
Agri- 
cul- 
ture 


Boys 


tp o mcotct- — tp • tp co <Ji co oo x ■ co tp m -co -cotptp 
tp — mco .^-, rt ^rtN ■ ih co -co • — ih 
so 


Home 
Economics 


Voca- 
tional 


Girls 


Tp 00 SCtP -tPCOtP -t> • -thXtP ■ CO X CO • • -in • ■ 
CO -Tf r-l • CO -i-Hi-HCO 

co_ 


Gen- 
eral 


Girls 


tp so o-^o • © tp co co <js tp t> co -XTPOico -oxai-vco 
x tp Tpmco • in c- x tp co uo co cccococo mccccccto 

X* 


Industrial 


Voca- 
tional 
In- 
dus- 
trial 


Boys 


tH CO W ■ • • -iH • • ■ ■ SO t> -CO 

CO • • ■ -i-l • • 

UO 


In- 
dus- 
trial 
Arts 


Boys 


as c- x as c- -loOrHinwoTUNOtct-io ■ k c t >a 
x tp tp w to • so t> x tp co co — m co i> co tp co • co tp co co m 
tp 

t> 


French 


Girls 


Oi in Ht»COO^OOQOOH(OOOXC!»OClt-NNC:K!CN 
— — — — — — — CO Tf — — CO 

CO * H— 

• 


Boys 


m o t- 1- x as — wowt-ot»H © © so — co c- as tp so co as 
to ' * H— 

* 


Latin 


Girls 


X X TP©C0CO — mcoma:COC-int>©©CCCO©i-OasinsOCO 
— — CO CO CO CO CO — CO — — CO — — — — — O] — CO 
CO 
CO 


Boys 


— tp SO SO C~ tp © tp — — X — Tp©iOi.0XC0X©C0t-C-CCC0 

co" 


Mathe- 
matics 


Girls 


iO CO fflSMSiOt-BMNKnTffCMK-O^^^iaNtO 

x to m i> t- « lo t- rt l-: (£ tc tt «: f •>£: x c r: ^ i- v: 

OS__ 

© 


Boys 


t- co coTPTPinTpmin©so©asco©co — x — co so co x t« so 
CO 


Science 


Girls 


co so co co to Tp — co to tp o as tp t~ x o t- — m © to co co co 
to to to to x m t- x to c- to m t> t- to to »-o c- c- to to t> t> 

5 


Boys 


as co — as t- t- m — xcsxcsmcoTpinxTr x co © © x as x 
tp t> t- 1- 1- 1> to x x c- to m to x t- 1- to c- to t- t- 1- co c- 1- 


Social 
Studies 


Girls 


tp Tp cocoxoxminc-ocTsto- x so co c- as — qq as c oi >o 

O X XXt-OXXCTJXOSXXOSlQXXXCOt-t-XCrsXE- 
0C iH 


Boys 


t- tp xxxa. inLO — Tpsoasa. a5ccTPwasxso©coasas© 
e x t^xt^a. xxa. xxxxxxxxx'-oxxa. xt~x 
eo 
co" 



c 



o 



mocootot- — t~Tptom — — — x — to — corrrcrrr: 
mt- — toxTpcox— c-t-OT*x — cot-c-o — x — — . 
x — i tp — co x to co i-o — m x co co co — ci co — rr oi (C W 



— co x to o co Tp in co t— co o xt^-xcoocoint^- — 
t~ ai t- x o o: — — tp c- o x m a. co co in co oj co t- x 
t~oco cotoincoTpOTPc^coco — coco — coco — mco 



i 



3 g 



*3 3 

O O 



Si* | E- 



i "i o 
CMC 



cs £ - 

3N 

K X r- 



.- g s 

in 



96 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 66 



Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County 
White High Schools, by Years, 1931 to 1937, and by County, 1937 









European 


















>> 


History 




QQ 










Year 















>> 
«_ 

O 






>> 


and 




.22 














ED 
V 


v a- 


County 


vies 


orld B 


>> 


odern 


dustri: 
Histor 


lited S 
Histor 


oblem; 
Demo< 


ciolog: 


onomi 


onomi 
Seogn 




O 


> 


W 




c 




u 





H 



W 


1930-31 


3,379 


3,090 


3 470 


3,434 


796 


5,359 


3,109 




79 




1931-32 


3,636 


4,137 


3 521 


3,475 


282 


5,981 


3,094 




436 




1932-33 


4,009 


4,135 


3 529 


4,037 




6,790 


3,741 




338 




1933-34 


4,175 


3,998 


4 218 


4,204 




6,102 


4,108 




450 




1934-35 


4,022 


4,607 


3 420 


3,923 




7,002 


3,454 




490 


'574 


1935-36 


4,747 


5,373 


3 019 


3,849 


"75 


6,668 


3,998 




445 


868 


1936-37 


3 969 


4 265 






1 7n 

1 (U 


7 , 170 


Q ISO 

, loU 


QQQ 


957 


953 


Allegany 


575 


338 


155 


462 




890 


358 




194 


40 


Anne Arundel . . 


247 


331 


330 


209 




523 


248 






16 


Baltimore 


290 


667 


800 


972 




735 


312 




35 




Calvert 


19 




73 


45 




51 


45 


"i7 


17 


' 29 


Caroline 


190 


" 88 




57 




138 


140 






42 


Carroll 




32 


'475 


399 




370 


206 




118 




Cecil 


285 


159 


88 


131 




266 


141 






' 35 


Charles 


59 


56 


128 


58 




123 


72 


23 


23 


42 


Dorchester. . . . 


271 


98 


22 


41 




249 


122 






84 


Frederick 


43 


843 


253 


198 




445 


221 




' 20 




Garrett 


119 


265 


120 


24 




229 


128 


' 34 


34 


' 22 


Harford 


257 


105 


151 


187 




343 


125 


84 


109 


93 


Howard 






111 


117 




158 


25 


30 


30 




Kent 


117 


127 




29 




133 


29 




32 


' 29 


Montgomery . . . 


335 


241 


359 


316 


"l6 


558 


109 


' 76 


71 


49 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 


420 


293 


445 


305 


90 


567 


233 


18 


39 


191 


72 


83 




18 




104 


92 






30 


St. Mary's 


71 


37 


' 24 






78 


35 


' 17 


16 


20 


Somerset 


188 


25 


30 


' 65 




155 


107 




43 


31 


Talbot 


38 


126 


105 


76 




178 


103 






91 


Washington .... 




50 


723 


498 


' 70 


557 


281 






43 


Wicomico 


221 


187 


241 


50 




118 




' 71 


148 


66 


Worcester 


152 


114 




70 




202 


' 48 


28 


28 





c 

Mathematics Courses in Individual Counties 



As few as 50 per cent of the white high school boys in one 
county took mathematics as against 85 per cent in another county, 
and the corresponding minimum and maximum for girls were 37 
and 84 per cent. (See Table 65.) 

Of all of the courses offered in mathematics all showed a de- 
crease in enrollment from 1936 to 1937, except general mathe- 
matics, which continued the growth which has been evident each 
year since 1931. (See Table 67.) 

For the various offerings in mathematics in individual counties, 
see the lower part of Table 66. There was only one county in 
which instruction in general mathematics was not given. (See 
Table 67.) 



White County Enrollment Taking Social Studies, Science 
and Mathematics 



I 



II 

si! 



— ^ 

* sS 
11 



j« 



II 



ill 



J! 



4 



i! 



I 



1= 



li 



f 



:5S S : :5 : : : :8 :8S : 



S S ::::::: i 2 " : : : : : 



8SESSSS Sss«3ssesgssss|ssssiisgs 



1152111 E33n98S3&3S2&a322S33 



an J iip 



::::::: ::::•: : 

nil 



98 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The Foreign Languages by Counties 

In one county only one per cent of the boys and two per cent 
of the high school girls had instruction in Latin, while in another 
county 20 per cent of the boys and 40 per cent of the girls took 
Latin. (See Table 65.) 

As few as 4 per cent of the boys and 9 per cent of the girls took 
French in one county, and as many as 32 per cent of the boys and 
47 per cent of the girls in another county. (See Table 65.) 

One county high school gave instruction in Latin, French, 
and Spanish, another in Latin, French, and German, 67 in Latin 
and French, 19 in Latin only, 46 in French only, leaving 7 regular 
and 6 junior high schools without instruction in a foreign lan- 
guage. (See Table 60, page 89, and Table XXIX, pages 316 to 321.) 

Industrial Arts, Agriculture, and Home Economics 

There was only one county in the State in which there was no 
instruction for white high school pupils in either industrial arts 
or agriculture in 1936-37. Another county offered instruction in 
agriculture, but not in industrial arts. In the 21 counties in which 
industrial arts were taught the per cent taking it varied from 14 
to 81 per cent. In addition to industrial arts, seven counties of- 
fered trade and industrial training to boys living near the larger 
industrial centers of the State. The per cent of all boys receiving 
this training in each of the seven counties varied from 1 to 13. 
(See Table 65.) 

There were only four counties in which no high school for white 
boys gave instruction in vocational agriculture. In the nineteen 
counties in which agriculture was taught to white boys, the per 
cent of all county boys taking the subject ranged between 3 and 
57. (See Table 65.) 

Only one county in 1936-37 had no instruction in general or 
vocational home economics, but this county added the subject to 
its curriculum in the fall of 1937. The per cent of county girls 
receiving instruction in home economics varied from 34 to 78. 
In two of the thirteen counties offering vocational home economics 
no general home economics was offered. The vocational course 
involves the carrying on of home projects. (See Table 65.) 

For individual schools the above data may be found in Table 
XXIX, pages 316 to 321. 

Offerings in Commercial Work 

Every county except three offered commercial subjects to 
junior and senior high school pupils in one or more of its high 
schools for white pupils. The three exceptions did offer work in 
commercial arithmetic or junior business training, but this was 
entirely non-vocational. The per cent of the county enrollment 
taking commercial work varied from a minimum of 4 and 5 per 
cent in one county which offered commercial work in junior busi- 



White County Enrollment in Latin, French, Practical 
Arts and Commercial Work 



99 



3 

O 

U 

>. 
si 



.a 



7T co 

Sis 



6 

>. 
u 



.2* 



CP 
Oh 



£ M 

Jo 



Ml 

4) 
73 



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rH rH rH Tf CO CM 



co co ■<* h oo oo t- c~c-oo 

OCOC-OOOOSCO rHCOOS 

HHHHC1 



© CM t- CO CM OS CO rH 
t}< m CO CO IN CM lO CM 



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•CM rH CM 



oo co co os h co os no 

OOOrfMOC-Oi CM 
r)i !fl w h h ^ CM 



t- CM rH -if O CM -tfCO'tf 
CO 00 iO CM CO 00 CO rH CM 
MWt-t-HHH CM i-l CM 



[- CM -rHCO • Tjl CM CO CO M< CO 

COCO -CMCO -CMCMCM rH t- JO 



to os co io cm co co ujino 
co o cm co us oo n< t~©oo 
t- io co co os c- oo CM— I 



c-co ■ c- oo • co tj* o oo os oo 

■ CM -tf • -jf • eO_-r- CM CM ^°_«M 



-<* 00 t- CM iH lO -n< COCMt- 
OS rH t~ OS -<3< C- ©©CM 
OOOOOt-t-00 00 COCMrH 



NiONOHOH 00O— I 
CO CM OS —I rH OS O COCMCM 
rH CM "3< CO CM CM CM CM rH 



co o co oo oo oo cooocm 

CM t> O OS rf OS CM ■«* CO fc- 
CM CO lO lO C- O ■"*< CM ^ 



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■x--ieoi>coioiococoTi<oooo 

CM HH H CM CO 



CM CM CM CM CM CO CO 



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70441 



100 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ness training and commercial arithmetic, to a maximum of 62 
and 66 per cent for boys and girls respectively in a county which 
made available instruction in the entire offering of commercial 
subjects, except salesmanship. (See Table 65.) 

Formerly most of the commercial work was limited to ste- 
nography, typewriting, and bookkeeping offered in the last two 
years of the high school course. The number of boys taking 
stenography and of boys and girls taking bookkeeping has shown 
little change from 1931 to 1937. There have been increases in 
the number of girls taking stenography, in boys and girls taking 
typing, junior business training, commercial geography, office 
practice, salesmanship, and commercial law, which latter subjects 
have recently been added to the commercial course. (See Table 
68.) 

Junior business training was taught in all except three of the 
counties which had instruction in commercial courses. Commer- 
cial geography was taught in eleven counties, but perhaps it 
should be considered in connection with economic geography re- 
ported as one of the social studies and taught in all except five 
counties. (See Tables 68, 66, and 67.) 

Office practice was taught in seven counties, commercial law 
in three, salesmanship in one, and non-vocational typing II for 
pupils below the junior year in one county. (See Table 68.) 

Physical Education and Music 

Baltimore County offered the most extensive opportunities for 
physical education through the employment of trained leaders 
on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. Over 96 per cent 
of the boys and girls in this county were enrolled in physical edu- 
cation classes. It was taught as a regular part of the curriculum 
in 12 other counties, although fewer than 20 per cent of the 
pupils in five counties benefited by this instructiop. (See Table 
65, page 95.) 

Music was taught on a credit basis in one or more 'high schools 
of all except four counties. Over 90 per cent of the pupils in one 
county and over 82 per cent in another, which have each of its mu- 
sic teachers who teaches no other subject give instruction in two 
high schools, received instruction in music. In another county 
in which high school music was on a purely elective basis only 24 
per cent of the pupils took the subject. (See Table 65.) 

Instrumental and choral music making possible participation 
in a school chorus, orchestra, band, or glee club was an elective 
in the music course in 35 county high schools of 16 counties. In 
33 schools in 16 counties the glee clubs and choruses attracted 
430 boys and 1,127 girls. There were 23 schools in nine counties 
which had orchestras made up of 313 boys and 202 girls; while 
eleven schools in six counties had bands composed of 212 boys 
and 94 girls. (See Table 69.) 



White County Enrollment Taking Commercial Subjects, 
Physical Education and Music 



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102 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



WITHDRAWALS AND NON-PROMOTIONS BY 
HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECT 

The per cent of withdrawals and non-promotions in the social 
studies and in French, and the per cent of non-promotions in Eng- 
lish, commercial subjects and agriculture were lower for boys 
than for the preceding year. For girls the per cent of non-pro- 
motions was lower in 1937 than 1936 in every subject except 
Latin, and the per cent of withdrawals was lower in 1937 than in 
1936 in Latin, French, and commercial subjects. (See Table 70.) 



TABLE 70 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending June 30, 1937 





Number 






Per 


Cent 






Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Gi 


rls 


Subject 




























e 




e 


T3 


c 




c 




c 


T3 


c 






c3 


S 
O 


1 


Q) 
O 


raw 


0) 

o 


u 


o 


04 
u 


01 
+J 
O 


fs 
2 


o> 
o 




TJ 


E 




£ 


"d 


£ 


TJ 


E 


T3 


E 


-5 


E 




-C 


-w ° 


X, 


*» 2 






J3 
+-> 






+> S 










l £ 


1 






g* 




s* 










English 


3,027 


2,225 


1,836 


1,672 


1,191 


553 


9 


7 


11 


11 


7 


4 


Mathematics 


2,055 


2,227 


1,273 


1,402 


782 


825 


9 


10 


11 


12 


6 


8 


Social Studies 


2,670 


2,043 


1 , 632 


1,286 


1,038 


757 


9 


7 


11 


9 


7 


5 


Science 


2,264 


1,632 


1,405 


1,051 


859 


581 


10 


7 


11 


9 


7 . 


6 


Latin 


225 


514 


115 


316 


110 


198 


4 


10 


4 


14 


4 


5 


French 


200 


244 


113 


162 


87 


82 


5 


6 


7 


10 


4 


3 


Commercial 


1,668 


1 , 305 


835 


644 


833 


661 


9 


7 


10 


10 


8 


6 


Agriculture 


220 


59 


220 


59 


l 




12 


4 


12 


4 







The combined percentage for white high school boys and girls 
withdrawn and not promoted was highest for mathematics and 
lowest for French. 



Per Cent Withdrawn and 
SUBJECT Not Promoted Combined 

BOYS GIRLS 

Mathematics 23 14 

English 22 10 

Commercial Subjects 21 12 

Social Studies 20 11 

Latin 20 10 

Agriculture 17 

French 16 6 



Withdrawals and Non-Promotions by High School Subject 103 



£ c " £ 


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>> 


N.P. 


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Boys 


N.P. 


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co eo 


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o m eo t- o • i# oo £75 i-i m so t- co co c- m cts oo c75 o o 

CNNHHH -rH CM i-H rH rH CM CM CM 






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1,051 
1,033 


CT5 C75 


ooos^t^soeocMinrHeocMsosoTj'eOrHTtijj^Hinooco 




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1,405 
1,295 


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ocial Studies 


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1,038 
1,007 


c- c- 


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to 

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N.P. 


1,286 
1,259 


o> £75 


soc»eot^in£7;CMTfC)CrHCMX£75eo-^c75rHOscinc-'-i05 


m 


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1,632 
1,489 




ineocoooc750omoeocMoa5t-xcMsoorHinc75T5<cM 


Mathematics 


rls 


N.P. 


m ci 

CM CM 

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t- C- 


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N.P. 


1,402 
1,381 


CM CM 


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pa 




1,273 
1,278 




OONt-OOOXCirtSON^OCIO^MriHwXiOn 




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N.P. 


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m so 
m so 


CO 


cm m m so cm eo eo eo cm m • cm ■«* cm rn tj< cm • -<r eo cm i-h 


lish 


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1,191 
1,119 




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bfl 

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1,672 
1,727 


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pa 


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1,836 
1,663 




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104 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In every subject the percentage of withdrawals and failures 
was higher for boys than for girls. The order from highest to 
lowest in the per cent who withdrew and failed was the same for 
boys and girls in the various subjects, except that English, com- 
mercial subjects, and social studies ranked second, third, and 
fourth for boys, and ranked fourth, second, and third for girls. 
(See Table 70.) 

Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

The range in the combined per cent of withdrawals and non- 
promotions by subject for the individual counties is shown below: 

Per Cent of Withdrawals and Non-Promotions Combined 1936-37 



BOYS GIRLS 

SUBJECT Lowest Highest Lowest Highest 

County County County County 

English 12 31 5 18 

Mathematics 14 30 6 25 

Social Studies 12 30 6 17 

Science 11 26 6 18 

Latin 3 35 33 

French 6 26 .. 20 

Commercial Subjects 35 6 26 

Agriculture 2 46 



In a few counties the percentage of withdrawals and non-pro- 
motions was greater for girls than for boys. This was the case 
in mathematics and science in one of the counties, in Latin in a 
second county, in French in a third county, and in commercial 
subjects in three counties. (See Table 71.) 

STANDARD TESTS USED WITH WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 

There were no State-wide tests given to white high school pupils 
in 1936-37. From the comprehensive reports of principals to 
the State high school supervisors, it was found that a number of 
standard tests were given, in many cases with careful followup 
of the results. The tests used in various schools are classified 
below according to various types: 



Withdrawals and Failures of White High School Pupils; 105 
Standard Tests Given 

Intelligence Tests 

Dearborn Group Test of Intelligence, Series II — Grantsville 

Detroit Advanced Intelligence Test — Thurmont 

Henmon Nelson Test of Mental Ability — Cambridge, East 

New Market, Slate Ridge, Highland 
Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability — Bladens- 

burg, Centerville 
Otis General Intelligence Scale — Hyattsville 
Otis Classification Test — Preston 

Terman Group Intelligence Test — Boonsboro, Nanticoke, Wi- 
comico, Delmar 

Battery of Tests 

Iowa High School Content Examination — Margaret Brent 
Myers-Ruch Test — Montgomery-Blair, Sherwood 
Progressive Achievement Test — Sherwood 
Sones-Harry Test — Annapolis, Bel Air 

Reading 

Carol Hovins — Speed and Comprehension in Reading — Richard 
Montgomery 

Iowa Silent Reading Test — Bladensburg, Surrattsville, Buck- 
ingham, Chestertown 
Sangren Woody Reading Tests — Highland, Slate Ridge 
Shank Test for Reading Comprehension — Margaret Brent, 
Great Mills 

English 

Columbia Research Bureau English Test — Gaithersburg 
Cooperative English Test — Gaithersburg 

Mathematics 

Breslich Survey Test — Walkersville 

Columbia Research Bureau Algebra Test — Annapolis, Surratts- 
ville 

Orleans Plane Geometry Test — Gaithersburg 
Social Studies 

Almack Test in American History — Baden 

American Council European History Test — Gaithersburg 

Columbia Research Bureau Test in American History — 

Gaithersburg, Surrattsville, Nanticoke 
Wesley Test in Social Terms — Rising Sun, Surrattsville 

Science 

Columbia Research Bureau Chemistry Test — Gaithersburg, 
Sherwood 

Cooperative Biology Test — Gaithersburg 
Powers General Science Test — Margaret Brent 

Language 

Orleans-Solomon Latin Prognosis Test — Dundalk 
Cooperative Latin Test — Gaithersburg 
Powers Diagnostic Latin Test — Gaithersbui u- 
Luria-Orleans Modern Language Prognosis Test — Oakland 
American Council Alpha French Test — Gaithersburg 
Columbia Research Bureau French Test — Oakland 

Guidance 

Symonds Adjustment Questionnaire — Hyattsville 



106 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1936-37 in the last four years of high school instruction 
given county white pupils, a teaching staff equivalent to the 
full-time service of 1,285 principals and teachers was employed, 
41 more than for the preceding year. Except for mathematics, 
science, Latin, French, and art, every subject had a larger teach- 
ing staff on a full-time basis than in 1936. (See Table 72.) 

TABLE 72 



Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in County White 
High Schools, Year Ending July, 1937 





Number of 












Teachers on 




Number of Cases Where 


Approximate 




Full-Time 


Number 


Special Teachers Instruct in 


Number of 


Subjects 


Basis Dis- 


of High 


More Than One School 


Different 




tributed by 


Schools 


Each Week or Term 


Teachers of 




Time Devoted 








Special 




to Different 








Subjects 




Subjects 




Teachers 


Schools 




English 


222.4 


148 








Social Studies 


193.3 


148 










163.0 


148 








Mathematics 


156.3 


148 








French, Spanish, German . 


49.0 


115 








Latin 


41.9 


88 










113.9 


68 










81.9 


117 


"i7 


' 37 


iii 


Industrial Arts 


61.3 


81 


12 


26 


83 




43.7 


112 


27 


73 


70 


Physical Education 


33.4 


40 


5 


10 


36 




28.6 


48 


7 


15 


41 




17.4 


21 








Art 


2.7 


11 








Administration and 




t 








Supervision 


76.5 










Total 


1,285.3 











English, with 222 teachers on a full-time basis, required the 
services of more teachers than any other subject. The number 
of teachers on a full-time basis was 193 for the social studies, 
163 for science, and 156 for mathematics. French* taught in 
115 high schools had 49 teachers on a full-time basis. Latin 
taught in 88 schools required the services of 42 teachers on a 
full-time basis. (See Table 72.) 

In comparing 1937 with 1936 there were 7 more teachers of 
high school English and 5 more of the social studies. The re- 
duction in teachers of mathematics was 4, of Latin 3, of science 
2, and of French just under 1. (See Table 72.) 

The full-time equivalent of 114 teachers was required for in- 
struction in the commercial subjects taught in 68 high schools. 
Home economics with 82 teachers on a full-time basis for the 



* One school taught Spanish, another German. 



Distribution of County White High School Staff 107 
by Subject 

last four years of high school work actually required the ser- 
vices of 111 different teachers instructing in 117 schools. The 
part of the time of these home economics teachers given to teach- 
ing related science was allocated to science. Some teachers also 
taught in grades 7 (8) and this time was not included in Table 
72. Industrial arts and trades and industries with a full-time 
staff of over 61 teachers for the last four years of high school 
work included 83 individuals who taught in 81 schools. For the 
last four years of high school work there was an increase of 7 
commercial, 3 home economics, and 2 industrial arts and trade 
teachers on a full-time basis from 1936 to 1937. (See Table 72.) 

Music with the equivalent of nearly 44 teachers on a full-time 
basis for the last four years of high school work was taught in 112 
county schools by 70 different teachers. Although there were 
42 teachers of music in the last four years of high school who 
taught no subject other than music, a number of them gave con- 
siderable time to junior high and elementary school pupils and the 
time other than that given to the last four years of high school 
music was not included in showing the number of music teachers 
on a full-time basis. There was an increase of 1.4 in the number 
of music teachers on a full-time basis from 1936 to 1937. (See 
Table 72.) 

Physical education taught by 36 different teachers in 40 dif- 
ferent schools included the equivalent of 33.4 teachers on a full- 
time basis. This does not include time given to girls' and boys' 
athletics by teachers who had a full teaching assignment of other 
subjects. There was an increase of 1.4 teachers over the preced- 
ing year in the number of physical education teachers on a full- 
time basis. 

There were 28.6 teachers of agriculture on a full-time basis 
since time given to teaching science was excluded here and allo- 
cated to science. Actually there were 41 teachers of agriculture 
who gave instruction in 48 schools. There were 3 more white 
teachers of agriculture on a full-time basis than were in service 
the preceding year. 

There were 21 schools which reported the employment of li- 
brarians or teacher-librarians requiring the full-time service of 
17.4 individuals. This was an increase of 5 over the number 
employed in 1935-36. 

Art was taught in 11 schools by 2.7 teachers on a full-time 
basis. Because of the appointment of art teachers in a number 
of counties in September, 1937, the number of art teachers in 
1937-38 will show considerable increase. 



108 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Administration and supervision required the equivalent on a 
full-time basis of over 76 principals and vice-principals, an in- 
crease of 17 over the preceding year. Eleven principals in large 
county high schools in six counties did no teaching but devoted 
all of their time to administration and supervision. (See Table 
72.) 

Five counties employed clerks in 20 large schools at an annual 
salary of S13,583. The average clerk's salary is less than that 
of a teacher, and the principal is relieved of many clerical and 
routine duties making it possible for him to devote more time to 
constructive professional supervision. (See Table 73.) 

TABLE 73 



Number of Clerks in County Schools, 1936-37 





Number 




Average 


County 


of 


Total 


Annual 




Clerks 


Salaries 


Salary 




20 


$13,583 


$679 


Montgomery 


5 


4,850 


970 


Allegany 


7 


4,276 


611 




5 


2,744 


549 


Anne Arundel 


2 


1,200 


600 




1 


513 


513 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

In October, 1937, of 866 principals and teachers giving instruc- 
tion in the last four years of schools organized on the 7-4 or 8-4 
plan in all counties, except Baltimore and Montgomery which had 
the 6-5 or 6-3-3 plan throughout their counties, 98.5 per cent 
held regular certificates, and 13 or 1.5 per cent were assistant 
teachers holding fprovisional certificates or employed as substi- 
tutes. Of 581 principals and teachers in senior-junior and senior 
high schools in 7 counties, 91.6 per cent held regular high school 
certificates, 35 or 6 per cent held regular elementary certificates,* 
and 14 or 2.4 per cent were substitutes or held fprovisional cer- 
tificates. Of 142 principals and teachers in junior high schools 
in 6 counties, 92.3 per cent were certificated as principals or 
regular high school assistants, 4.2 per cent as holding regular 
elementary certificates,* and 5 or 3.5 per cent were substitutes 
or f provisionally certificated. (See Table XII, page 294.) 



t Provisional certificates are issued for certain special subjects only. 

* Teachers of grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in a junior high school organization holding either 
a B.S., advanced first, or first-grade certificate. 



Teachers, Clerks; Certification and Summer School 109 
Attendance of County White High School Teachers 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COUNTY 
HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Of the white high school teachers in service in October, 1937, 
there were 368 or 23.2 per cent who attended summer school in 
1937, a decrease of 31 in number and 3.4 in per cent under cor- 
responding figures for 1936. Among the counties the range in 
summer school attendants was from 12 to 36 per cent. Seven 
counties had a higher percentage of summer school attendants 
in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 74.) 



TABLE 74 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 1937, Reported by 
County Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer School Attendants 

in 1937 



County 



Total and Average 

Calvert 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

Prince George's. . . 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Queen Anne's 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Worcester 

Washington 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Wicomico 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1937, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1937 



Number 



Per Cent 



*368 


23 


2 


4 


36 


4 


75 


35 




13 


31 





32 


25 


2 


*20 


24 


7 


48 


24 


1 


12 


24 





6 


24 





21 


23 


9 


7 


23 


3 


9 


21 


4 


35 


21 


3 


5 


20 


8 


8 


20 





22 


18 


5 


6 


18 


2 


7 


17 


5 


14 


17 


1 


9 


14 


8 


4 


14 


3 


2 


13 


3 


3 


11 




6 


11 


5 



Summer School Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Western Maryland College. . . 

Columbia University 

Johns Hopkins University .... 

Duke University 

Pennsylvania State College . . . 

University of Wisconsin 

George Washington University 

University of Virginia 

Indiana State College 

University of Delaware 

Harvard University 

Maryland Institute 

Middlebury College 

New York University 

University of West Virginia . . . 
Other 



Number 
of 
White 
High 
School 
Teachers 



t369 

126 
51 
t41 
34 
13 
10}/ 
10 
9 
6 



* Excludes one music supervisor, 
t Includes one music supervisor. 



The University of Maryland attracted 126 or 34 per cent of the 
county high school teachers who went to summer school. Western 
Maryland College came second with 51, or 14 per cent; Columbia 
University third with 41 or 11 per cent; and Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity fourth with 34 or 9 per cent. Western Maryland College 
was the only one of these colleges which had more county high 
school teachers who attended in 1937 than in 1936. Other col- 
leges attended by three or more county high school teachers are 
listed in Table 74. 



110 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



GROWTH OF STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR, JUNIOR-SENIOR, 
AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Until the fall of 1926, the counties operated their school systems 
on the 7-4 or 8-4 plan, i. e., with seven or eight elementary grades 
and four years of high school. In the fall of 1926, Allegany, which 
had had the 8-4 plan, started the 6-3-3 plan in its city schools, 
i. e., six elementary grades, three junior high and three senior 
high school years. All 12 grades were in some cases in the same 
building, but in other cases the elementary and junior high school 
grades were together, or the junior and senior high school years 
were in the same building. Allegany still continues to have two 
of its rural high schools on the 8-4 plan. Montgomery started 
experimenting with the 6-3-3 plan in the fall of 1927 and now has 
its entire system on this basis. Prince George's with the 7-4 plan 
throughout the county has had the 6-5 plan in one or two schools 
for seven years. Washington County has had the 6-3-3 plan in 
Hagerstown schools for six years with the 8-4 plan in the rest of 
the county. Frederick has had the 6-5 plan in Brunswick for six 
years with the 7-4 plan in the rest of the county. Baltimore 
County has had the 6-5 plan in most of the county for four years. 

The number of teachers employed in junior, junior-senior, and 
senior high schools grew from 154 in one county in October, 1926, 
to 669 in 8 counties in October, 1936. Allegany had the largest 
number, 185 teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools, 
Montgomery was second with 179, and Baltimore Countv third 
with 160. (See Table 75 and Table XXIV, page 306.) 

TABLE 15 



Teachers in County White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Senior High Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dor- 


Anne 


Car- 


Oct. 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


chester 


Arundel 


roll 


1926. . 


154 


154 




















1927. . 


182 


161 


2i 


















1928. . 


202 


165 


37 


















1929. . 


207 


165 


42 


















1930. . 


245 


166 


51 


28 
















1931. . 


398 


174 


96 


33 


80 


is 












1932. . 


424 


178 


101 


33 


79 


15 


13 


5 








1933. . 


575 


180 


109 


23 


79 


15 


13 


148 








1934. . 


576 


177 


123 


25 


79 


17 




155 








1935. . 


625 


183 


155 


26 


79 


17 




159 




6 




1936. . 


669 


185 


179 


36 


81 


17 




160 




6 


5 



RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Between October, 1935, and October, 1936, there were 115 
resignations from the regular four-year and junior-senior high 
schools in the counties. The preceding year there were 111, and 
three years before only 98, whereas between October, 1928, and 
October, 1929, there were 193 who resigned from the staffs of 
these schools. 



Growth in Junior High Schools; Resignations of County 111 
White High School Teachers 

Marriage continued to be the chief cause of resignations, 30 
having left the county high school service for this reason. This 
compares with 49 and 48 who left because of marriage between 
October, 1928, and October, 1929, and between October, 1929, and 
October, 1930, respectively. Taking positions in work other than 
teaching accounted for the resignation of 22 county high school 
teachers between October, 1935, and October, 1936. Teaching, 
administrative, or supervisory positions took 24 individuals out of 
the county high school teaching service. There were 13 dropped 
for inefficiency, and 14 were eliminated through illness, retire- 
ment, or death. In addition to the resignations there were 22 
teachers on leave of absence. (See Table 76.) 

TABLE 76 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County Regular White High Schools and from Junior, Junior-Senior 
and Senior High Schools Between October of One Year and October 
of the Following Year 















0) _ 






Administrative, 
Supervisory or State 
Teachers College Posi- 
tions in the State 


















October 

to 
October 


Marriage 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Teaching in Haltimoi 
City, Another State 
or in Private School 


Inefficiency 


Illness 


Provisional Certificat 
or Failure to Attenc 
Summer School 


Retirement 


Death 


Moved Away 


Abolished Positions 


Rejected by 
Medical Board 


Other and Unknown 


Total 


Transfer lo 
Another County 


Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Other 
Type of School in 
the Same County 



White Regular High Schools 



1927-1928 


41 


19 


35 


17 


5 


2 


2 


2 


5 


2 






13 


143 


36 


7 


6 


1928-1929 


44 


18 


53 


19 


3 


7 


5 




9 


2 






2 


162 


50 


17 


7 


1929-1930 


41 


17 


50 


16 


4 


6 


5 


2 


2 


2 






15 


160 


37 


9 


22 


1930-1931 


36 


16 


33 


26 


4 


11 


4 


3 


1 


1 






9 


144 


27 


4 


63 


1931-1932 


21 


7 


3 


25 


3 


11 


3 


3 


2 


1 


*9 


*2 


14 


104 


15 


6 


26 


1932-1933 


18 


7 


4 


5 


2 


3 


4 


2 


2 


4 


13 


2 


9 


75 


7 


2 


114 


1933-1934 


31 


11 


11 


3 


1 


1 


3 


1 




3 


2 




4 


71 


13 


3 


2 


1934-1935 


20 


18 


11 


2 


3 




2 


2 


*3 


1 


1 


2 


9 


75 


17 


16 


1 


1935-1936 


17 


16 


14 


9 


6 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


75 


12 






White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Senior High Schools 


1927-1928 


3 


3 


8 


6 












1 






1 


22 


2 


1 


4 


1928-1929 


5 


5 


11 


2 


i 








2 


1 






4 


31 


2 


1 


4 


1929-1930 


7 


2 


3 


5 






i 


i 




2 






1 


22 




2 


4 


1930-1931 


7 


2 


6 


13 


2 


1 






i 








1 


33 


i 




9 


1931-1932 


8 


1 


3 


3 




7 


2 






i 






4 


29 


1 


i 


6 


1932-1933 


6 


4 




3 


i 


3 








1 






1 


23 




4 


14 


1933-1934 


12 


9 


6 


4 


6 


2 


*5 


2 


6 








3 


55 




1 


29 


1934-1935 


9 


8 


8 




3 


1 


2 


1 




i 






3 


36 


2 


6 




1935-1936 


13 


6 


7 


.4 


2 




1 


1 


1 


3 






2 


40 




8 


3 



112 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TURNOVER IN HIGH SCHOOLS 
TABLE 77 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and Jun- 
ior-Senior High School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1936-37, with Comparisons for 
Preceding Years 



Year 
and 
County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
October 
of One Year 
to 
October 
of Following 
Year 


Number New to County Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


But 

New 

to 
State 


In Counties 
but not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
Year 


perience 

From 
An- 
other 
County 


j 
a 

From 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 
in Same 
County 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 

Others 


Total and 








— > s 












Average 




















1930-31 


°348 


25.0 


+ 107 


205 


32 


71 


39 


10 


30 


1931-32 


°247 


18.3 


+ 94 


172 


19 


50 


27 


2 


4 


1932-33 


°134 


10.2 


— 15 


81 


21 


23 


16 


1 


8 


1933-34 


°108 


7.9 


+ 14 


70 


17 


14 


9 


1 


6 


1934-35 


°172 


12.2 


+ 36 


122 


17 


28 


16 


3 


2 


1935-36 


°205 


14.0 


+ 60 


149 


17 


20 


16 


8 


11 


1936-37 


°199 


13.3 


+ 50 


123 


36 


26 


13 


8 


6 


Kent 


.... 


















Talbot 




3^6 
















Washington* . . j 


6 


16 7 


—3 


2 


1 


3 










2 


2.5 


+ 2 




1 










Charles 


2 


8.3 




i 












Allegany J 


18 


9.7 


"+8 


9 


5 


2 








Baltimore! 


16 


10.0 


+ 1 


6 


3^ 


1 


' 6 








7 


10.4 


+ 1 


4 


1 


2 






Frederick* j 


2 


11.8 




2 












Carroll 


9 


11.4 


—4 


5 


*2 


' 2 










6 


11.8 


+ 2 


4 




2 








Dorchester 


5 


11.9 


+ 1 


3 




2 








Garrett 


5 


12.5 


+ 1 


5 
5 












Harford 


8 


13.1 


+ 3 












Somerset 


4 


13.3 




3 




' i 








Cecil 


7 


14.6 


'+i 


4 


i 


2 








Howard 


4 


15.4 


+1 


4 












Queen Anne's. . . 


4 


17.4 


4 












St. Mary's 


2 


18.2 




2 












Prince 


12 


15.8 


+i 


9 




"i 


' i 






George's* . . . \ 


10 


27.8 


+ 10 


3 


5 


1 


l 






Anne Arundel* f 


14 


20.3 




9 


2 


3 










1 


16.7 




1 












Montgomery! . . 


42 


23.5 


+ 24 


19 


i3 


' 2 


" 2 




' 2 


Calvert 


3 


27.3 




1 




1 






1 




10 


27.8 




8 


i 


1 










12 


32.4 


+i 


9 


2 


1 








Baltimore 


11 


2.4 


+ 10 


10 




1 








City* \ 


52 


8.2 


+ 7 


38 


3 


4 


' A 


" i 


' 2 


Entire State. . . . 


258 


10.0 


+ 67 


171 


39 


31 


17 


9 


8 



° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

* Top row of figures in Anne Arundel, Frederick, Prince George's, and Washington includes 
teachers in regular high schools ; bottom row represents teachers in junior, junior-senior, and 
senior high schools. In Baltimore City the top row includes senior and the bottom row junior 
high school teachers. 

t All secondary schools in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties are organized as junior- 
senior high schools. 

t Includes junior, junior-senior and senior high schools. There was no turnover in the two 
regular high schools. 



Turnover of White High School Teachers 



113 



There were 199 teachers or 13.3 per cent new to the county 
white high school staffs in 1936-37, a decrease of 6 in number 
from the preceding year. The continued increases in high school 
enrollment, especially in those counties increasing in population, 
have necessitated adding teachers to the staff each year. (See 
Table 77.) 

Of the teachers new to the county high school staffs in 1936-37, 
123 were inexperienced, 36 were experienced but new to the coun- 
ty service, 26 returned after former service in the counties, 8 came 
from elementary schools, and 6 were substitutes. There were 
also 13 teachers who transferred from one county to another. 
(See Table 77.) 

The turnover in Baltimore City of 52 in junior and 11 in senior 
high schools for white pupils in 1936-37 was larger than for any 
year since 1931-32. There were 38 inexperienced individuals ap- 
pointed to the junior high and 10 to the senior high schools in 
1936-37. (See lower part of Table 77 and Table 78.) 



TABLE 78 

Turnover of White Junior and Senior High School Teachers in Baltimore City 



Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 
City White 
Junior and 
Senior High 
Schools* 



Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 



Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 



Inex- 
per- 
ienced 



Who Were Experienced 



From 
Other 
States 



But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In 

County 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In Other 
Type of 
Baltimore 
City 
School 



Other 



83 
108 
108 
39 
6 
32 
33 
62 



+ 33 
+ 54 
+ 81 
—30 
+ 38 
+22 
+ 12 
+ 17 



* Excludes transfers from one type of school to another. 

Of the 123 inexperienced white teachers appointed to the high 
school staffs in the counties in the fall of 1936, graduates of Mary- 
land colleges totalled 89 and of Pennsylvania colleges 12. Of 
those graduating from Maryland colleges 37 received their de- 
grees at Western Maryland, 21 at the University of Maryland, 
15 from Washington College, and 9 from Hood. (See upper part 
of Table 79.) 

Of 36 teachers appointed to teach in Maryland county high 
schools after having had experience in other states, 6 were gradu- 
ates of Maryland and 6 of Pennsylvania colleges. (See lower part 
of Table 79.) 



114 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 79 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperi- 
enced White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior and Reg- 
ular High Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teach- 
ing Experience in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland 
Counties, for School Year, 1936-37 



State of 
College 
Attended 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


| Cecil 


| Charles 


Dorchaster 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1936-1937 


Total 


123 


9 


10 


6 


1 


8 


5 


4 


1 


3 


6 


5 


5 


4 




19 


12 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


4 


9 


Maryland 

Western Maryland 

University of Maryland . . 
Washington 


37 
21 
15 
9 
3 
2 
1 
1 
12 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
5 
3 


2 


7 


2 




2 
1 

3 


4 
1 


2 




1 


1 
1 


2 


3 


3 




3 
9 


2 
4 
1 
2 


i 

3 




2 






2 


2 
1 
2 










1 






2 


1 






2 


Hood 






2 
1 








2 






1 




1 


Goucher 




















1 






1 


St. Joseph's 












1 












1 










St. John's 














1 


























































1 




















2 
1 
1 


2 






2 








1 


1 
1 


1 








1 










1 




1 
















1 
1 


















































1 
1 
























1 




















Ohio 


1 






































1 










1 














1 




















Washington, D. C 

5 Other States 


























1 
1 


1 
















2 


1 


1 






































Unknown 










1 








1 






1 



























































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1936-37 



Total 


36 


5 


2 


3 




1 


2 


1 
















13 


5 










2 




2 


























Maryland . 


6 
6 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
9 
4 












1 


















3 
1 
2 












2 




i 




1 
1 

1 








1 


















2 










West Virginia 










































1 
1 








1 
































































































1 

2 
3 
1 


1 
















Washington, D. C 

9 Other States 












































2 


2 


1 






1 


















1 
1 














l 











































































MARYLAND 1936 COLLEGE GRADUATES WHO MET CERTIFICATE 
REQUIREMENTS AND WHO RECEIVED COUNTY 
HIGH SCHOOL POSITIONS 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1936 graduates from 
the counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive Mary- 
land high school certificates and who actually received county high 
school positions. Of 128 Maryland county 1936 graduates eli- 
gible, the colleges reported county high school positions in 1936- 
37 for 76, or 59 per cent. (See Table 80.) 



Training of New White Appointees to County High 115 
Schools; Men on Staff 



The excess in placement of graduates of Western Maryland, 
Washington College, Hood, Johns Hopkins, and St. Joseph's shown 
in Table 79 over Table 80 is undoubtedly due to the inclusion in 
Table 79 of graduates of preceding years. 



TABLE 80 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1936, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the 
Number of Graduates Who Took Positions in the County 
High Schools in the Fall of 1936 



Number of Graduates 



College or University 



Western Maryland College 
University of Maryland . . . 

Washington College 

Goucher College 

Hood College 

Notre Dame 

Johns Hopkins University . 
St. Joseph's 



Who Met Requirements 




for Certification from 


Who Received 






Md. County 






High School 


Maryland 


Baltimore 


Positions 


Counties 


City 




a53 


b8 


a36 


c37 


d22 


21 


14 




9 


3 


ii 


3 


12 




6 


2 


5 




1 


7 




6 


5 


i 


128 


61 


76 



a Includes 2 teachers who were in service, 
b Includes 3 teachers who were in service, 
c Includes 4 who completed work in summer session. 

d Includes 15 teachers in service who completed requirements in industrial and commercial 
subjects. 



MEN EMPLOYED ON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFFS 

In 1936-37, there were 488 men employed on the white teach- 
ing staffs giving instruction in the last four years of high school 
work. Of the white high school staff 38.2 per cent were men. 
This was an increase of 22 in number over the preceding year, 
and a larger number than has been reported since 1922-23. In 
only one county were there more men than women teaching in 
the county high schools. (See Table IX, page 291.) 

NUMBER OF PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS FOR WHITE PUPILS 

There were 148 high schools for white pupils in the Maryland 
counties in 1936-37, three fewer than in 1935-36. Of these schools 
135 were classified as first group, and 13 as second group. The 
change in the number of high schools occurred in Baltimore Coun- 
ty, which discontinued the Fifth District second group High 
School ; in Carroll, which discontinued the Mechanicsville High 



116 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




Number of Approved High Schools for White Pupils 



117 



School and in which the Charles Carroll School became a junior 
high school ; in Howard, in which the second-group Savage High 
School was discontinued; and in Prince George's, in which the 
Bladensburg High School became a four-year school. (See Table 
81 and Chart 15.) 



TABLE 81 



Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1937 



Group 



Total 



County 



82 

148 
150 
152 
153 
151 
152 
153 
152 
149 
151 
150 
151 
148 

11 

6 
10 
2 
5 



*69 

^130 
i=136 
^137 
141 
141 
142 
144 
140 
136 
136 
136 
136 
135 



tl3 

+18 
+14 
+15 
12 
10 
10 
9 
12 
13 
al5 
al4 
bl5 
bl3 

m 

H 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



° First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25. and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an en- 
rollment of 15. an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore Coun- 
ty giving a one-year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

t Each i represents one junior high school. 

a Includes 7 junior high schools. 

b Includes 10 junior high schools. 

c Includes 16 junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, and one with grades 7 to 11. 



Two counties had only 2 high schools and two counties had as 
many as 11 high schools for white pupils. In one of the latter 
counties two of the schools were junior high schools. (See Table 
81 and Chart 15.) 

SIZE OF WHITE TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1936-37 the median county high school for white pupils had 
a staff of 6 teachers including the principal. The three schools 
with one teacher offered the first year of approved high school 
work in a junior high school organization. The three high'schools 
having the largest staffs were at Frederick with 38 teachers, at 
Catonsville with 37, and at Hagerstown with 36 teachers. (See 
Table 82.) 



118 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 82 



Size of Teaching Staff in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Number 

OF 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


I Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garret t. 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 




148 


11 


6 


10 


2 


5 


9 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


4 


4 


9 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 




3 
12 
14 
23 
14 
12 
12 
11 
9 
4 
6 
3 
2 
1 
3 
1 

1 
2 
2 
1 
1 

4 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

2 

2 


I 


2 










































2 

Q 






i 

4 
1 
1 


1 
I 

I 
1 
1 


i 

2 

2 
1 


I 

2 


2 


q 


i 

2 








2 


i 

3 


I 




2 


2 
3 
1 
1 


3 
1 
I 


2 

i 
1 


r: 


1 
I 


2 




^ 


1 
1 


1 
I 




I 




2 
















1 




1 


8 






1 


i 


1 
1 
1 


i 


1 
1 




i 
l 




1 


1 
1 


1 


Q 




















2 
1 












2 




















1 
1 






1 
1 








1 


12 




























1 




















1 














1 




























1 


























15 






1 






















1 


1 
































1 












































l 
























19 


1 




1 








































20 






1 






l 






























21 






1 


































22 
























1 
1 


















27 




1 


1 
























1 
















29 


































1 




31 


1 
1 


1 








































32 












































36 








































1 






37 






1 




































38 














1 











































































TABLE 83 

Distribution of Maryland County White High Schools According to the Num 
ber of Teachers Employed on a Full-Time Basis, 1925-1937 



Year 


Total 
Number 
Schools 


Number of High Schools Having Following Number of Full-Time 
Teachers 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Over 
10 


1925 


150 


19 


20 


26 


29 


14 


5 


n 


5 


7 


5 


13 


1926 


154 


15 


21 


25 


28 


18 


8 


11 


4 


3 


5 


16 


1927 


153 


8 


22 


23 


26 


20 


10 


12 


6 


3 


8 


15 


1928 


152 


6 


21 


26 


27 


16 


10 


14 


1 


6 


7 


18 


1929 


152 


6 


18 


21 


30 


21 


6 


14 


5 


3 


4 


24 


1930 


152 


7 


13 


22 


27 


20 


13 


8 


6 


4 


6 


26 


1931 


153 


4 


13 


21 


26 


22 


11 


9 


6 


6 


5 


30 


1932 


152 


4 


12 


13 


29 


18 


15 


9 


6 


8 


6 


32 


1933 


149 


6 


13 


11 


25 


18 


13 


13 


4 


11 


4 


31 


1934 


151 


5 


14 


13 


22 


21 


10 


15 


8 


9 


4 


30 


1935 


149 


5 


13 


13 


25 


17 


11 


13 


7 


10 


5 


30 


1936 


151 


6 


13 


12 


21 


20 


9 


14 


13 


8 


4 


31 


1937 


148 


3 


12 


14 


23 


14 


12 


12 


11 


9 


4 


34 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County 119 
White High Schools 

The number of county high schools for white pupils having 
fewer than five teachers has shown a steady decrease from 1925 
to 1937. Whereas in 1925 there were 94 high schools having 
from one to four teachers, inclusive, by 1936 and 1937 the number 
had decreased to 52. During the twelve-year period the number 
of one-teacher high schools dropped from 19 to 3, and the number 
of two-teacher high schools from 20 to 12. On the other hand, 
high schools employing a staff of 5 to 8 increased from 31 in 1925 
to 49 in 1937, while the number with 9 or more teachers increased 
from 25 in 1925 to 47 in 1937. (See Table 83.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

TABLE 84 



Size of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, for Year Ending June 30, 1937 



AT7PD \ f~*~C* XTTT A T'DTT' r> 

BELONGING 


Total No. Schools 


Allegany 


| Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


| Calvert 


| Caroline 


| Carroll 


| Cecil 


| Charles 


Dorchester 


| Frederick 


| Garrett 


| Harford 


| Howard 


| Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


| St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total 

26- 40 


148 

8 
8 
22 
17 
17 
12 
8 
12 
6 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
1 

2 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 
2 
1 


11 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


6 
1 


10 
2 


2 
1 


5 


9 


8 
1 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


4 


4 


9 


11 

1 
1 
1 


5 


2 


4 


6 
1 


8 


7 
1 


5 


41— 50 


1 

2 


1 

3 




1 

i 

2 

i 


3 
1 

i 


i 

1 


1 
1 
1 


2 


1 

3 




1 

i 


51- 75 






1 
1 

i 
l 
l 


1 

4 
2 


1 

2 


3 


2 
2 


3 
2 


1 
1 

i 
i 

i 


76- 100 








101- 125 


2 

i 


1 
1 








3 
2 


126- 150 


1 


1 


i 






1 
1 

2 

1 
1 

1 


i 


1 




1 


151- 175 






1 

2 
1 

i 
l 


176- 200 


1 


2 


1 


i 
i 

i 


2 


1 












201- 225 








1 




1 


i 
i 


i 


1 
1 

1 




226- 250 

251- 275 

276- 300 

301- 325 

326- 350 

351- 375 

401- 425 

451- 475 

476- 500 

501- 525 

526- 550 


1 
1 

1 




1 
1 




i 


i 




i 


1 


1 


551- 575 




























l 


















626- 650 




i 


1 
1 








































676- 700 










































701- 725 






































1 




751- 775 




























1 












876- 900 


1 
1 












































901- 925 


i 


1 










































951- 975 










































1,051-1,075 








































1 






1,301-1,325 






1 













































































120 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1936-37 the median county high school for white pupils had 
an average enrollment of from 126 to 150 pupils. There were 8 
small schools in which the average high school enrollment was 
under 40, while in the three largest high schools it was over 1,050. 
(See Table 84.) 

There has been considerable change since 1925 in the distribu- 
tion of enrollment in the county high schools. In 1925 there were 
109 high schools or 72 per cent which enrolled 100 pupils or fewer. 
By 1930, there were 83 or 55 per cent; by 1935, 58 or 39 per cent; 
and by 1937, 55 or 37 per cent of the county high schools with an 
average enrollment under 101. The reverse is the situation with 
high schools having over 200 white pupils enrolled on the average. 
In 1925 there were 19 or 12.5 per cent; in 1930 there were 30 or 
20 per cent; in 1935 there were 39 or 25 per cent; and in 1937, 
there were 44 or 30 per cent with an average enrollment of over 
200 pupils. (See Table 85.) 



TABLE 85 



Distribution of Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools by Size of 
Pupil Groups, 1925, 1930, 1935 and 1937 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Number 


Cumulative Per Cent 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1937 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1937 


Total 




152 


152 


149 


148 














1- 


25 


26 


7 


2 




17.1 


4 


6 


1 


3 




26- 


50 


31 


21 


16 


' 16 


37.5 


18 


4 


12 





io'.8 


51- 


75 


37 


35 


25 


22 


61.8 


41 


4 


28 


8 


25.7 


76- 


100 


15 


20 


15 


17 


71.7 


54 


6 


38 


9 


37.2 


101- 


125 


7 


17 


22 


17 


76.3 


65 


8 


53 


6 


48.6 


126- 


150 


9 


6 


8 


12 


82.2 


69 


7 


59 





56.7 


151- 


175 


5 


10 


9 


8 


85.5 


76 


3 


65 





62.1 


176- 


200 


3 


6 


13 


12 


87.5 


80 


2 


73 


7 


70.2 


201- 


250 


4 


6 


8 


9 


90.1 


84 


1 


79 


1 


76.3 


251- 


300 


2 


5 


5 


7 


91.4 


87 


4 


82 


5 


81.0 


301- 


400 


6 


9 


6 


7 


95.3 


93 


3 


86 


5 


85.8 


401- 


500 


4 


2 


6 


6 


97.9 


94 


6 


90 


5 


89.8 


501- 


600 


1 


1 


3 


3 


98.6 


95 


3 


92 


5 


91.8 


601- 


700 


1 


2 


4 


2 


99.3 


96 


6 


95 


2 


93.2 


701- 


800 


.... 


3 


1 


3 


99.3 


98 


6 


95 


9 


95.2 


801- 


900 






2 


1 


100.0 


98 


6 


97 


2 


95.9 


901- 


1,000 






1 


3 




99 


3 


97 


9 


97.9 


1,001- 


1,100 






1 


2 




99 


3 


98 


6 


99.2 


1,101- 


1,200 






1 






99 


3 


99 


3 


99.2 


1,201- 


1,300 




. . ._. 


1 






100 





100 





99.2 


1,301- 


1,400 




















100.0 




63.8 


92.3 


119.8 


130.2 















In 1925 the median number of white pupils enrolled in 152 high 
schools was 63.8 with a median staff of 4.3 teachers. The cor- 
responding median enrollment in 1937 was 130.2 and the median 
staff 6.7 teachers. (See Table 86.) 



Size of White Enrollment and Teaching Staff in 121 
County High Schools 

Although the median white enrollment in high school was 104 
per cent greater in 1937 than in 1925, the size of the median teach- 
ing staff was only 56 per cent greater. It was possible in the 
smaller schools to absorb small increases in enrollment without 
adding teachers to the staff. (See Table 86.) 

TABLE 86 



Median Number of Pupils Belonging and Median Number of Teachers in 
Service in Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools, 1925-1937 









Median 






Number 








School Year 


of 








Ending in June 


Secondary 


Number 


Number 






Schools 


of Pupils 


of Teachers 








Belonging 


Employed 


1925 




152 


63.8 


4.3 


1926 




154 


69.0 


4.6 


1927 




154 


75.3 


4.9 


1928 




153 


83.7 


4.9 


1929 




152 


86.9 


5.0 


1930 




152 


92.3 


5.4 


1931 




153 


101.7 


5.6 


1932 




152 


110.2 


6.0 


1933 




149 


118.6 


6.1 


1934 




151 


118.9 


6.1 


1935 




149 


119.8 


6.1 


1936 




151 


126.8 


6.4 


1937 




148 


130.2 


6.7 



RATIO OF PUPILS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The average number of pupils per white county teacher and 
principal in the last four years of high school work was 24.9 in 
1937, a decrease of .2 under the number in 1936, but next to the 
highest number reported in the period from 1923-1937. In this 
fourteen-year period the ratio of high school pupils per teacher 
has increased 23 per cent. 

TABLE 87 



Ratio of White High School Pupils to County Principals and Teachers 





Average No. 




Average No. 


Year 


Belonging 


Year 


Belonging 


1923 


20.0 


1931 


21.9 


1924 


19.8 


1932 


22.3 


1925 


20.1 


1933 


24.4 


1926 


20.3 


1934 


24.8 


1927 


20.4 


1935 


24.7 


1928 


21.0 


1936 


25.1 


1929 


21.5 


1937 


24.9 


1930 


21.6 







122 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In 1936-37 the county with the smallest ratio had 18.4 pupils 
per white high school teacher, while the county with the highest 
ratio had 33 pupils per teacher. Thirteen counties had a higher 
ratio of pupils per teacher in 1937 than in 1936. (See Chart 16.) 



CHART 16 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN 7.HITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 
St. Maryi s 
Allegany 

Anne Arundel 
Frederick 
Washington 
Pr. George's 
Garrett 
Harford 
Howard 
Cecil 
Somerset 
Dorchester 
Wicomico 
Calvert 
Charles 
Kent 

Queen Anne 1 s 
Montgomery 
Carroll 
Worcester 
Talbot 
Caroline 

Balto. City* 28.6 28.4 
State 25.8 26.0 



1937 




* Data for senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



Average Number of Pupils and Average Salary per 123 
White High School Teacher 



In Baltimore City senior high schools there were 27.8 white 
pupils per teacher and principal in 1936-37, a decrease of .6 under 
1935-36. There were three counties which had a higher pupil- 
teacher ratio than Baltimore City. (See Chart 16.) 

SALARIES OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
CHART 17 

Average Annual Salary per White High School Teacher and Principal, 

1923 to 1937 



$1,600 



$1,200 



$ 800 



$ 400 




1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1935 1935 1937 



The average salary per white high school principal and teacher 
was $1,488 in 1936-37, which was an increase of $19 over 1935-36, 
but less than the average salary paid during the period from 1926 
to 1933, inclusive. The basic State minimum salary schedule es- 



124 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



tablished by the legislature of 1922 has prevailed during the en- 
tire period from 1923 to 1937, except for the temporary percent- 
age reductions in salary enacted by the legislature in 1933 and 
1935, which affected salaries paid in 1934, 1935, 1936, and 1937. 
The gradual increases in average salary which appeared from 
1923 to 1932, inclusive, resulted from the growing proportion of 
teachers who were eligible to hold regular instead of provisional 
certificates, and the continuance of teachers in service for more 
years, making a larger proportion qualified for experience incre- 
ments. (See Table 88 and Chart 17.) 

TABLE 88 



Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 

1923-1937 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 




High School 




High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1923 


$1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 


1930 


$1,550 
1,559 
1,571 
1,532 
1,394 
1,398 
1,469 
1,488 


1924 


1931 


1925 


1932 


1926 


1933 


1927 


1934 


1928 


1935 


1929 


1936 




1937 



Among the counties the average salary per principal and teach- 
er varied from $1,219 to $1,880, the average salaries being less 
than $1,300 in four counties and more than $1,500 in four coun- 
ties. In twelve of the counties the average salary paid in 1937 
was above that paid in 1936. (See Chart 18.) 

TABLE 89 



Change from 1932 to 1937 in Last Four Years of County White High School 
Enrollment, Teaching Staff, and Salaries 



Year 


Enrollment 


Number of 
Teachers 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


1932 


28,547 
30,778 
31,036 
31,786 
33,111 
33,959 


1,204 
1,183 
1,169 
1,203 
1,244 
1,285 


$1,891,000 
1,807,000 
1,635,000 
1,677,000 
1,829,000 
1,915,000 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


1937 




Change 1932-1937 


Amount 


+ 5,412 
+ 19.0 


+ 81 
+ 6.7 


+ $24,000 

+ 1.3 


Per Cent 





Average Salary per White Teacher and Principal 125 
in High Schools 



CHART 18 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
County 1933 1935 1936 1937 
Co. Av 41532 $1398 &L4680D 



Bait. 
Mont. 
All. 
Wash. 
Harf . 
P. G. 
A. A. 
Fred. 
Q. A. 
Cecil 
Chas. 
Calv. 



1771 1698 

1612 1571 

1655 1487 

1593 1397 

1550 1447 

1519 1339 

1556 1403 



1434 
1611 
1510 
1447 
1463 
Talbot 1452 
V.'ico. 1397 
Garr. 1526 
Kent 1438 
How. 1442 
Som. 1455 
Dorch. 1485 
Carr. 1339 
Caro. 1399 1233 
Wore. 1405 1279 
St. M. 1405 1182 
Balto. 



1371 
1426 
1381 
1374 
1376 
1298 
1243 
1335 
1300 
1285 
1282 
1286 
1195 



City. 
>tate 



2196 2345 
1715 1657 




* Includes senior high schools in Baltimore City. 

In Baltimore City senior high schools the average salary of 
$2,413 per white teacher and principal was an increase over the 
salary paid in 1936. It was $925 more than the average salary 
paid in the counties, and $533 more than the average paid in the 
county having the highest average salary. (See Chart 18.) 

CHANGES IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF 
SALARY BUDGET 

Although the county white high school enrollment in the last 
four years of high school was 5,412 or 19 per cent greater in 1937 
than it was in 1932, the number of high school teachers employed 



126 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



I 

I 

& 
g 

I 

ii 

S3 ^ 



I 

rH 

- S I 

J v . 

2 Jia 
I 

i 



-a 



I :S33 :3335<*33S5 :3S3iS8 



3 S?gSS§58S5?S5SSSSSS§gS5S 



1 8eSigS52gii3SSSi§ig8Ssg 

CO MNTf -Hrt <N — liH WIN IM-i 



SSgiSSSSISIiliSilligSIS 



l^liSlilllliiilsiliMli 



5? ■ 



l lis ;isb «i 



iffiisiilll 



li 



Growth in County White High School Enrollment and 127 
Teaching Staff; Cost per Pupil 

increased by only 81 or 6.7 per cent, and the expenditure for high 
school teachers' salaries increased by only $24,000 or 1.3 per cent. 
(See Table 89.) 

All counties, except nine, showed increases in white enrollment 
in the last four years of high school from 1936 to 1937. Compari- 
sons of enrollment for 1920, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1936, and 1937 are 
included in the left part of Table 90. 

In comparing white teaching staff in the last four years of high 
school work in 1937 with 1936, one county showed a decrease in 
staff, twelve had more teachers, and ten had a staff of the same 
size. A comparison of 1937 with 1932 indicated that seven coun- 
ties employed fewer teachers in 1937 than in 1932, one county 
had the same number, and fifteen had more teachers in 1937 than 
in 1932. Similar comparisons may be made with 1920, 1925, and 
1930. (See middle part of Table 90.) 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

The current expense cost per county white high school pupil 
belonging for the last four years of high school work was $82.47 
in 1937, higher than at any time since 1933, but below expendi- 
tures per county high school pupil belonging from 1923 to 1933, 
inclusive. (See Table 91.) 



TABLE 91 



Current Expense Cost* per County White High School Pupil Belonging 





Cost per County 




Cost per County 




White High School 




White High School 


Year 


Pupil Belonging 


Year 


Pupil Belonging 


1923 


$91.12 


1931 


$98.54 


1924 


96.44 


1932 


94.78 


1925 


95.16 


1933 


82.62 


1926 




1934 


76.21 


1927 


98.43 


1935 


77.58 


1928 


95.82 


1936 


80.48 


1929 


96.00 


1937 


82.47 


1930 


97.60 







* Excluding general control and fixed charges. 



Among the counties the average current expense cost in 1936-37 
ranged from $74 to $116 per white high school pupil belonging, 
seven counties spending under $80 and three counties spending 
over $100 per pupil. (See Chart 19.) 

Thirteen counties showed an increased expenditure per pupil 
from 1936 to 1937, while only ten counties spent more per white 
high school pupil in 1937 than they spent in 1933. (See Chart 19.) 



128 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 19 



County 1953 
Co. Av. $ 83 

Calvert 104 

Montgomery 97 
Charles 103 
Q. Anne's 
Talbot 
Carroll 
Caroline 
Worcester 
Kent 
St. Mary's 91 
Garrett 97 
Dorchester 104 



102 
86 
100 

90 
102 
97 



Wicomico 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Howard 

Allegany 



76 
95 
84 
96 
76 



Pr. George's 86 
Harford 
Washington 
Frederick 
A.Arundel 
Baltimore 



Baltimore 
Cityt 

State 



73 
72 
71 
81 
67 

95 

86 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 

1935 1936 1937 
$78 $ 80 




f Cost per pupil belonging in senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



Analysis of Current Expense Cost per White High School Pupil 

The average current cost per county white high school pupil 
included $59.96 for salaries, $8.91 for auxiliary agencies (trans- 
portation, libraries, and health,) $6.01 for operation (heating and 
cleaning the buildings,) $4.84 for books, materials, and "other 
costs of instruction," and $2.75 for maintenance (repairs and re- 
placements). Each of these items, except maintenance, showed 



Cost per White High School Pupil 



129 



increases over expenditure per pupil for the preceding year, oper- 
ation, auxiliary agencies, and books, materials, and "other costs 
of instruction" showing the largest per cent of increase. (See 
Table 92.) 

TABLE 92 



Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Pupil Belonging, in Last Four Years 
of White High Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Salaries 


Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Mainte- 
nance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average . 


*$59 


96 


$4 


84 


$6 


01 


$2 


75 


$8 


91 


$82 


47 


$42 


16 




57 


94 


6 


70 


6 


01 


1 


64 


4 


53 


76 


82 


26 


83 


Anne Arundel .... 


51 


75 


4 


60 


5 


58 


2 


10 


10 


79 


74 


82 


36 


84 


Baltimore 


*56 


93 


3 


91 


4 


89 


1 


76 


6 


08 


73 


57 


4 


93 


Calvert 


63 


07 


3 


51 


5 


92 


1 


07 


42 


63 


116 


20 






Caroline 


69 


34 


2 


39 


6 


04 


2 


32 


11 


82 


91 


91 


33 


34 


Carroll 


64 


49 


5 


94 


5 


38 


3 


15 


13 


41 


92 


37 


148 


10 


Cecil 


60 


17 


6 


53 


5 


93 


1 


72 


8 


18 


82 


53 


132 


85 


Charles 


63 


67 


2 


95 


5 


45 


9 


56 


19 


69 


101 


32 


2 


89 




58 


91 


3 


70 


8 


47 


2 


88 


12 


23 


86 


19 


93 


82 




53 


90 


4 


94 


3 


70 


1 


67 


10 


63 


74 


84 




89 


Garrett 


53 


32 


1 


92 


4 


26 


3 


86 


23 


12 


86 


48 


30 


20 




61 


32 


3 


41 


6 


42 


4 


18 




42 


75 


75 


36 


17 


Howard 


57 


65 


4 


45 


5 


99 


2 


65 


11 


26 


82 


00 


30 


10 


Kent 


62 


64 


4 


16 


6 


02 


3 


79 


14 


62 


91 


23 








*80 


62 


9 


96 


9 


98 


3 


45 


3 


14 


107 


15 


176 


ii 


Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 


57 


38 


4 


65 


5 


28 


4 


40 


4 


23 


75 


94 


32 


37 


65 


83 


4 


62 


8 


45 


3 


26 


15 


78 


97 


94 




03 




39 


40 


3 


55 


7 


15 


3 


55 


36 


72 


90 


37 








57 


88 


3 


74 


6 


92 


2 


41 


13 


03 


83 


98 




04 


Talbot 


69 


44 


2 


98 


5 


10 


1 


97 


13 


17 


92 


66 


12 


28 




57 


38 


3 


69 


6 


08 


2 


01 


6 


15 


75 


31 




80 




61 


31 


3 


55 


6 


32 


4 


13 


9 


41 


84 


72 


61 


25 




63 


69 


3 


60 


8 


32 


3 


35 


12 


87 


91 


83 




22 


Baltimore City. . . 


87 


04 


4 


74 


10 


14 


3 


39 




84 


106 


15 


59 


61 


Total State 


67 


81 


4 


81 


7 


21 


2 


94 


6 


57 


89 


34 


47 


22 



* Includes salary of supervisor. 
See Table XXV, page 307, for expenditures in white high schools. 



Effects of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 

Reimbursement from the Federal government for one-half of 
the salaries paid instructors of agriculture, vocational home eco- 
nomics, and trades and industries was received by 19 counties 
during 1936-37. The amount of Federal aid per county white high 
school pupil in the 23 counties was $2.06. Among the 19 counties 
which received Federal aid, one county received as little as 50 
cents in Federal aid per white high school pupil and another re- 
ceived as much as $6.33 in Federal aid per white high school pupil. 

The amount of aid per pupil bore a close relation to the per cent 
of white high school pupils taking vocational courses. In the 19 
counties having vocational work, as few as 2.8 per cent of the 
high school pupils in one county had vocational work, since it was 



130 1937 Report of Maryiand State Department of Education 

only available in one year of one junior high school as against 42.2 
per cent of the high school pupils in another county in which 
every high school except one in the county offered vocational 
work. All of the counties in which over one-fourth of the pupils 
had vocational work received from Federal aid from $5.81 to $6.33 
per high school pupil in the county. 

By reporting the reimbursement per pupil from Federal funds 
separately, it is possible to show the effect of the inclusion or 
exclusion of this amount on the rank in salary cost per pupil for 
the 19 counties which offer vocational education. One county 
would change its rank in salary cost per pupil 6 places, another 
5, two 4, and one 3 places according to the inclusion or exclusion 
of Federal aid for vocational education. (See Table 93.) 

TABLE 93 



Comparison of 1937 Salary Cost Per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and 
Exclusive of Federal Aid for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



County 


1937 Salary Cost 
per White High 
School Pupil 


Rank Among 
23 Counties 


Federal 
Aid Per 
H. S. Pupil 


Per Cent of 
White High 
School Pupils 
Taking Voca- 
tional Work 


Including 
Federal 
Aid 


Excluding 
Federal 
Aid 


Including 
Federal 
Aid^ 


Excluding 
Federal 
Aid 


Average for 23 Counties . 


$59.96 


$57.90 






$2.06 


11.1 


Montgomery 


80.62 


77.66 


1 


1 


2.96 


17.4 




69.34 


67.36 


3 


3 


1.98 


16.0 


Carroll 


64.49 


63 . 60 


5 


4 


.89 


2.8 




63.69 


62.56 


6 


6 


1.13 


6.8 




61.31 


60.81 


11 


7 


.50 


7.6 




63.67 


60.48 


7 


8 


3.19 


13.0 




65.83 


59.50 


4 


10 


6.33 


26.6 




61.32 


58.07 


10 


11 


3.25 


13.9 


Dorchester 


58.91 


57.35 


13 


12 


1.56 


5.5 


Calvert 


63.07 


57.26 


8 


13 


5.81 


32.5 


Somerset 


57.88 


56.53 


15 


14 


1.35 


7.7 




57.94 


56.07 


14 


15 


1.87 


8.4 




56.93 


55.98 


19 


16 


.95 


5.6 


Prince George's 


57.38 


55.09 


17 


17 


2.29 


15.9 


Washington 


57.38 


53.11 


18 


18 


4.27 


16.1 


Frederick 


53.90 


52.16 


20 


19 


1.74 


9.6 




57.65 


51.56 


16 


20 


6.09 


35.6 


Anne Arundel 


51.75 


51.04 


22 


21 


.71 


4.0 




53.32 


47.06 


21 


22 


6.26 


42.? 



Total expenditures for salaries of county teachers of vocational 
agriculture, home economics and industries totalled $138,740, an 
increase of $7,460 over the amount spent in 1935-36. One-half of 
the salaries were reimbursed from Federal funds. (See Table 94.) 

The salaries of teachers of agriculture which totalled $76,178 
showed an increase of $9,009 over the preceding year. In addition 
to the sixteen counties which had agriculture in 1936, three more 
counties, Carroll, Caroline, and Wicomico, added agriculture to the 
offering in white high schools ; and in addition to the four in 1936 



Federal Vocational Aid for County White High School 131 

Pupils 

TABLE 94 



Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1937 





Expenditures for Salaries of County 






Vocational Teachers from 




County 








Enroll- 




County 






ment 




Funds and 


Federal 


Total 






State Aidf 


Funds 






AGRICULTURE White 










Mnntanmprv 


$3,856.20 


$3,856.20 


$7,712.40 


209 




3,836.48 


3,836.48 


7,672.96 


133 




3,633.48 


3,633.48 


7,266.96 


206 




3,415.87 


3,415.87 


6,831.74 


208 


t-To rf nrH 


3,010.51 


3,010.51 


6,021.02 


126 


A 1 1 axfSi x\ V 


2,619.00 


2,619.00 


5,238.00 


81 


Baltimore 


2,180.15 


2,180.15 


4,360.30 


134 


C^ueen \nne s 


2,050.50 


2,050.50 


41101.00 


84 


Prince George's 


1 ,646.50 


1 646.50 


3 293.00 


54 


Dorchester 


l|434!98 


U434.98 


2!869!96 


53 


Howard 


1 430.70 


1 ,430.69 


2,861.39 


80 


Charles 


l!056!26 


l! 056! 24 


2!ll2!50 


36 




928.08 


928.08 


1,856.16 


56 




858.00 


858.00 


1,716.00 


38 


Calvert 


850.84 


850.83 


1,701.67 


45 


Worcester 


834.26 


834.26 


1,668.52 


53 


Carroll 


689.50 


689.50 


1,379.00 


26 


Caroline 


650.00 


650.00 


1,300.00 


64 


^Vicomico 


555.56 


555.54 


1,111.10 


92 


AGRICULTURE — Colored 








Wicomico 


676.49 


676.51 


1,353.00 


70 


Caroline 


430.50 


430.50 


861.00 


50 


Montgomery 


420.00 


420.00 


840.00 


67 


Carroll 


325.00 


325.00 


650.00 


29 


Dorchester 


259.00 


259.00 


518.00 


61 


Prince George's 


239.33 


239.33 


478.66 


37 


Charles 


201.86 


201.87 


403.73 


59 


Total 




$38,089.05 


$38,089.02 


$76,178.07 


2 151 


HOME ECONOMICS — White 










Prince George's 


$3 081.20 


$3 081.20 


$6,162.40 


271 




2^709192 


2!709.92 


5]419!84 


190 


Garrett 


2,569.94 


2,569.93 


5,139.87 


236 




2,165.39 


2,165.37 


4,330.76 


142 


Allegany 


1,804.74 


1,804.76 


3,609.50 


131 


Harford 


1,677.00 


1,677.00 


3,354.00 


83 


Queen \nne's 


1,046.60 


1,046.60 


2,093.20 


50 


"Washington 


836.34 


836.33 


1,672.67 


33 


Carroll 


635.50 


635.50 


1,271.00 


18 


Anne Arundel 


625.00 


625.00 


1,250.00 


49 


Charles 


595.17 


595.16 


1,190.33 


33 


Calvert 


531.93 


531 .93 


1 063 86 


35 


Caroline 


337! 50 


337.50 


'675! 00 


29 


HOME ECONOMICS Colored 












450.00 


450.00 


900.00 


39 




398.46 


398.46 


796.92 


10 


Charles 


171 . 00 


171 . 00 


342 . 00 


38 


Total 


$19,635.69 


$19,635.66 


$39,271.35 


1,387 


INDUSTRIES— All Day Classes 










Washington 


$3,524.60 


$3,524.60 


$7,049.20 


139 


Baltimore 


2,097.50 


2,097.50 


4,195.00 


131 




1,999.45 


1,999.45 


3,998.90 


93 


Prince George's 


1,301.67 


1,301.66 


2,603.33 


114 


Montgomery 


375.00 


375.00 


750.00 


27 


Caroline 


326.25 


326.25 


652.50 


18 


Frederick 


325.00 


325.00 


650.00 


9 


INDUSTRIES -Part-Time 










Washington 


1,696.00 


1,696.00 


3,392.00 


85 


Total 


$11,645.47 


$11,645.46 


$23,290.93 


616 


Grand Total 


$69,370.21 


$69,370.14 


$138,740.35 


4,154 



t Includes State support through hiprh school aid and equalization fund. 



132 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



three more counties, Montgomery, Carroll, and Dorchester, offered 
it in their colored high schools in 1937. The number of white 
pupils enrolled for agriculture increased from 1,570 to 1,778, and 
of colored pupils from 193 to 373. The expenditure for salaries 
of teachers of vocational agriculture per pupil enrolled for the 
subject was $35.40. (See Table 94.) 

The salaries of teachers of vocational home economics totalled 
$39,271, an increase of $3,086 over 1936. Dorchester, which of- 
fered vocational home economics in 1936, did not do so in 1937. 
Carroll introduced it into the Charles Carroll Junior High School 
in the fall of 1936. Montgomery offered it in its colored high 
school for the first time in the fall of 1936. In 1937 instruction in 
vocational home economics was given to 1,300 white and 87 
colored pupils. The expenditure per pupil enrolled for salaries of 
teachers of vocational home economics was $28.30. (See Table 
94.) 

The expenditures for all-day and part-time trades' and indus- 
tries' classes totalled $23,291 in 1937, a decrease of $4,636 under 
1936, due chiefly to the reduction in the expenditure for all-day 
classes in Montgomery and Caroline. Despite the decrease in ex- 
penditures, the enrollment increased by 32 to 616, making the 
cost per pupil enrolled for salaries of teachers of trades and in- 
dustries $37.75 in 1936-37. (See Table 94.) 

Expenditures per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other than Salaries 

Expenditures per white high school pupil for books, materials, 
clerical service in schools, and "other costs of instruction" ranged 
among the counties from $1.92 to $9.96. The latter county was 
one of greatest wealth with a very varied program, which pro- 
vided clerical service in the large high schools. An increasing 
high school population made it necessary to provide complete new 
sets of books and materials for the additional pupils. The former 
was a county among the poorest in financial ability with a some- 
what limited offering and with a rather stationary high school 
population. State aid specifically dedicated to purchase of books 
and materials, exclusive of aid through the Equalization Fund, 
totalled 89 cents per pupil belonging. (See Table 92.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

Operation costs per white high school pupil were $3.70 in the 
county which spent least to $9.98 in the county which spent the 
most. In the latter county there are many modern buildings re- 
quiring the services of a technically trained janitorial force. Main- 
tenance costs were $1.07 in one county and $9.56 in another in 
which the Federal government maintained one of the high school 
buildings. In some counties repairs made through the Works 
Projects Administration relieved the county of expenditures on 
maintenance. (See Table 92, page 129 and Table 168, page 231.) 



Analysis of Cost per White County High School Pupil 133 



Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

The cost per white high school pupil for auxiliary agencies was 
as little as 42 cents in one county which provides little high school 
transportation at public expense, while in two others in which a 
large proportion of white high school pupils were transported at 
public expense, it totalled $36.72 and $42.63. Since the term 
"auxiliary agencies" covers such diverse items as transportation, 
libraries, and health, further analysis has been made of the costs 
and services rendered under these three classifications. (See 
Table 92, page 129.) 

Increase in White High School Pupils Transported at Public Expense 

Public expenditures for transporting 13,970 county white 
high school pupils aggregated $271,421 in 1937, an increase of 
779 pupils and of $12,600 in expenditure over corresponding 
figures for 1936. On the average 41.8 per cent of county white 
high school pupils were transported at public expense in 1937, 
which was higher by 1.3 than the corresponding percentage for 
1936. The cost to the public per white county high school pupil 
transported was $19.43, a decrease of 19 cents under the amount 
for the preceding year. In addition in four counties parents paid 
from $15 to $32 per year toward the cost of high school trans- 
portation. (See Table 95.) 

The high school pupils transported at public expense numbered 
as few as 72 in one county and as many as 2,067 in another. All, 
except six counties, transported more white high school pupils 
in 1937 than in 1936. Fewer than 5 per cent of the white high 
school pupils were transported at public expense in one county, 
whereas at the opposite extreme nearly 100 per cent of all white 
high school pupils were transported at public expense. Only two 
counties showed decreases in the per cent of white high school 
pupils transported and these decreases were very slight. (See 
Table 95.) 

Public expenditures for transporting white high school pupils 
were as low as $130 in one county and as high as 826,187 in an- 
other. Four counties spent less in 1937 than they spent in 1936 
for transporting white high school pupils. In the four counties in 
which individual parents contributed toward the cost of trans- 
porting white high school pupils, the public expenditure per pupil 
transported was $1.81, $5.30, $12.67, and $16.28. In the remain- 
ing 19 counties the cost to the public per white high school pupil 
transported covered a range from $15.51 to $42.99. There were 
eleven counties in which the cost per white high school pupil trans- 
ported was lower in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 95.) 



134 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 95 



Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Transportation 


Libraries 


Health 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 


Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 


Cost 
Per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount 
Per 
Pupil 


Number 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total 


13,970 


41.8 


*$271 , 421 


*$19.43 


$7, 044 


$47.60 


$5.48 


$2,871 


$.09 


Calvert 




95 . 9 


10 , 146 


42 . 99 


• • • • 










St. Mary's 


353 


99.7 


12 ,217 


34 . 61 


96 


48^00 


8.73 






Garrett 


705 


67.3 


OO C7Q 

Z£ , b ( o 


32 . 16 


85 


14.18 


2.16 


• • • • 


• • • • 


Charles 


383 


72.4 


10 , 056 


26.26 


73 


14.60 


3.04 


50 


. 10 


Queen Anne's. . 


322 


63.9 


7,573 


23.52 


134 


26.78 


5.82 






Kent 


317 


59.7 


7,406 


23.36 


77 


19.32 


3.22 






Carroll 


937 


60.7 


19,492 


20.80 


246 


27.31 


3.35 


285 


!i9 


Talbot 


296 


44.4 


8,148 


27.53 


78 


12.99 


2.41 






Somerset 


342 


47.3 


8,841 


25.85 


140 


35.00 


4.67 






Worcester 


445 


57.5 


9,192 


20.66 


212 


42.31 


5.72 






Dorchester. . . . 


444 


46.3 


11,042 


24.87 


210 


34.98 


5.12 






Caroline 


398 


57.4 


7,522 


18.90 


169 


33.78 


4.69 


' 45 


' !67 


Howard 


400 


64.2 


*6,512 


*16.28 


124 


30.94 


4.85 






Anne Arundel . . 


1 ,374 


63.5 


21,315 


15.51 


686 


114.40 


9.08 


'428 


^21 


Frederick 


945 


42.0 


22,084 


23.37 


198 


28.29 


2.44 


44 


.02 


Wicomico 


513 


42.4 


9,737 


18.98 


604 


86.35 


11.95 


.... 




Cecil 


497 


43.8 


8,377 


16.85 


187 


23.38 


3.93 






Washington .... 


680 


28.1 


13,773 


20.25 


418 


52.28 


4.76 


"59 


' '.m 


Baltimore 


2,067 


44.1 


*26,187 


*12.67 


933 


93.35 


6.83 






Allegany 


812 


22.4 


14,188 


17.47 


166 


15.13 


1.36 


365 


' !ii 


Prince George's 


657 


23.8 


10.699 


16.29 


90 


8.18 


.88 


250 


.10 


Montgomery. . . 


775 


31.7 


*4. Ill 


*5.30 


1,814 


201.50 


15.85 


1,173 


.50 


Harford 


72 


4.8 


*130 


*1.81 


304 


37.97 


5.12 


172 


.12 



Excludes amounts paid directly by parents or guardians of pupils. 



Expenditures for High School Libraries 

The counties contributed $7,044 from public funds towards the 
maintenance of libraries used by white high school pupils in 1937, 
an increase of $1,460 over the amount spent in 1936. The public 
funds spent for libraries in 1937 varied from nothing in one coun- 
ty, which had spent $158 in 1936 to $1,814 in the county which 
devoted the most money to this purpose in 1937, and which spent 
$933 more than was spent in 1936. All, except seven of the coun- 
ties, spent more for libraries used by white high school pupils in 
1937 than they spent in 1936. 

According to Section 167 of the School Law passed in 1904, it 
is required that $10 be paid by the county school board out of the 
State school fund to any school house district as library money 
as long as the people of the district raise a like amount annually. 
Some counties match or double amounts raised by any section or 
class group in a school. The amounts spent from other than 
county funds by counties which reported on the source and use of 
such funds are included in Table 187, page 258. 



Transportation and Library Services for County White 135 
High School Pupils 



SERVICES OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION 

In addition to their own library facilities which were much im- 
proved in a number of county high schools partly due to WPA 
library projects, a number of high school teachers used the public 
libraries in the counties, cities, and towns, if conveniently located, 
or borrowed books from the Maryland Public Library Advisory 
Commission with offices in the Enoch Pratt Library Building, 400 
Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. 

TABLE 96 



Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White High Schools, School Year 1936-37 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 




Total 


(30 to 35 books in 


each) 


(1 to 12 books in 


each) 
















Year 


No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




and 


Volumes 










County 








































Traveling 






Package 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


1931 


3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 


1932 


4,562 


31 


48 


105 


49 


54 


189 


1933 


6,266 


35 


45 


148 


47 


57 


331 


1934 


4,148 


35 


39 


91 


37 


63 


324 


1935 


6,172 


42 


79 


148 


48 


67 


338 


1936 


3,723 


31 


46 


95 


24 


29 


134 


1937 


2,999 


el7 


e20 


60 


36 


47 


266 


Allegany 


al7 


a. . . . 


a. . . . 


a. . . . 


a2 


a2 


a7 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bc87 








bc2 


bc2 


bc25 


Baltimore 


526 


i 


i 


' ' 3 


7 


10 


97 


Calvert 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 




33 








4 


5 


6 


Carroll 


cl58 


' c2 


"c2 


' c2 


cl 


cl 


c40 


Cecil 


399 


4 


5 


11 


3 


4 


4 


Charles 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be 


be. . . . 


be 




c39 


cl 


cl 


cl 


cl 


cl 


c3 


Frederick 


c72 


cl 


cl 


cl 


c2 


c3 


cl6 


Garrett 


194 


3 


3 


6 


1 


1 


4 




bc221 


bc2 


bc2 


bc5 


bcl 


bc2 


bc7 


Howard 


29 








1 


2 


8 


Kent 
















Montgomery .... 


e7i6 


e. . . . 


e. . . . 


e2i 


' ' 2 


' ' 2 


' '4 


Prince George's. 


130 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 




Queen Anne's. . . 
















St. Mary's 


"58 




.... 




' ' - 2 


' ' 2 


13 


Somerset 


46 


i 




. ..^ 


2 


2 


4 


Talbot 


bclO 


be 


be 


be. . . . 


bcl 


bcl 


bc2 


Washington 


d. . . . 


d 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


Wicomico 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c . 


Worcester 


264 


1 


3 


6 


2 


5 


19 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
In addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the 
days when the library is open. 

d County-wide library takes care of book service to schools. 

e All traveling libraries borrowed by School Board and re-circulated to schools of the county 
from that office, therefore, number of schools and teachers served is not available. 

Because of the cut in the State appropriation for books, the 
Library Commission was not in a position to supply all of the 
books requested. Also the requirement that the cost of trans- 



136 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



porting cases and packages of books be met entirely by the school 
requesting them deterred some teachers who had requested a sup- 
ply. The number of books sent to county white high school teach- 
ers, which totalled 2,999 in 1937, was smaller than for any year 
since 1931. Nine counties showed an increase in the number of 
volumes borrowed for white high schools from the Commission. 
(See Table 96.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period 
of four months, at the end of which time they may be returned 
and exchanged for another collection or renewed for four more 
months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; 
thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not fixed collec- 
tions, but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of trans- 
portation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimburse- 
ment for lost or damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs, or professional needs of teachers. These are loaned for 
one month to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to 
a public library. For traveling and package 4ibraries borrowed 
in 1937, see Table 96. 

The new Montgomery County Public Library at Rockville, re- 
organized and opened to the public in 1937 in the remodelled Rock- 
ville Academy, is a part of the educational system of the county 
under the control of the County Board of Education. 

Works Progress Administration library projects were carried 
on in 16 counties and in the office of the Commission under the 
supervision of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. 
School and library books to the total of 76,790 were reconditioned 
so that they could be put back into service and school libraries 
were organized and catalogued at a cost of $78,559. The library 
at Kenwood High School in Baltimore County was organized and 
catalogued, and work of organization and cataloguing for the 
Cambridge High School begun last year was continued. Seven 
counties had no library projects chiefly because suitable workers 
were not available. (See Table 174, page 240, for expenditures 
by counties.) 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher- 
librarians inaugurated at Western Maryland College in the sum- 
mer of 1936 was also given in 1937 and is to be continued. Five 
high school teachers were enrolled in 1937. 

A number of librarians and teacher-librarians in county high 
schools joined the State Association of School Librarians which 
was organized to stimulate school library service and further 
professional interest. It holds one of its two annual meetings at 
the time the State Teachers' Association is in session. 

Expenditures for Health 

Expenditures for health education and P. A. L. activities by 
the county boards of education in ten counties for white high 
school pupils totalled $2,871 in 1937, $17 less than in 1936. Only 



Library and Health Services; Capital Outlay, 137 
Supervision for White High Schools 

one county spent over $1,000. The expenditure per pupil in these 
ten counties ranged between two cents and fifty cents. (See 
Table 95.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 
The capital outlay for county white high schools in 1937 to- 
talled $1,346,471, a decrease of $63,647 under the outlay in 1936. 
All of the counties with large outlays received grants from the 
Federal Public Works Administration. There were six counties 
in which the capital outlay for white high schools was less than 
$1,000. In Baltimore City S777,114 was the capital outlay for 
white senior high schools. (See Table 175, page 241.) 

The average capital outlay per white high school pupil belong- 
ing was $42.16 in 1937, a decrease of $2.59 under 1936. The capi- 
tal outlay per pupil ranged from less than $5 in ten counties to 
$176. The outlay per white high school pupil in Baltimore City 
was close to $60. (See Table 92, page 129.) 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
In 1936-37 the high schools for white pupils in 5 western, 8 
central, and 10 eastern counties of Maryland were under the 
supervision of the three State high school supervisors, one of 
whom is assigned to each of these sections. In the fall of 1937 
one of the central counties was added to the assignment of the 
supervisor having the eastern counties. Two of the counties in 
the central section, Baltimore and Montgomery, each have a full- 
time county supervisor of high schools. One in the eastern sec- 
tion, Anne Arundel, has a part-time county supervisor. In the 
fall of 1937, Allegany County appointed a full-time high school 
supervisor, and Carroll employed a part-time supervisor of high 
schools. Both of these counties are in the western section. 

TABLE 97 



Supervision of White High Schools by State High School Supervisors, 1937-38 



Section 


Number 
of 

Counties 


Number of 
Public High 

Schools 


Number 
of 

Teachersf 






5 


41 


°322 


Central 




*7 


45 


*388 


Eastern 




11 


64 


x395 



t Excludes teachers of home economics, industrial arts and agriculture. 
* Each of two counties in the central section employs a county supervisor. 
° One county in the western section employs a full-time county supervisor, and another a 
part-time supervisor. 

x One county in the eastern section employs a part-time county supervisor. 



In addition to the teachers shown in the last column in Table 
97, those giving instruction in home economics, trades and indus- 
trial arts, and agriculture each have a special State supervisor 
of these subjects. In the fall of 1937 there were 126 white teach- 
ers of home economics, 97 of trades and industrial arts, and 47 
white teachers of agriculture. The supervisor of agriculture is 
also in charge of training teachers of agriculture at the Univer- 
sity of Maryland. (See Table 97 and Table 72, page 106.) 



SCHOOLS FOR MARYLAND COLORED CHILDREN 



1936 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COUNTY COLORED CHILDREN 

TABLE 98 

Census of Colored Children Five and Under Twenty-One Years of Age 
Inclusive Residing in the 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1936 



Age 



Total (5-18) 1932 

(5-18) 1934 

(5-18) 1936 

Total Ages 20 or Under, 1936 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

Under 5 



Total 



43,254 
42,288 
41,998 

57,533 



1,666 
1,943 
2,326 
2,435 
963 
055 
144 
219 
297 
150 
158 
195 
121 
961 
176 
798 



2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
% 
3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
2 

11,926 



Boys 



21,883 
21,319 
21,264 

29,156 

937 
1,032 
1,226 
1,268 
1,520 
1,524 
1,597 
1,601 
1,607 
1,635 



1,619 
1,594 
1,564 
1,504 
1,563 
1,442 
5,923 



TABLE 99 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, November, 1936 





Number 


Per Cent] 


County 




In Private 








In Private 






In 


and 






In 


and 






Public 


Parochial 


In No 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


In No 




School 


Schools 


School 




School 


School 


School 


Total and Average: 
















1932 


25,752 


700 


3,145 


29,597 


87.0 


2.4 


10.6 


1934 


25,178 


671 


3,191 


29,040 


86.7 


2.3 


11.0 


1936 


24,537 


635 


3,128 


28,300 


86.7 


2.2 


11.1 


Garrett 


3 






3 


100.0 






Queen Anne's 


868 




' 49 


917 


94.7 




5.3 


Harford 


732 


' "6 


48 


786 


93.1 


' ".8 


6.1 


Wicomico 


1,381 


4 


93 


1,478 


93.4 


.3 


6.3 




728 


2 


49 


779 


93.4 


.3 


6.3 


Allegany 


278 


7 


20 


305 


91.1 


2.3 


6.6 


Carroll 


338 


6 


27 


371 


91.1 


1.6 


7.3 


Baltimore 


1,772 


17 


168 


1,957 


90.5 


.9 


8.6 


Somerset 


1,461 


6 


140 


1,607 


90.9 


.4 


8.7 


Washington 


230 


3 


23 


256 


89.8 


1.2 


9.0 


Kent 


739 


1 


75 


815 


90.7 


.1 


9.2 


Anne Arundel 


2,694 


68 


308 


3,070 


87.8 


2.2 


10.0 


Prince George's 


2,963 


148 


356 


3,467 


85.4 


4.3 


10.3 


Talbot 


788 


2 


93 


883 


89.3 


.2 


10.5 


Dorchester 


1,352 




176 


1.528 


88.5 




11.5 


Frederick 


818 


' 10 


109 


937 


87.3 


i'.i 


11.6 


Cecil 


362 


3 


53 


418 


86.6 


.7 


12.7 


St. Mary's 


1,045 


205 


184 


1,434 


72.9 


14.3 


12.8 


Montgomery 


1,660 


2 


262 


1,924 


86.3 


.1 


13.6 


Worcester 


1,381 


1 


218 


1,600 


86.3 


.1 


13.6 


Charles 


1,379 


105 


315 


1,799 


76.7 


5.8 


17.5 


Howard 


566 


31 


133 


730 


77.5 


4.3 


18.2 


Calvert 


999 


8 


229 


1,236 


80.8 


.7 


18.5 



138 



1936 School Census of Maryland County Colored 139 
Children 



The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland coun- 
ties in the fall of 1936 included age groups nineteen and twenty 
years for the first time. There were enumerated 57,533 colored 
children under 21 years of age of whom 29,156 were boys and 
28,377 were girls. There were 41,998 colored children five to 
eighteen years old, inclusive, included in the 1936 school census, 
as compared with 42,288 in the 1934 colored census, a loss of 290. 
(See Table 98.) 

CHART 20 



PER CENT OF COLORED CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 YEARS, INCLUSIVE, 

ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1936, 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



County 



Total Per Cent 
No. of In 
Colored Public 
Children Schools 



Total and 








Co. Av. 


28 


300* 


66.7 | 


3. Anne's 




917 


94.7 


Harford 




786 


93.1 


Wicomico 


1 


,478 


93.4 


Caroline 




779 


93.4 


Allegany 




305 


91.1 


Carroll 




371 


91.1 


Baltimore 


1 


,957 


90.5 


Somerset 


1 


607 


90.9 


Washington 




256 


89.8 


Kent 




815 


90.7 


A. Arundel 


3 


,070 


87.8 


Pr. Geo. 




,467 


85.4 


Talbot 




883 


89.3 


Dorchester 


1 


,528 


88.5 


Frederick 




937 


87.3 


Cecil 




418 


86.6 


St. Mary's 


1 


,434 


72.9 


Montgomery 


1 


,924 


86.3 


Worcester 


1 


,600 


86.3 


Charles 


1 


,799 


76.7 


Howard 




730 


77.5 


Calvert 


1 


,236 


80.8 



Per Cent 
In No 
School 




Per Cent 
In Private 
and 
Parochial 
Schools 



140 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The largest number of colored children, 3,297, was enumerated 
in the twelve-year old age group, which group also included the 
largest number of colored girls, 1,690. The eleven-year old age 
group included the largest number of colored boys, 1,635. The 
number of colored boys exceeded the number of girls except for 
ages under 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, and 15. (See Table 98.) 

Colored Children of Compulsory School Attendance Age 

In 1936 there were 24,537 county colored children of ages 7 to 
15 years, or 86.7 per cent, in public schools, 2.2 per cent in non- 
public schools, and 11.1 per cent not in any school. The per cent 
of colored children of ages 7 to 15 years not in any school ranged 
from 5 per cent to 18.5 per cent. (See Table 99 and Chart 20.) 

A comparison of the census enumeration for 1934 and 1936 
showed a decrease of colored children of ages 7 to 15 years in 
the public schools in all counties except three. Thirteen counties 
showed a decrease in the number of colored children of these ages 
not in any school. (See Table 99 and Chart 20.) 

TABLE 10O 

Colored Non-School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 Mary- 
land Counties Distributed According to Employment, Handicap, and 
Age Groups, November, 1936 



Colored Children of Ages 7-15 Years Not in School 



County 










Physically 


Mentally 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 




7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 




Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Total 1932 


125 


1,117 


701 


990 


91 


35 


62 


24 


1934 


137 


1,182 


641 


1,011 


104 


28 


66 


22 


1936 


127 


1,524 


505 


739 


113 


44 


54 


22 


Allegany 




7 


7 


3 


2 




1 




Anne Arundel 


' 10 


89 


66 


126 


7 


"5 


3 


2 


Baltimore 


14 


111 


6 


24 


7 


1 


3 


2 


Calvert 


2 


56 


79 


78 


6 


4 


3 


1 


Caroline 




36 


1 


1 


4 


4 


3 




Carroll 


' ' 3 


13 




8 


3 








Cecil 


2 


23 


' ' 6 


19 


2 


. ... 






Charles 


21 


107 


107 


67 


8 




4 




Dorchester 


6 


92 


30 


32 


3 


7 


3 


" "3 


Frederick 


7 


57 


12 


22 


4 


1 


6 




Garrett 














.... 




Harford 


' ' 3 


' 26 


' "9 


' ' 8 


i 








Howard 


4 


55 


22 


44 




i 






Kent 




66 


1 




3 


2 


' ' 2 




Montgomery 


' 13 


96 


71 


' 65 


11 


1 


1 


4 




7 


216 


21 


70 


21 


9 


8 


4 


Queen Anne's 




25 


4 


15 


3 


. ... 


1 




St. Mary's 


' ii 


119 


9 


31 


7 




2 


i 




12 


53 


16 


50 


4 


3 


1 


1 


Talbot 


1 


37 


27 


24 


2 




2 




Washington 




12 


1 


8 


1 


. ... 


1 




Wicomico 




81 




1 


2 




6 


' ' '2 


Worcester 


' ' '8 


147 


"io 


43 


5 


3 


2 





School Status of County Colored Children of Ages 141 
7 to 15 Years 

Colored Children Out of School 

Of the 3,128 county colored children of ages 7 to 15 years not 
in any school, 157 were reported as physically and 76 as mentally 
handicapped and therefore excused from school attendance. Also 
there were 1,524 children of ages 14 and 15 years who were em- 
ployed who were eligible to be excused from school attendance. 
(See Table 100.) 

This means that 56 per cent of the colored county children not 
attending school could legally be excused, but that 632, or 20 per 
cent, who were between the ages of 7 and 13 years inclusive, and 
739, or 24 per cent, who were 14 and 15 years old and who were 
not employed were unlawfully out of school. (See Table 100.) 

The enumeration in November, 1936, indicated that 149 county 
colored children reported as physically handicapped and 61 re- 
ported as mentally handicapped of ages 7 to 15 years were at- 
tending school. (See Table 101.) 

TABLE 101 

Handicapped Colored School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 
23 Maryland Counties, Distributed According to Type of Handicap and 
Age Group, November, 1936 



Colored Handicapped Children in School 



County 


Physically Handicapped 


Mentally Handicapped 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


Total 1932 .. 


79 


11 


58 


9 


1934 


110 


22 


39 


13 


1936 


123 


26 


46 


15 




3 








Anne Arundel 


23 




' 22 


' "9 


Baltimore 


5 


1 


1 




Calvert 


2 










3 








Carroll 


4 


' ' 2 






Cecil 


1 








Charles 


9 


4 


3 






8 




7 




Frederick 


11 








Garrett 


. . 








Harford 




... 


.... 






2 








Kent 












"10 










1 


2 






Queen Anne's 










St. Mary's 


' 24 


5 






Somerset 


6 


3 


7 




Talbot 


. ... 


















Wicomico 


3 




' ' 2 




Worcester 


6 




1 





142 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



COLORED ELEMENTARY ENROLLMENT SHOWS 
COUNTY DECREASE, CITY INCREASE 

There were 630 fewer colored pupils in county public elemen- 
tary schools in 1937 than in 1936, bringing the total at the later 
date to 24,698. This means a continuance of the downward trend 
which has been evident each year. Montgomery was the only 
county which showed an appreciable increase in colored elemen- 
tary enrollment from 1936 to 1937. Anne Arundel, Prince 
George's, and Baltimore were the only counties which had more 
colored pupils in public elementary schools in 1937 than in 1923. 
(See Table 102.) 



TABLE 102 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
June 30, 1923, 1936 and 1937 



County 



Total Counties. 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 

Charles 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 



Number Enrolled in 




Number Enrolled in 


Colored Elementary 




Colored Elementary 




Schools 








Schools 










t C0UNTY 








1923 


1936 


1937 




1923 


1936 


1937 


*31,070 


*25,328 


*24,698 


Frederick 


1,150 


874 


845 




Talbot 


1,373 


884 


834 


2,853 


2,966 


2,892 


Kent 


1,188 


796 


785 


2,781 


2,845 


2,844 


Harford 


916 


781 


782 


1,942 


2,008 


1,945 


Caroline 


1,188 


729 


711 


1,898 


1,653 


1,694 




1,093 


703 


671 


1,803 


1,503 


1,483 


Howard 


848 


605 


594 


2,255 


1,575 


1,476 


Carroll 


440 


372 


352 


1,675 


1,366 


1,369 


Cecil 


548 


374 


341 


2,088 


1,381 


1,324 


Washington 


377 


259 


256 


1,947 


1,366 


1,319 


Allegany 


267 


262 


237 


1,343 


1,101 


1,087 










1,405 


1,145 


1,058 




t*15,675 


t*26,863 


t*27,539 








Total State 


*46,745 


*52,191 


*52,237 



* Totals exclude duplicates. 

t Enrollment in grades 7 and 8 in Baltimore City junior high and vocational schools is con- 
sidered elementary school enrollment in this table. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II. page 282. 



In Baltimore City the enrollment is increasing each year, the 
gain of 676 from 1936 to 1937, being slightly greater than the 
loss in the counties, and bringing the total City enrollment in 
1937 to 27,539 in the grades below the last four years of high 
school. (See Table 102.) 

For the second year the enrollment below the last four years 
of high school in Baltimore City exceeded the county enrollment. 
The migration of the colored population from surrounding states 
as well as from the counties has undoubtedly brought about the 
increase in colored elementary pupils in Baltimore City. 



Decrease in County and Increase in City Colored Public 143 
School Enrollment 

A comparison of the colored enrollment in elementary and 
secondary public and non-public schools in the counties and Bal- 
timore City from 1927 to 1937 shows the change which has oc- 
curred during this period. In 1923 the total colored school en- 
rollment in the counties was greatly in excess of that in the City. 
In the period from 1927 to 1937 the county enrollment fluctuated 
slightly, reaching its peak in 1933. The City colored school enroll- 
ment has increased steadily and rapidly from 17,479 in 1927 to 
31,724 in 1937. Since 1935 the City enrollment has exceeded the 
county enrollment of colored pupils. The colored public school en- 
rollment in the counties has been decreasing every year since 
1933, while the colored City public school enrollment has shown 
steady annual gains since 1927. The colored enrollment in non- 
public schools in the City has greatly exceeded that in the coun- 
ties since 1927. (See Table 103.) 

TABLE 103 



Comparison of Colored Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore Citv in Public 
and Non-Public Schools, 1927 to 1937 

















Non-Catholic 




Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1927 


29,736 


17,479 


29,244 


16,454 


492 


1,025 






1928 


29,492 


18,659 


28,994 


16,958 


498 


1,184 






1929 


29,495 


23,166 


28,937 


22,018 


558 


1.147 






1930 


29,466 


24,391 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,334 


i21 


' '79 


1931 


29.667 


24,776 


28,910 


23,452 


653 


1,254 


104 


70 


1932 


29,758 


26,377 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,234 


53 


60 




30,120 


27,546 


29,458 


26,028 


651 


1,439 


11 


79 


1934 


29.781 


28,789 


29,166 


27,202 


607 


1,449 


8 


138 


1935 


29.473 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1.403 


3 


145 


1936 


29,372 


31,071 


28,872 


29,504 


497 


1,438 


3 


129 


1937 


29,251 


31,724 


28,728 


30,284 


523 


1 , 440 




117 



The decrease in colored elementary school pupils in the counties 
may be attributed to the combined effect of migration of colored 
population to Baltimore City or other cities and to the decrease 
in the birth rate. With the exception of Calvert, there is a general 
tendency for the birth rates to be lower in 1930, 1935, and 1936 
than they were in 1920. Data regarding birth rates according to 
place of birth have been furnished by the Bureau of Vital Sta- 
tistics, State Department of Health, for 1920, 1930, 1935, and 
1936, and according to residence of mother for 1935 and 1936. 
The birth rate in 1930 is the one most closely affecting first-grade 
enrollment. (See Table 104.) 



144 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 104 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates per 1,000 Colored Population 



County 


Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident 
Birth Rates 


1920 


1930 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


22 Counties 


28 . 6 


23 . o 


20 


.7 


19 


.5 


22 


.9 


21.8 


Allegany 




1Q 7 


15 


.0 


20.3 


15 


.0 


20 . 3 


Anne Arundel 


29 . 1 


n e a 
AO . D 


20 


2 


20.7 


25 


3 


26.4 




25 . 2 


15. 1 


9 


.3 


9 





16 


8 


15.4 


Calvert 


31.8 


32.7 


29 





36 


3 


29.0 


36.5 


Caroline 


26.1 


24.5 


20 


7 


18 


8 


21 


7 


19.0 


Carroll 


30.5 


22.1 


17 


4 


18 





19.7 


22.5 


Cecil 


26.3 


20.4 


25.7 


21 


5 


25 


3 


21.5 


Charles 


35.5 


30.8 


29 


4 


29 


6 


31 





31.4 


Dorchester 


31.0 


22.2 


19 


7 


19 


1 


19 


5 


19.3 




29.6 


26.1 


19 


8 


20 


5 


20 


2 


20.5 


TTr* rf nrH 


19.2 


29.1 


20 


1 


17 


7 


22 





18.8 


Howard 


30.3 


20.2 


21 


3 


20 


8 


24 


4 


28.1 


Kent 


29.0 


23.4 


19 


4 


19 


6 


20 


1 


19.6 




28.3 


22.7 


19 


2 


16 





21 


5 


20.0 




27.0 


21.7 


17 


9 


14 


2 


26 


2 


21.4 




22.3 


19.4 


18 


7 


13 


7 


18 


9 


15.1 




33.3 


27.4 


24 


5 


24 


3 


25 





24.2 




31.2 


22.2 


22 


2 


20 


2 


23 


4 


20.9 


Talbot 


28.1 


19.8 


22 


1 


17 


8 


21 


4 


16.8 




19.7 


13.4 


I? 


6 


12 


3 


13 





13.7 




30.9 


25.9 


23 


9 


19.5 


21 


5 


17.9 


Worcester 


26.8 


28.3 


23 


4 


23 


1 


24 





23.4 


Baltimore City 


26.1 


22.6 


19 


5 


18 


4 


18 


5 


17.4 




27.5 


23.1 


20.0 


18 


9 


20 


5 


19.4 



COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN 
NEARLY 168 DAYS 

TABLE 105 

Length of Session in Colored Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington 
Montgomery 

Allegany 

Harford 

Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Howard 

Wicomico 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



167.9 

189.6 
187.1 
184.3 
184.1 
182.3 
180.3 
176.3 
168.2 
166.1 
164.1 
163.1 
163.0 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/8 

9/3 

9/3 

9/8 

9/14 

9/10 

9/14 

9/8 

9/28 

9/9 

9/28 

9/14 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/18 

6/11 

6/9 

6/11 

6/16 

6/18 

6/4 

5/31 

6/4 

5/21 

6/1 

5/14 



County 



St. Mary's. . . . 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Worcester .... 

Kent 

Charles 

Queen Anne's. 
Dorchester. . . 

Baltimore City 

Total State. . . 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



162.9 
162.6 
161.1 
161.1 
161.0 
160.7 
160.5 
160.3 
160.1 
159.8 

190.0 

179.6 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



10/1 
9/9 
9/2 
9/14 
9/22 
9/14 
9/29 
10/1 
10/1 
9/21 

9/8 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/4 

5/14 

5/12 

5/14 

5/21 

5/17 

6/4 

5/31 

5/30 

5/21 

6/18 



Colored Birth Rates; Length of Session, Colored Schools 



145 



The dates for the opening of colored elementary schools in 1936 
ranged from September 2 to October 1, while closing dates ran 
from May 12 to June 18, 1937. (See Table 105.) 

The average length of session in the county colored elementary 
schools was 167.9 days in 1936-37, nearly a day longer than in 
1935-36. In the individual counties the range in number of days 
colored elementary schools were open was from 160 days, the 
minimum number required, to 190 days. In six counties the ses- 
sion in the colored elementary schools was over 180 days. The 
colored schools in Baltimore City were open 190 days. (See 
Table 105.) 

In 1936-37 there were 15 colored schools in 6 counties open 
fewer than 160 days, the minimum length of session required by 
law. This was a decrease of 5 schools under corresponding 
figures for the preceding year and a smaller number than ever 
previously reported with the exception of 1932 and 1934. Of the 
15 schools which had short sessions, one was open as few as 154 
days and eight were open 159 days. The short sessions were due 
in some cases to inability to obtain substitutes in the place of 
absent teachers, and in others to a disregard by the teachers of 
their contracts. (See Table 106.) 

As a result of the enactment of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 
1937, after September 1, 1939, the minimum session required in 
colored schools will be 180 days. 

TABLE 106 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer Than 160 
Days, the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year, and by Countv 

for 1937 

Year Number County Number 

1929 53 Allegany Jl 

1930 41 Frederick *1 

1931 34 Kent *1 

1932 12 Calvert f§2 

1933 32 Worcester t***4 

1934 10 Dorchester f-j-<>*** 6 

1935 17 

1936 20 

1937 15 

* 159 days. ° 158 days. § 154 days, 

t 157 days. t 156 days. 

PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average per cent of attendance in county colored elemen- 
tary schools increased from 84 in 1936 to 85 per cent in 1937. 
Sixteen counties had a higher percentage of attendance in 1937 
than in 1936. The range in per cent of attendance among the 
counties was from 73.6 per cent to 92 per cent. (See Table 107.) 



146 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average attendance in the colored elementary schools in 
Baltimore City was 86.9 per cent in 1937 as compared with 86.8 
per cent for the previous year. For the entire State, the average 
attendance was 86 per cent in the colored elementary schools in 
1937. (See Table 107.) 

TABLE 107 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years 
Ending in June, 1923, 1935, 1936 and 1937 



1923 


1935 


1936 


1937 


County 


1923 


1935 


1936 


1937 


76 


2 


84 


5 


84 





85 





Prince George's. . . 


76 


4 


84 


7 


85 


3 


85 


4 


















St. Mary's 


62 


9 


83 





85 


6 


85 


4 


87 


4 


91 


9 


92 


6 


92 







80 


8 


84 


4 


83 


4 


84 


4 


73 


1 


90 


1 


90 


2 


91 


3 


Caroline 


76 


4 


85 


4 


83 


3 


83 


8 


84 


8 


89 


2 


87 


3 


89 


9 


Carroll 


72 





83 


7 


82 


1 


83 


6 


84 


3 


90 


2 


87 


9 


89 


8 


Dorchester 


74 


2 


81 


3 


77 


8 


82 


5 


81 


7 


89 


6 


90 


4 


89 





Charles 


66 


8 


78 


9 


79 


4 


80 


4 


74 


4 


88 


2 


83 


9 


88 


5 


Worcester 


80 


1 


82 


7 


78 


7 


79 


1 


73 


4 


83 


7 


84 


4 


87 


9 


Howard 


71 





78 


6 


78 


1 


78 





79 


9 


84 


4 


84 


4 


87 


7 


Calvert 


65 


3 


72 


4 


73 


1 


73 


6 


80 


5 


87 


5 


86 


2 


87 


7 




















75 


4 


87 


4 


88 


7 


87 


2 


Baltimore City .... 


87 





87 


3 


86 


8 


86 


9 


84 


6 


86 


8 


86 


5 


86 





















71 


2 


84 


6 


85 





85 


6 


State 


79 


9 


85 


9 


85 


4 


86 






County 



County Average 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Washington 

Cecil 

Kent 

Harford 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . . 



The average enrollment in the county colored schools during 
1936-37 was at its maximum in November, with 23,810 pupils 
belonging in the elementary and 3,831 pupils in the high schools. 
In the county colored elementary schools the highest percentage 
of attendance, 93.2, was found in September, with 91.1 in Octo- 
ber, and with 90.8 per cent in June, while the lowest, 79.2, occurred 
in January and February. (See Table 108.) 



TABLE 108 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1937 



Month 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


*16,404 


f3,205 


93.2 


93.6 




23,131 


3,828 


91.1 


93.6 




23,810 


3,831 


87.6 


92.3 




23,764 


3,773 


82.3 


90.7 




23,717 


3,701 


79.2 


89.9 




23,513 


3,614 


79.2 


90.7 




23,422 


3,541 


82.4 


91.6 




23,228 


3,448 


84.6 


91.2 




23,064 


3 , 387 


88.3 


93.0 




:6,561 


°1,721 


90.8 


95.2 


Average for Year 


23,283 


3,616 


85.0 


91.9 



* For elementary schools attendance was not reported in September by Charles, Howard, 
Kent, Queen Anne's. St. Mary's, and Talbot Counties. 

f For high schools attendance was not reported in September by Howard, Queen Anne's, 
and St. Mary's Counties. 

t For elementary schools attendance was reported in June in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll, 
Cecil, Charles, Harford, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Washington Counties. 

° For high schools attendance was reported in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Harford, Kent, Montgomery, Talbot, and Washington 
Counties. 



Per Cent of Attendance; Number of Colored Elementary 147 
Pupils Attending Under 100 and 120 Days 



There were 3,358 colored children or 14.1 per cent of the total 
number enrolled in the county colored elementary schools who 
attended school under 100 days in 1937. This was a smaller num- 
ber and with the exception of the year 1933 a smaller per cent 
than were ever before reported. There were 5,555 pupils, 23.4 
per cent of the colored elementary school enrollment, who were 
present fewer than 120 days in 1937. This was a decrease of 815 
pupils and of 2.6 per cent under corresponding figures for the 
preceding year. The figures showed a decrease under number 
and per cent reported in any year since 1927, with the exception 
of the year 1933, when the percentage was the same. Decreases 
under 1936 in the per cent of colored elementary pupils present 
under 100 and under 120 days were found in 13 counties. (See 
Table 109.) 



TABLE 109 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 
100 and 120 Days, by Year, 1927 to 1937, and by County, 1937 





Number Present 


Per Cent Present 


Year and County 












Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 




100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 


Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 


1927 


7,643 


10,836 


29.0 


41.1 


1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24.8 


35.9 


1929 


5,987 


9,045 


22.9 


34.6 


1930 


4,937 


7,842 


19.3 


30.6 


1931 


4,342 


7,039 


16.7 


27.1 


1932 


3,807 


6,139 


14.8 


23.8 


1933 


3,609 


6,074 


13.9 


23.4 


1934 


4,070 


6,603 


15.9 


25.9 


1935 


3,968 


6,391 


15.8 


25.5 


1936 


3,907 


6,370 


16.0 


26.0 


1937 


3,358 


5,555 


14.1 


23.4 


Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days, by County, 1936-37 


Queen Anne's 


1 


24 


.2 


3.9 




12 


20 


5.2 


8.6 


Cecil 


17 


33 


5.2 


10.2 


Baltimore 


140 


227 


7.6 


12.3 




67 


112 


8.9 


14.8 


Wicomico 


125 


198 


9.8 


15.5 


Kent 


65 


123 


8.5 


16.1 


Carroll 


38 


61 


11.2 


18.0 


Prince George's 


306 


538 


11.3 


19.8 




160 


288 


11.4 


20.6 


Montgomery 


212 


329 


13.4 


20.7 


Frederick 


96 


170 


11.9 


21.0 




370 


606 


13.3 


21.9 




39 


57 


15.8 


23.1 


Talbot 


101 


191 


12.5 


23.7 


St. Mary's 


126 


242 


12.3 


23.7 


Caroline 


103 


188 


15.2 


27.8 


Dorchester 


236 


400 


18.5 


31.4 


Howard 


132 


205 


23.3 


36.2 


Charles 


337 


530 


23.8 


37.4 


Worcester 


329 


499 


26.2 


39.7 


Calvert 


346 


514 


32.4 


48.1 



148 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In the individual counties, the percentage of colored pupils 
present under 100 days ranged from .2 per cent to 32.4 per cent. 
For colored pupils who attended under 120 days, the range was 
from approximately 4 per cent to 48 per cent. (See Table 109.) 



NUMBER OF LATE ENTRANTS DECREASES 
TABLE 110 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or 
Neglect, by Year and by County for 1937 







Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Year 
County 


Total 
Number 
Entering 
Late 


Total 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


*14 Yrs. 
or More, 
Employed 


*Under 
14 Years, 

Illegally- 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


*14 Yrs. 
or More, 
Employed 


*Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Entrants by Year 



1927 


5,204 


17.8 


7.5 


7 


9 


2 


4 








1928 


4,739 


16.5 


7.8 


6 


5 


2 


2 








1929 


3,280 


11.6 


5.3 


5 


1 


t 1 


2 








1930 


3,148 


11.4 


5.8 


4 


5 


1 


1 








1931 


2,505 


9.0 


5.0 


3 


1 




9 








1932 


1,891 


6.9 


4.5 


1 


6 




8 








1933 


1,279 


4.6 


3.3 




9 




4 








1934 


1,067 


3.9 


2.5 




9 




5 








1935 


1 ,202 


4.5 


3.2 




8 




5 








1936 


962 


3.7 


2.3 




9 




5 








1937 


771 


3.0 


1.9 




7 




4 









Late Entrants by County, 1937 



Queen Anne's. . 














1 


1 


1 


Allegany 


1 


.4 




4 






4 


1 


1 




9 


.6 




4 


.1 


" !i 


3 


4 


6 


Caroline 


6 


.8 




6 


.1 


.1 


5 


5 


9 


Carroll 


4 


1.1 




6 


.5 




6 


11 


1 


Cecil 


6 


1.7 


1 


4 




' ' !3 


10 


1 


10 


Wicomico 


24 


1.7 


1 


1 


' .6 




9 


13 


1 


St. Mary's 


21 


1.9 




8 


.6 


' ".5 


8 


14 


15 


Kent 


16 


2.0 






.8 


1.2 


1 


16 


21 


Talbot 


21 


2.3 




7 


1.6 




7 


20 


1 


Washington . . . 


6 


2.3 


1 


5 


.4 


' ' ^4 


12 


8 


13 


Baltimore 


48 


2.4 


1 


6 


.5 


.3 


14 


9 


11 


Prince George's 


75 


2.6 


1 


7 


.6 


.3 


15 


10 


12 


Charles 


39 


2.6 


1 


9 


.3 


.4 


16 


6 


14 


Dorchester. . . . 


35 


2.6 


1 


5 


.4 


.7 


11 


7 


18 


Frederick 


23 


2.7 


2 





.6 


.1 


17 


12 


7 


Anne Arundel . . 


112 


3.8 


2 


8 


.8 


.2 


20 


18 


8 


Worcester 


52 


3.8 


1 


7 


.9 


1.2 


13 


19 


20 


Howard 


26 


4.3 


2 


6 


.7 


1.0 


18 


15 


19 


Montgomery . . . 


97 


5.5 


4 


2 


.8 


.5 


21 


17 


16 


Harford 


45 


5.5 


2 


7 


2.2 


.6 


19 


21 


17 


Calvert 


105 


9.3 


5 


2 


2.7 


1.4 


22 


22 


22 



* 13 years, 1925-31, inclusive. 

There were 771 colored pupils, or 3 per cent of the total elemen- 
tary school enrollment, who entered school after the first month 
because of negligence or indifference, or employment in 1937, the 
lowest figure reported during the period from 1927 to 1937. The 
chief cause of late entrance, negligence or indifference, decreased 
from 2.3 per cent in 1936 to 1.9 in 1937. Late entrance because of 



Late Entrants to and Withdrawals from Colored 149 
Elementary Schools 

employment for pupils 14 years old or more decreased to .7 of one 
per cent, while late entrance due to employment of children under 
14 years decreased to .4 of one per cent of the county colored ele- 
mentary school enrollment in 1937. (See Table 110.) 

Among the counties the percentage of late entrants for indif- 
ference and neglect, and employment varied from none at all in 
one county and less than 1 per cent in 3 counties to 9 per cent in 
one county. (See Table 110.) 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 111 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
by Year, 1927 to 1937, and by County for 1936-37 



Year 

AND 

County 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 



Employ- 
ment 







Over and 




Mental 


Under 




and 


Compul- 


Poverty 


Physical 


sory At- 




Inca- 


tendance 




pacity 


Age 



Other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1.1 


.4 


1928 


2.130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1 


2 


1 


.0 


1.1 


.4 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1 


5 


1 


1 


.9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6.2 


2.9 


1 


2 


1 





.8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1.405 


5.0 


2.2 


1 







9 


.6 


.3 


1932 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4.2 


1.2 


1 





1 





.6 


.4 


1933 


1 , 652 


6.0 


1,069 


3.9 


1.5 


1 







7 


.5 


.2 


1934 


1,773 


6.5 


980 


3.6 


1.2 




9 




7 


.6 


.2 


1935 


1 ,746 


6.5 


996 


3.7 


1.4 




9 




7 


.6 


.1 


1936 


1.809 


6.9 


927 


3.5 


1.4 




9 




6 


.5 


.1 


1937 


1,856 


7.3 


752 


2.9 


1.2 




7 




5 


.4 


.1 



Withdrawals by County, 1937 



Anne Arundel 


188 


6 


3 


45 


1 


5 




3 




.4 




.3 


.4 


.1 


Cecil 


33 


9 


2 


6 


1 


7 








.6 


1 








Queen Anne's 


62 


9 


2 


12 


1 


8 








.5 




3 




' ' .9 


Kent 


40 


5 





15 


1 


9 


i 


3 




.5 




.1 






Frederick .... 


56 


6 


5 


17 


2 







4 


1 


.0 




2 






Allegany .... 


9 


3 


8 


5 


2 


1 


l 


7 








.4 






Pr. George's 


224 


7 


6 


63 


2 


1 




9 




.6 




.6 






Montgomery 


182 


10 


3 


44 


2 


5 


l 


.2 




.2 




5 


' ' ^6 




Dorchester . . 


97 


7 


1 


35 


2 


6 




8 




.4 




4 


.9 


' ".i 


St. Mary's. . . 


67 


6 


2 


29 


2 


7 


l 


2 


1 


.1 




.2 


.2 




Harford 


56 


6 


9 


22 


2 


7 


l 







.9 




5 


.2 


.i 


Washington . . 


11 


4 


3 


7 


2 


7 












.4 


2.3 




Baltimore. . . 


122 


6 


2 


60 


3 





i 


8 




4 




.6 


.1 


.i 




52 


8 


5 


21 


3 


4 




6 


1 


.6 




5 


.2 


. 5 


Somerset .... 


106 


7 





53 


3 


5 


l 


2 




9 




3 


1.0 


.1 


Charles 


104 


6 


8 


54 


3 


6 


l 


4 




4 




1 


1.3 


.4 


Carroll 


22 


6 


1 


13 


3 


6 




8 


1 


1 


1 


7 






Wicomico . . . 


106 


7 


7 


55 


4 





l 


2 


1 


2 




6 


i.o 




Caroline 


59 


8 





32 


4 


4 




1 


1 


5 


1 


6 


.2 




Worcester. . . 


106 


7 


8 


61 


4 


5 


2 


7 




6 




5 


.7 




Calvert 


56 


5 





53 


4 


7 


2 


7 


1 


2 




4 


.3 


' ".i 


Talbot 


98 


10 


4 


50 


5 


5 


1 


9 




4 


2 


■2 


.3 





150 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1937 there were 1,856 pupils or 7.3 per cent of the total 
county colored elementary school enrollment who withdrew from 
school because of removal, transfer, death, or commitment to 
institutions, a higher percentage than was reported for these 
causes for any year since 1930. Among the counties these with- 
drawals ranged from approximately 4 per cent to over 10 per cent. 
This would seem to indicate a greater shifting about of the colored 
population than in the five years preceding. (See Table 111.) 

The total number of withdrawals for causes other than those 
just listed was 752 or 2.9 per cent in 1937, a decrease of .6 per 
cent under the percentage reported for the preceding year, a 
smaller number and per cent than ever before reported. The 
total per cent of withdrawals included 1.2 per cent for employ- 
ment, .7 per cent because of poverty, .5 per cent for mental or 
physical incapacity, .4 per cent who were over or under the com- 
pulsory attendance ages, and .1 per cent for other causes. (See 
Table 111.) 

Per cent withdrawing for causes other than removal, death, 
etc., varied in the individual counties from 1.5 to 5.5 per cent. 
(See Table 111.) 

TABLE 112 



An Index of School Attendance in County Colored Elementary Schools for 
School Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Per Cent of 






















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrance 


drawals 


County Average 


85 





3 





2 


9 










91 


3 






1 


8 


2 


1 


3 




92 







4 


2 




1 


2 


6 


Cecil 


88 


5 


1 


7 


1 


7 


6 


6 


2 


Kent 


87 


9 


2 





1 


9 


7 


9 


4 


Somerset 


87 


7 




6 


3 


5 


9 


3 


15 




89 





2 


3 


2 


7 


5 


11 


12 




89 


9 


1 


7 


4 





3 


7 


18 




85 


6 


3 


8 


1 


5 


12 


17 


1 




86 





2 


7 


2 





11 


16 




St. Mary's 


85 


4 


1 


9 


2 


7 


14 


8 


ib 




85 


4 


2 


6 


2 


1 


13 


13 


7 




87 


2 


2 


4 


3 





10 


12 


13 


Talbot 


89 


8 


2 


3 


5 


5 


4 


10 


22 




83 


8 




8 


4 


4 


16 


4 


19 


Carroll 


83 


6 


1 


1 


3 


6 


17 


5 


17 




87 


7 




5 


2 


7 


8 


21 


11 




82 


5 


2 


6 


2 


6 


18 


15 


9 




84 


4 


5 


5 


2 


5 


15 


20 


8 




80.4 


2 


6 


3 


6 


19 


14 


16 




78 





4 


3 


3 


4 


21 


19 


14 




79 


1 


3 


8 


4 


5 


20 


18 


20 


Calvert 


73 


6 


9 


3 


4 


7 


22 


22 


21 



* Late entrance for employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the smallest 
percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. 
The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Withdrawals; Index of Attendance; Colored Grade 151 
Enrollment 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING 
CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
presented which include per cent of attendance, late entrance, 
and withdrawals for preventable causes, the counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for colored elementary schools. That county is considered 
highest which has a high percentage of attendance accompanying 
a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal. A county 
which makes little effort to get its children to school when they 
are open and permits them to withdraw before the close of the 
year may keep them in regular attendance while they are en- 
rolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all of its pupils to secure an 
education less well than a county which brings all of its children 
into school at the beginning of the year, discourages withdrawals, 
and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. (See Table 112.) 

GRADE ENROLLMENT IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

The enrollment in the county colored elementary schools was 
lower in 1937 than in 1936 in every grade, except the sixth. How- 
ever, the colored high school enrollment showed an increase in 
every year in 1937 over corresponding enrollments in 1936. (See 
Table 113.) 

TABLE 113 



Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years 
Ending in June, 1934, 1936 and 1937, and as of October, 1921 



Grade 

* 


Number in Each Grade, 1937 


Number in Each Grade 


Increase 
1921 to 
1937 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1936 


1934 


1921 


1 


2,428 


2,213 


4,641 


4,699 


5,279 


9,804 


*5,163 


2 


1,882 


1,667 


3 , 549 


3,684 


4,082 


4,237 


*688 


3 


1,832 


1,644 


3,476 


3,600 


3,803 


3,741 


*265 


4 


1,815 


1,711 


3 , 526 


3 , 622 


3.821 


3,126 


400 


5 


1,590 


1,534 


3,124 


3,280 


3,406 


2,011 


1,113 


6 


1,391 


1,433 


2,824 


2,763 


2,938 


1,348 


1,476 


7 


1,164 


1,435 


2,599 


2,797 


2,582 


859 


1.740 


8 


11 


16 


27 


38 


33 


170 


*143 


I 


705 


937 


1,642 


1,515 


1,072 


168 


1,474 


II 


425 


644 


1,069 


953 


801 


98 


971 


Ill 


298 


466 


764 


551 


506 


51 


713 


IV 


178 


260 


438 


402 


337 


6 


432 


Grand Total. . 


13,719 


13,960 


27,679 


27,904 


28,660 


25,619 


2,060 



Decrease. 



Between 1921 and 1937 the first-grade enrollment has been 
more than cut in half, while the second and third grades show 
noticeable decreases in enrollment. On the other hand, there 
have been marked increases in enrollment in grades 5 to 7 and in 
every year of high school. Improvement in persistence through 
the grades and high schools is an important measure of the 
growth in efficiency of a school system. (See Table 113.) 



152 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Colored Grade Enrollment, Elementary School 153 
Graduates 

County colored boys exceed the girls enrolled in grades 1 to 5, 
inclusive, while in grades 6 and 7 and all years of high school, 
there are more girls than boys enrolled. (See first two columns 
in Table 113.) 

With the exception of Allegany, every county had more pupils 
enrolled in the first grade than in anv higher grade. (See Table 
114.) 

GRADUATES OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In 1937 there were 1,923 graduates from the county colored 
elementary schools who represented 8.1 per cent of the total coun- 
ty colored elementary school enrollment, a decrease of 250 and .8 
in number and per cent under the 1936 figures. This decrease 
was caused by the raising of the standards for graduation from 
the elementary schools in several counties to levels higher than 
were previously required. The number graduated included 793 
boys or 6.5 per cent of the colored boys enrolled, and 1,130 girls, 
9.7 per cent of the girls in the county colored elementary schools. 
The percentage of girl graduates was exceeded in only one year 
preceding and of boy graduates in four preceding years. (See 
Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 



Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent* 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1928 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1929 


733 


1 ,077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1930 


728 


993 


1.721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1933 


805 


1,105 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1934 


861 


1,136 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 


1935 


874 


1,190 


2,064 


6.9 


9.7 


8.2 


1936 * 


929 


1,244 


2,173 


7.4 


10.4 


8.9 


1937 


793 


1,130 


1,923 


6.5 


9.7 


8.1 



* Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
commitment, and death, who graduated. 



Among the counties the percentage of colored boys enrolled in 
the elementary schools who graduated varied from approximately 
2 per cent to nearly 12 per cent. For girls the percentage of 
graduates ranged from under 3 per cent to over 15 per cent. 

Only one county graduated a larger number of boys than of 
girls in 1937, and in one county which had an equal number of 
boy and girl graduates the boys graduated represented a larger 



154 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



proportion of the enrollment. Eight counties graduated a larger 
per cent of elementary school boys and nine a larger per cent of 
girls in 1937 than in 1936. (See Chart 21.) 



CHART 21 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1937 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Q. Anne's 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Kent 

Caroline 

Washington 

Allegany 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Somerset 
Pr .George' s 

Calvert 
A. Arundel 
Ealtimore 



795 

50 
40 
20 
58 
19 
52 
29 
19 
11 
7 
57 
55 
45 
61 
28 
60 
19 

50 

86 

24 

50 
15 



.Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent Girls 




42 1 13.6 V//////////////////////////// /////////A 



VZZ2ZZZZZ2ZZZZZZZ ZZZZ2L 





'////////////////////////////////////A 



601 9.7 



7ZZZZZZZZZZZ ZA 




57 [ 10.0 V///// //////////////////////A 




Colored Elementary School Graduates and Non-Promotions 155 



FEWER FAILURES IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The 4,354 colored elementary pupils who failed to meet the re- 
quirements for promotion to the next higher grade in 1937 com- 
prized 18.3 per cent of the county colored elementary school en- 
rollment, a smaller number and per cent than for any year pre- 
ceding. The 1937 non-promotions included 318 fewer or a de- 
crease of .8 per cent under the corresponding figures for 1936. 



CHART 22 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY PUPILS NOT PROMOTED - 1957 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 
Total and 2,601 



Co. Average 
Cecil 

Queen Anne' s 

Carroll. 

Howard 

Talbot 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Washington 

Wicomico 

St. Gary's 

Charles 

Pr. George's 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Baltimore 



8 

25 
14 
38 
51 
69 
128 
108 
18 
108 
85 
124 
253 
147 
87 
31 
172 
88 
405 
98 
165 
381 



■B Per Cent Boys 




15lig*4 



///A 



110 [TST 



65 1 19.7 V" 

EEHH 

141 125 8 '. '/. 



-J 



P7T73 Per Cent Girls 



272fg*3, 



//..■/■'A///. / 



////A 



156 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of failures for 1937 included 21.5 per cent of the boys 
and 15 per cent of the colored girls enrolled. (See Table 116.) 



TABLE 116 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools* 



Year Ending in June 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2,361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2.977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


1934 


3,133 


2,184 


5,317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 


1935 


2,848 


1,959 


4,807 


22.4 


15.9 


19.2 


1936 


2,768 


1,904 


4,672 


22.2 


15.9 


19.1 


1937 


2,601 


1,753 


4,354 


21.5 


15.0 


18.3 



Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions. 



t 

In the individual counties the per cent of failures for colored 
elementary boys varied from less than 5 in one county and under 
10 per cent in two counties to over 40 per cent. For girls the 

CHART 23 



1937 NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES* 
COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

■H Per Cent Boys V772 Per Cent Girls 

II I ■IIIMI— 1 ^ 



Grade 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Number 
Boys Girls 



762 
347 
277 
321 
275 
269 
350 



559 
207 
155 
219 

154 
173 
283 



* Excludes eighth-grade non-promotions in Washington County. 



Colored Elementary Non-Promotions by Grade and Cause 157 



range in percentage of non-promotions was from under 3 per cent 
in one county and fewer than 10 per cent in three counties to 
nearly 30 per cent. In every county but one the number and per 
cent of colored elementary boys not promoted was higher than for 
girls. (See Chart 22.) 

Non-Promotions by Grade 

The highest percentage of non-promotions was found in the 
first grade for approximately 31 per cent of the boys and 25 per 
cent of the girls. The next highest percentage of failures oc- 
curred in the seventh grade with 30 per cent of the boys and near- 
ly 20 per cent of the girls affected. The third grade had the lowest 
percentage of colored pupils who were retarded, 15.1 per cent 
for boys and 9.4 per cent for girls. Decreases in the number and 
per cent of failures under corresponding figures for 1936 occurred 
in the first five grades for boys and in the first four grades for 
girls. (See Chart 23.) 



Non-Promotions by Cause 
TABLE 117 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County Colored Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



County 


Total Not 
Promoted 


All Causes 


Unfortunate Home 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Irregular Attend- 
ance Not Due 
to Sickness 


Personal Illness 


Mental 
Incapacity 


14 Years or 
Over Employed 


Transfer from 
Another School 


Late Entrance 


05 
0) 
r. 
3 

o 

U 

0) 

-= 
C 


Total and Average 


4,354 


18.3 


6.6 


4.4 


2.4 


1.4 


1.3 


.5 


.4 


1.3 


Cecil 


12 


3.7 


1.9 


.9 








.3 


.6 




Queen Anne's 


44 


7.2 


2.1 


1.5 


i!8 


' ' .2 


' ' .2 






1A 


Carroll 


32 


9.5 


2.9 


2.4 


1.2 


1.2 


.6 






1.2 




58 


10.2 


2.5 


1.9 


2.7 


.5 


1.4 




' ".5 




Talbot 


96 


11.9 


2.3 


.5 


4.7 


1.4 


1.9 


' ' !4 




.7 


Kent 


102 


13.4 


7.1 


.7 


1.7 


1.3 


1.4 




' ' 'a 


.8 


Montgomery 


218 


13.7 


3.0 


6.2 


1.1 


.9 


1.0 


' " .3 


.7 


.5 


Worcester 


176 


14.0 


5.4 


1.8 


1.7 


.3 


2.2 


.7 


.5 


1.4 


Washington 


35 


14.2 


7.7 


4.9 


.4 






.4 




.8 


Wicomico 


181 


14.2 


5.1 




2.9 


3.0 


2.1 


.5 


.2 


.4 


St. Mary's 


145 


14.2 


4.6 


'2^8 


2.9 


.3 


1.1 




.4 


2.1 


Charles 


205 


14.5 


4.0 


5.4 


1.4 


.9 


1.3 


' ' '. i 


.6 


.5 


Prince George's 


402 


14.8 


5.0 


3.2 


2.4 


1.8 


.4 


.8 


.4 


.8 


Dorchester 


231 


18.1 


6.9 


4.1 


2.1 


2.4 


1.0 


.2 


.5 


.9 


Harford 


138 


18.3 


7.4 


5.4 


3.0 


.7 


1.5 




.3 




Allegany 


46 


19.7 


9.9 


2.1 


.4 


3.9 


1.3 


' ' .8 




1.3 


Somerset 


282 


20.1 


6.6 


3.3 


2.4 


2.9 


2.6 


.9 


' ' .2 


1.2 


Frederick 


165 


20.4 


10.1 


4.9 


1.9 


.9 


.3 


.7 




1.5 


Anne Arundel 


664 


23.9 


8.6 


7.4 


2.7 


1.4 


.6 


.6 


!5 


2.1 


Caroline 


163 


24.1 


9.8 


1.3 


5.3 


4.4 


1.8 


.5 


.6 


.4 


Calvert 


306 


28.6 


7.5 


13.8 


1.9 


.9 


2.2 




1.3 


1.0 


Baltimore 


653 


35.3 


15.8 


7.8 


4.1 


.4 


1.9 


' ' .8 




4.5 



158 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The chief causes of non-promotions of county colored elemen- 
tary pupils reported by teachers were unfortunate home condi- 
tions and lack of interest. Nearly 7 per cent of the children 
failed for these reasons. Irregular attendance not due to sickness 
was given as the cause of non-promotion of 4.4 per cent of the 
pupils, while personal illness caused the retardation of 2.4 per 
cent of the colored pupils. Mental incapacity caused the failure 
of 1.4 per cent of county colored pupils, and for 1.3 per cent of the 
pupils employment of those over 14 years of age was considered 
the cause of non-promotion. (See Table 117.) 

STATE-WIDE TESTING PROGRAM 

The Unit Scales of Attainment Form A, furnished by the State, 
were given to 10,000 county colored pupils in grades 4-7 between 
May, 1936, and January, 1937. 

The per cent of pupils at or above standard for grades 4-7 were 
combined for each of the eleven subjects. Of the county colored 
elementary pupils 24 per cent were at or above standard in arith- 
metic fundamentals, 26 per cent in literature, 28 per cent in 
geography and science, 29 per cent in reading, 33 per cent in 
arithmetic problems and spelling, 43 per cent in American his- 
tory, English usage and capitalization, and 45 per cent in punc- 
tuation. For the pupils from whom the standards set up by the 
authors of the test were derived, 50 per cent were at standard or 
above. (See Table 118.) 

TABLE 118 



Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Pupils in Grades 4-7 At or Above 
Standard in Form A of Unit Scales of Attainment* 







Per Cent of Maryland County 


Colored Pupils 






in Grades 4-7 


at or above Standard in Form 




Number 




A of Unit Scales 


of Attainment 


Subject 


of Pupils 
Grades 4-7 














Tested 






in County 


in County 






Total 


Hav 


ing 


Having 






Form A 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Reading 


10,087 


29 


4 


13 


3 


72.2 


Geography 


9 , 922 


27 


7 


2 





56.7 




9,909 


26 


3 


8 


2 


69.0 


Science 


9,925 


27 


7 


10 


4 


66.7 




9,901 


42 


5 


16 


8 


68.1 


Arithmetic: 














Problems 


10,064 


33 


1 


11 


1 


73.0 


Fundamentals 


10,059 


23 


9 


4 


4 


59.5 


Spelling 


9,906 


33 


5 


14 


4 


49.7 


English: 








20 




85.9 


Capitalization 


9,887 


43 





4 




9,897 


45 


2 


22 


9 


77.0 




9,884 


42 


6 


24 


5 


72.2 



* Given between May. 1936, and January, 1937 



Non-Promotions; Tests; Colored High School Enrollment 159 



COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
Enrollment in Colored High Schools Larger 

The county colored high school enrollment which was 251 in 
1921, 1,157 in 1927, 2,230 in 1931, 3,019 in 1935 continued its 
steady increase with 4,030 pupils enrolled in 1937, 486 more than 
were enrolled in 1936. The corresponding increase in average 
number belonging was 410 and in average attendance 379. The 
total number of graduates was 373, just 4 more than were re- 
ported in 1936. These figures do not include the Baltimore Coun- 
ty pupils attending Baltimore City high schools at the expense 
of the county. The opening of new high schools, the provision of 
transportation for pupils at public expense, the greater holding 
power of the elementary schools resulting from better instruc- 
tion, and the lack of available positions due to the depression are 
some of the factors which explain the growth in county colored 
high school enrollment. (See Table 119.) 

TABLE 119 



Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High 
School in 22 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1937 





22 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Year 








Four- 








Four- 


Ending June 30 








Year 








Year 






Average 




High 




Average 




High 




Total 


No. 


Average 


School 


Total 


No. 


Average 


School 




Enroll- 


Belong- 


Atten- 


Gradu- 


Enroll- 


Belong- 


Atten- 


Gradu- 




ment 


ing 


dance 


ates 


ment 


ing 


dance 


uates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 


368 




292 


' *5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2.028 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1.931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 


2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2 , 553 


2,483 


2,266 


329 


1935 


3,019 


2,703 


2,502 


322 


2,652 


2,600 


2,406 


391 


1936 


3,544 


3,206 


2,943 


369 


2,641 


2,629 


2,445 


375 


1937 


4,030 


3,616 


3,322 


373 


2,745 


2,724 


2,540 


368 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



The National Youth Administration gave Federal aid to 399 
county colored high school pupils in fifteen counties in return for 
services rendered by these pupils. (See Table 188, page 260.) 

The enrollment in the last four years of high school in Balti- 
more City which has fluctuated slightly since 1933, when it 
apparently reached its peak, totalled 2,745 in 1937, 60 more than 
were enrolled in 1933, but 104 more than the enrollment in 1936. 



160 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 437 colored city high school pupils who received aid 
from the Federal government through the National Youth Ad- 
ministration. The average number belonging in 1937 was 2,724, 
and the average attendance 2,540 in the last four years of high 
school in Baltimore City. The Baltimore City figures include the 
Baltimore County pupils who attend the Baltimore City high 
schools. It will be noted that the counties continue to have a 
larger colored enrollment in the last four years of high school 
than the city. There were 368 graduates from the Baltimore 
City high school for colored pupils in 1937, just 5 fewer than in 
the counties, and the Baltimore City figures included Baltimore 
County residents. (See Table 119.) 

There were 76 colored pupils in non-public high schools in Bal- 
timore City in 1937. (See Tables III-V, pages 283-5, 287.) 



Length of Session in Colored High Schools 

On the average the county colored high schools were open 
172.8 days, 1.5 days more than in 1936. The length of session 
ranged from 160 days, the minimum required, to 185 days or more 
in 4 counties. Pupils from Baltimore County attended colored 
secondary schools in Baltimore City for 190 days. Eleven coun- 
ties kept the colored high schools open longer than 180 days. 
According to the provisions of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 1937, 
all county colored schools will be required to have a session of at 
least 180 days beginning September, 1939. (See Table 120.) 



TABLE 120 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Washington . . . . 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Harford 

Charles 



A verage 
Days 
in 
Session 



172.8 

<190.0 
187.3 
185.0 
185.0 
185.0 
184.0 
183.9 
183.0 
183.0 
181.1 
180.1 
180.0 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/3 
9/1 
9/9 
9/3 
9/8 
9/18 
9/9 
9/14 
9/14 
9/14 
10/1 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/11 

6/11 

6/18 

6/9 

6/11 

6/18 

6/11 

6/16 

6/11 

6/10 

6/11 



County 



Dorchester. . . . 
Prince George's 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 

Baltimore City. 

Total State 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



174.0 
168.1 
164.0 
163.0 
162.6 
162.0 
161.1 
161.0 
161.0 
160.1 

190.0 

180.3 



School Year 
1936-37 



First 


Last 


Day 


Day 


of 


of 


School 


School 


9/21 


6/11 


9/8 


5/31 


9/14 


5/14 


10/1 


6/4 


9/28 


6/1 


9/2 


5/12 


9/14 


5/14 


9/14 


5/17 


9/22 


5/21 


10/1 


5/30 


9/8 


6/18 



* Pupils attend schools in Baltimore City. 



Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance in Colored 161 
High Schools 



Opening dates for the county colored high schools in 1936 
covered the period from September 1 to October 1, while closing 
dates extended from May 12 to June 18, 1937. The colored high 
schools in Baltimore City opened on September 8, 1936 and closed 
on June 18, 1937. (See Table 120.) 



Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 

The average per cent of attendance in the county colored high 
schools was 91.9 in 1937, as compared with 91.8 per cent in 1936. 
In the individual counties the percentage of attendance ranged 
from approximately 81 to 96 per cent. In eight counties the colored 
high school pupils attended school more regularly in 1937 than 
in the preceding year. In Baltimore City the per cent of at- 
tendance in the colored high schools was 93.2, just .2 higher than 
in 1936. (See Table 121.) 



TABLE 121 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending 
in June, 1923, 1935, 1936 and 1937 



1935 


1936 


1937 


90.9 


89.2 


92.1 


92.2 


93.6 


92.1 


93.4 


94.1 


92.1 


94.2 


85.6 


91.8 


90.8 


91.1 


88.9 


89.9 


89.6 


88.6 


89.7 


87.0 


87.4 


89.0 


86.6 


87.2 


90.6 


87.4 


84.4 


t 


t 


80.9 


92.5 


93.0 


93.2 


92.5 


92.3 


92.5 



County 



County Average 

St. Mary's 

Allegany 

Montgomery 
Anne Arundel . . . 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Charles 



1923 



89.3 



93.5 



88.9 
87.4 



90.5 



87.3 
88.4 



1935 



92.5 

90.6 
92.1 
93.8 
94.2 
94.3 
96.5 
94.6 
93.9 
91.2 
93.8 
90.9 



1936 



91.8 

95.7 
93.8 
95.1 
94.1 
93.8 
94.7 
94.8 
94.2 
90.8 
93.6 
87.9 



1937 



91.9 

96.2 
95.5 
94.0 
93.9 
93.8 
93.5 
93.2 
92.8 
92.8 
92.4 
92.2 



County 



Frederick 

Queen Anne's. . 
Washington .... 

Kent 

Harford 

Prince George's 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Howard 



Baltimore City 
State Average . 



1923 



90.5 
86.3 



85.6 
t 



88.8 
88.9 



t Howard County had no colored high school previous to October. 1936. 



Importance of High School in Colored School Program 

The ratio of the number belonging in county colored high 
schools to the total county colored enrollment in elementary and 
high schools combined was 13.9 in 1937, compared with 12.2 in 
1936, including Baltimore County pupils who attend school in 
Baltimore City at the expense of the county. For Baltimore City 
excluding Baltimore County pupils this ratio has remained fairly 
constant at 9.2. (See Table 122.) 

The range in ratio of colored high school enrollment to total 
colored elementary and high school enrollment combined was 
from 3 in one county in which a high school was opened for the 



162 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



first time in the fall of 1936 to 21 or more in four counties. All 
except three counties had a larger proportion of pupils in high 
school in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 122.) 



TABLE 122 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Colored High Schools to "Number Belong- 
ing" in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1924, 1935, 1936 and 1937 



1935 


1936 


1937 


11.2 


11.4 


14.6 


13.3 


14.7 


14.5 


9.6 


13.7 


13.7 


9.7 


11.8 


13.0 


7.9 


7.5 


12.9 


5.3 


11.2 


12.1 


8.6 


10.7 


11.4 


8.0 


9.4 


11.0 


7.9 


8.3 


10.0 


f4.3 


t5.5 


f6.6 






3.1 


*9.3 


*9.2 


*9.2 


9.8 


10.7 


11.5 



County 



County Average 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Washington 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Frederick 



1924 



2.0 

11.9 
2.3 
6.0 
4.0 



4.7 
3.0 
1.6 

6.7 



1935 



U0.3 



23.5 
19.2 
19.7 
14.2 
15.6 
15.1 
13.1 
11.7 
11.5 
10.6 
10.9 



1936 



tl2.2 



28.5 
21.0 
22.3 
18.0 
17.2 
19.7 
16.3 
14.1 
12.9 
11.2 
13.7 



1937 



U3.9 

32.0 
21.9 
21.4 
21.0 
19.7 
17.9 
17.8 
16.6 
16.3 
15.8 
14.8 



County 



Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . 

Harford 

Montgomery. . . 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Prince George's. 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Howard 



Baltimore City. 
State. 



1924 



3.0 
2.0 



1.8 
1.5 



2.5 



9.2 
4.7 



f Includes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the county. 

* Excludes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the county. 



County Colored High Schools Graduate 373 

In 1937 there were 373 colored high school graduates from 
county schools of whom 151 were boys and 222 girls. In addition 
10 boys and 9 girls from Baltimore County graduated from Fred- 
erick Douglass High School in Baltimore City. Excluding Balti- 
more County graduates there was a decrease of 10 boys, but an 
increase of 14 girls over the number of county graduates in 1936. 
In the individual counties the number of boys graduated ranged 
from none in three counties and 2 in one county to 20 and 21 in 
two counties. For girls, the number of graduates varied from 
none in one county and 2 in two counties to 20 or more in three 
counties. Including 10 boys and 9 girls from Baltimore County, 
there were 143 boys and 225 girls graduated from the colored 
senior high school in Baltimore City. (See Table 123.) 

Of the colored boys graduated from Maryland high schools in 
1937, 2 each from Wicomico and Prince George's, 1 each from 
Charles and Cecil, and 3 from Baltimore City, one of whom was a 
resident of Baltimore County, entered Bowie Normal School in 
the fall of 1937. Of the colored girls who graduated from Mary- 
land high schools in 1937, 33 entered the Bowie Normal School 
the following October. Seven were graduates of Prince George's, 
4 came from Charles, and 3 each from Dorchester, Anne Arundel, 
Carroll, and Baltimore City high schools. (See Table 123.) 



Importance of Colored High Schools; High School 163 
Graduates and Their Occupations 



TABLE 123 

Graduates of Four-Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



High 

Schools 

IN 



Total Counties. 

Wicomico 

Dorchester. . . . 
Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Charles 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Harford 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Washington 

Baltimore City. 

Entire State . . . 



Boys Graduated in 



1935 



**142 

*12 
14 
10 
U5 
17 
t2 
12 
t2 
2 
4 
1 
4 
6 
7 
t5 
*16 
5 
4 



**145 
****287 



1936 



********!$! 

*#*#*22 
12 
**10 
*15 
U3 
1 

tl6 

9 

t5 
3 
7 
4 
3 
4 
8 

10 
5 
8 



141 

: *****302 



1937 



**21 
20 
14 

**12 
11 



=**143 
x294 



High 

Schools 
in 



Total Counties. . 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Montgomery. . . . 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . . . 
Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Kent 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Harford 

Calvert 

Washington 

Queen Anne's. . . 
St. Mary's 

Baltimore City. . 

Entire State 



Girls Graduated in 



1935 



°180 

1*****26 
*16 
10 
20 
* 7 
**5 
tl2 
*14 
tt6 
f**9 
10 
6 
10 
3 

t*4 
** 5 

7 
1 



ft" 



<*246 
t426 



1936 



°208 

t*30 
12 
*14 
** 14 

9 

t**10 
t**18 
-f**20 
**10 
t9 
*9 
♦13 
10 
t*5 
4 
* 4 



t8 

tf***234 
J442 



1937 



******* 



: 222 

23 
21 
**20 
*18 

K* 18 

**16 
"15 
14 
*12 
*12 
*8 
8 
7 
**7 

*6 



4 
*2 
2 

***225 
J447 



* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following 
graduation from high school. 

t Each dagger represents a graduate who entered normal school one or more years after 
graduation. 

° The following county girls entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following graduation 
from high school : 1935, 15 ; 1936, 16 ; 1937, 30. 

t The following girls from State public high schools entered Bowie Normal School in the fall 
following graduation from high school: 1935, 19; 1936, 19; 1937, 33. 

x Includes 9 boy graduates who entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following gradua- 
tion from high school. 

For graduates of individual schools in 1937, see Table XXVIII, pages 309 to 315. 



Occupations of 1936 Colored High School Graduates During 1936-37 

Of 161 colored boys graduated in 1936 from county high schools, 
41 or 25.5 per cent continued their education in colleges or normal 
schools during 1936-37. Besides those who were enrolled in in- 
stitutions of higher learning, 24.2 per cent were either working 
or staying at home, 19.3 per cent were farming or working in 
C. C. C. camps, 16.8 per cent were w r orking at various jobs, and the 
occupations of 14.2 per cent were unclassified or unknown. Of 
208 girls graduated in 1936, 54 or 26 per cent were continuing 
their education in 1936-37. In addition to these 57.6 per cent were 
either working or staying at home, 5.8 per cent were married, 
and the occupations of 10.6 per cent were not known. (See 
Table 124.) 



164 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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166 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The Colored High School Program in 1937 

Since four years of English are required in all high school cur- 
ricula, every colored high school pupil was enrolled in English, 
98 per cent took courses in the social studies, 93 per cent received 
instruction in mathematics, and approximately 87 per cent were 
enrolled in science courses. All the pupils enrolled in 25 county 
colored high schools had courses in the social studies, and in 20 
schools every pupil was enrolled in a class in mathematics. Courses 
in Latin were taken by 79 boys and 177 girls in six high schools 
in four counties, while instruction in French was given to 106 
colored boys and 162 girls in seven counties. The colored high 
school in Annapolis offered both Latin and French. (See Table 
125 and Table XXIX, pages 316-321.) 

Instruction in industrial arts was given to 42 per cent of all 
county colored boys enrolled. It was offered in eleven high schools 
in ten counties. Agriculture was taken by 384 boys enrolled in 
7 high schools, two of which also offered industrial arts courses. 
Courses in general or vocational home economics were taken by 
75 per cent of colored high school girls enrolled, and were given 
in all except seven high schools in four counties. Vocational 
home economics was offered in two counties. 

Classes in physical education were reported in four high schools 
in three counties for 136 colored boys and 74 girls. Instruction 
in music was given to 600 colored high school boys and 858 girls 
in nine counties, who comprised 37 per cent of the total county 
high school enrollment. (See Table 125 and Table XXIX, pages 
316 to 321.) 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were 30,284 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored 
schools which included 24,184 in the elementary schools, 3,808 
in the junior high schools (grades 7-9), and 1,791 in the senior 
high schools. The high school figures included Baltimore County 
pupils who attended Baltimore City schools at the expense of the 
county. The length of the school year was 190 days, during which 
the attendance was 86.2 per cent in the elementary schools, 92 
per cent in the junior high, and 93.9 per cent in the senior high 
schools. In addition to the regular elementary and secondary 
schools, the vocational school enrolled 265 boys and 236 girls. 
Classes in trades and industries which included auto mechanics, 
drafting, tailoring, painting and decorating, carpentry, shoe re- 
pairing, sheet metal, electricity, woodworking, and related sub- 
jects were held for boys. The girls were given courses in cookery, 
hygiene, art and textiles, dressmaking, and related subjects. 
There were 187 physically handicapped children enrolled in 10 
special classes, and 1,768 mentally handicapped were taught in 



Subjects Taught in County Colored High Schools; Balto. City; 167 
Training and Summer School Attendance of County Colored Teachers 

68 opportunity classes, shop and special centers. There were 72 
physically handicapped children taught in their homes. (See 
Table 26, page 39, and Table 165, page 229.) 

Six elementary and secondary schools in which 44 teachers 
were employed were open during the summer of 1936 for the in- 
struction of 1,968 colored pupils. Of these 1,654 completed the 
work attempted, 1,481 having taken review work and 173 having 
done advance work. (See Table 148, page 204.) 

The Baltimore City evening school colored enrollment included 
1,400 in elementary schools, 656 taking academic work in second- 
ary schools, 320 enrolled in commercial courses, and, 1,134 who 
received training in industrial work, home economics, and parent 
education. (See Tables 150 and 152, pages 207 and 209.) 

TRAINING OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

Of the 676 teachers employed in the county colored elementary 
schools in October, 1937, 667 or 98.7 per cent held regular certifi- 
cates of first or higher grade, an increase of .6 per cent over cor- 
responding figures for the preceding year. Twelve of these teach- 
ers held the Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Edu- 
cation, which means graduation from a four-year teachers col- 
lege. The advanced first-grade certificate representing three 
years of normal school training was held by 63 teachers. The 
remainder held first-grade certificates indicating graduation from 
a two-year normal school or equivalent. There were 7 teachers 
holding second-grade certificates and two substitutes. In 15 coun- 
ties every colored elementary teacher held at least a regular first- 
grade certificate. (See Table XIII, page 295.) 

Of 134 county colored high school teachers employed in October, 
1937, all but 9 special teachers holding provisional certificates 
and 1 substitute had regular high school certificates. (See Table 
XIII, page 295.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

There were 137 elementary and 30 high school teachers who 
were summer school attendants in 1937. They represented 19 per 
cent of the county colored teaching staff in October, 1937, a de- 
crease of 5.3 per cent under the per cent reported as attending 
summer school in 1936. In the individual counties the percent- 
age of summer school attendants included from approximately 
4 per cent to nearly 32 per cent of the colored teachers employed. 
Seven counties had one-fourth or more of the colored teaching 
staff at summer school in 1937. (See Table 126.) 

Morgan College attracted the largest number of colored teach- 
ers from the Maryland counties, having enrolled 66 elementary 
and 6 high school teachers in the summer of 1937. Hampton In- 



168 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

stitute enrolled the next highest group, 35 elementary and 3 high 
school teachers, while Temple University drew 11 elementary and 
4 high school teachers. (See Table 126.) 

TABLE 126 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1937, Reported by County 
Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer School Attendants in 1937 



County 



Teachers Employed Oct.. 

1937, Who Attended 
Summer School in 1937 



Ele- 
mentary 



High 



Per 
Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of Colored 
Teachers 



Ele- 
mentary 



High 



Total and Average 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Worcester 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

Anne Arundel .... 
Prince George's. . 

Charles 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Howard 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Washington 

Cecil 

Kent 



al37 

10 
13 
2 
7 
8 
11 
t4 
6 
6 
tl 
9 
t6 
15 
16 
7 
5 
3 
2 
3 
1 
I 
tl 



30 



19.0 

31.6 
28.6 
27.3 
26.8 
26.7 
25.6 
25.0 
23.3 
22.9 
20.0 
19.6 
19.6 
19.5 
18.5 
18.4 
17.2 
17.2 
15.8 
12.0 
9.1 
6.3 
3.7 



Total 

Morgan College 

Hampton Institute 

Temple University 

Howard University 

Virginia State College 

University of Pennsylvania . 

Colombia University 

University of Michigan 

South Carolina A. and M. . . 
West Chester State Teachers 

College 

Other 



bl41 

**66 
*35 
11 
8 
6 
2 
2 



f Each dagger represents one supervisor excluded. 
* Each asterisk represents one supervisor included. 



a Excludes 4 supervisors, 
b Includes 4 supervisors. 



TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

County Elementary Schools 

There were 56 resignations from the county colored elementary 
schools in 1935-36, a decrease of 12 under the number for the 
preceding year. These figures exclude teachers who were on 
leave of absence or who transferred from one county to another. 
(See Table 127.) 

Inefficiency caused the dismissal of 25 county colored elemen- 
tary teachers. Six teachers resigned to take positions in other 
states, 4 teachers resigned because of illness, 3 retired, 3 left be- 
cause of marriage, and 3 died. There were 21 colored elementary 
teachers who transferred to another county. (See Table 127.) 

There were 57 appointments to the staff of the county colored 
elementary schools during 1936-37, 8.2 per cent of the total num- 
ber of teachers employed, a decrease of 13 in number and 1.5 in per 



Summer School Attendance and Turnover of County 169 
Colored Teachers 



TABLE 127 



Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools from Oct., 1935, to Oct., 1936, with 
Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 






Elementary School 


High School 


Cause of Resignation 
















Oct. '33- 


Oct. '34- 


Oct. '35- 


Oct. '33- 


Oct. '34- 


Oct. '35- 




Oct. '34 


Oct. '35 


Oct. '36 


Oct. '34 


Oct. '35 


Oct. '36 


Inefficiency 


23 


22 


25 


5 


4 


5 


Teaching in another state 


3 


2 


6 




2 


4 


Illness 


5 


7 


4 




1 


1 


Retired 


3 


5 


3 










15 


4 


3 


. "i 






Death 


6 


3 


2 




.. .. 




Left to study 


1 


. . „ 


2 








Abolished positions 


1 




1 




2 






1 
























2 


Dropped for low certificate or failure 














to attend summer school 


1 


1 




2 




1 




14 


17 










Teaching in Baltimore City 


4 


3 




1 


1 




Other and unknown 


1 


3 


*io 






"H 


Total 


78 


68 


56 


10 


15 


18 


Leave of absence 


3 




8 


. ... 


2 




Transfer to another county 


16 


' 25 


21 








Transfer to High School 




2 











* Includes 2 who were dismissed for unprofessional conduct and one who was rejected by 
the medical board. 

t Includes 2 who were dismissed for immorality. 



cent under corresponding figures for the preceding year. These 
figures exclude 22 teachers who transferred from one county to 
another. Of the 57 new appointments, 39 were inexperienced, 
12 had previously taught in Maryland counties, but had not been 
in service the preceding year, 5 had had experience in other states, 
and one was a substitute. (See Table 128.) 

Among the counties the turnover in colored elementary schools 
ranged from none at all in 4 counties to nearly 28 per cent. Nine 
counties had a lower percentage of turnover in 1937 than in 1936. 
( See Table 128.) 

County High Schools 

Between Oct., 1935, and Oct., 1936, 18 teachers resigned from 
the county colored high schools. Five teachers were dropped for 
inefficiency, 4 received appointments in other states, 2 were given 
supervisory positions, 2 secured work other than teaching, 1 left 
because of illness, and one was dropped for low certification. In 
addition to these, 9 teachers were transferred to other counties. 
(See Table 127.) 

In 1936-37 there were 28 colored teachers or 23.9 per cent new 
to the county high schools compared with 25 or 22.3 per cent for 
the preceding year. Partly due to the increasing size of the high 



170 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



school staff the turnover has increased each year since 1933-34, 
when the lowest number of new appointments was made. In 
every county having a high school for colored pupils, except one, 
from 1 to 4 colored teachers were new to the high school staff. 
(See Table 128.) 



TABLE 128 

Number and Per Cent of Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties for 
School Year 1936-37 Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced and 
from Other Counties, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Year 

AND 

County 


New to County 


Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


New to County, Who Were 


Ele- 
mentary 


High 


Inexper- 
ienced 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Experi- 
enced 
in Md. 

Counties 
but not 

Teaching 
Preced- 
ing Year 


Experi- 
enced 
but 
New 

to 
State 


Substi- 
tutes 
and 
Other 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 

Cent 


Total and 
Average 
1930-31. . . 
















r 










°201 


26 


4 


°26 


30 


2 


+ 13 


tl76 


33 


*33 


***14 


4 


1931-32 


°115 


15 


4 


°35 


38 


5 


4-3 


fH3 


*25 


**24 


alO 


3 


1932-33! ! ! 


°103 


13 


9 


°28 


29 


5 


—4 


t99 


***14 


x22 


*7 


3 


1933-34. . . 


°73 


10 


2 


°15 


15 


8 


—12 


f59 


t2fi 


12 




*6 


1934-35. . . 


°96 


13 


2 


°20 


19 


4 


+ 16 


191 


*14 


*21 


*2 


*2 


1935-36. . . 


°70 


9 


7 


°25 


22 


3 


+ 3 


t72 


J32 


*10 


****6 


a7 


1936-37. . . 


°57 


8 


2 


°28 


23 


9 




t60 


J33 


12 


xll 


*2 


Allegany 








i 


25 







*1 










Frederick 








3 


75 





— i 


*1 










Montgomery . . . 
Queen Anne's. . 








3 


50 





— l 


**2 


*1 














2 


50 





+ i 


**2 










Baltimore 


' ' 2 




5 








—l 






.... 






Anne Arundel . . 


4 


5 




' ' 2 


22 


2 


—l 


' i 2 










Wicomico 


2 


5 


7 


2 


18 


2 




** 4 










Cecil 


1 


7 


1 


• 1 


33 


3 








"i 






Harford 


2 


8 





1 


16 


7 


'+2 


' *2 










Kent 


2 


8 


7 


1 


25 







*2 










Carroll 


1 


9 


1 


2 


50 





' +i 


*2 






*i 




Prince George's 


7 


9 


2 


3 


23 


1 


+ i 


*3 










Washington .... 


1 


11 


1 








—l 


1 




. . .. 






Charles 


6 


14 





' ' "a 


66 


7 


+ 2 


***7 


"*2 








Talbot 


5 


17 


2 


3 


50 







3 


*3 




'**2 




Howard 


3 


17 


6 


1 


100 





'+i 


1 


*3 








Somerset 


8 


17 


8 


2 


28 


6 


—2 


5 


*2 


' ' 2 


*i 




Dorchester .... 


8 


21 


1 


2 


25 







*7 


*1 


1 






St. Mary's 


7 


21 


2 


2 


50 





"+i 


*3 


*3 


2 






Worcester 


9 


23 


7 


1 


20 







* 4 


4 


1 






Calvert 


6 


25 





1 


33 


3 




3 




1 




Caroline 


5 


27 




2 


28 


6 


—2 


**5 




2 






Baltimore City 


43 


6 











+ 18 


36 




5 


2 




El. and Prevoc. 


32 


5 


7 








+ 10 


27 




5 


.... 




Vocational .... 


2 


9 


5 








+ 1 












Junior High . . 


9 


6 


8 








+ 12 


8 






1 


















—5 












Entire State . . . 


100 


7 


1 


28 


15.9 


+ 18 


|96 


J33 


17 


xl3 


*2 



° Total number and per cent new to counties as a group exclude transfers from other counties. 
* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher. 

t Includes 22 high school teachers for 1930-31, 28 for 1931-32, 21 for 1932-33, 11 for 1933-34, 
17 for 1934-35, 15 for 1935-36, and 21 for 1936-37. 

$ Includes 7 high school teachers for 1933-34, 8 for 1935-36, and 11 for 1936-37. 
x Includes 6 high school teachers, 
a Includes 5 high school teachers. 



Turnover of Colored Teachers; Schools Training Teachers; 171 
Men Teachers 

TURNOVER IN BALTIMORE CITY SCHOOLS 

The turnover in Baltimore City in 1936-37 included 34 colored 
elementary and 9 colored high school teachers. Of these 36 were 
inexperienced teachers, 5 had previous experience in Baltimore 
City but were not in service the preceding year, and 2 had had 
experience outside of Baltimore City. (See Table 129.) 

TABLE 129 



Turnover of Teachers in Baltimore City Colored Schools 



Year 


New to 
Baltimore City 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 


Inex- 
per- 
ienced 


Who Were Experienced 


*Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


High 
Schools 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 


In 

County 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Baltimore 
City 
School 


Other 


1929-30. . . 


57 


11 


+ 41 


48 


9 


5 


6 


2 




1930-31. . . 


45 


17 


+ 34 


46 


6 


6 


2 


5 


2 


1931-32. . . 


36 


13 


+28 


33 


3 


7 


4 


2 


2 


1932-33. . . 


28 


9 


—28 


34 


2 






35 


1 


1933-34. . . 


20 


5 


+ 43 


15 




*8 


2 






1934-35. . . 


60 


9 


+ 9 


48 


2 


8 


11 






1935-36. . . 


28 


11 


+30 


30 


2 


5 


1 




i 


1936-37. . . 


34 


9 


+ 18 


36 


2 


5 









Includes elementary, vocational, and occupational schools. 



SCHOOLS IN WHICH NEWLY APPOINTED COLORED 
TEACHERS RECEIVED THEIR TRAINING 

Of the 44 teachers who were new to the county colored elemen- 
tary schools in 1936-37, 12 or over one-fourth were graduates of 
the Bowie Normal School. Of the remainder, 8 graduated from 
Cheyney Normal School, and 7 received their training at Hampton 
Institute. (See Table 130.) 

Of the newly appointed colored high school teachers, 8 were 
graduates of Hampton Institute, 6 were trained at Morgan Col- 
lege, 5 graduated from Virginia State Teachers College, and 3 
from Howard University. (See Table 130.) 

MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

The counties employed 144 colored men teachers in 1936-37, 
who represented 17.6 per cent of the staff. This was an increase 
of 11 in number and 1.3 in per cent over 1935-36. The number of 
men employed has been increasing since 1928 chiefly because of 
the increase in the number of high school positions. Of the county 



172 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 130 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were 
New to Maryland Counties during the School Year 1936-37 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Bowie Normal School 

Cheyney Normal School, Pa 

Hampton Institute 

Miner Normal School, Wash., D. C 
Glassboro Normal School, N. J. . . . 

Trenton S. T. C, N. J 

Storer College, W. Va 

Dover S. T. C, Delaware 

Miami University, Ohio 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Ohio University 

Howard University, Wash., D. C. . 

Hunter College, N. Y 

Berean College, Pa 



Newly 
Appointed 
Elementary 
School 
Teachers 



t44 

12 

8 

** 7 
*3 
*3 
*2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Hampton Institute 

Morgan College, Baltimore 

Virginia State Teachers College . . . 
Howard University, Wash., D. C. . 
Miner Normal School, Wash., D. C 

A. and T., Greensboro, N. C 

Benedict College, C. S 

Illinois Normal 

University of Iowa 



* Each asterisk represents one teacher with experience outside the state, 
f Includes 5 teachers with experience outside the state. 
t Includes 6 teachers with experience outside the state. 



colored elementary staff 12 per cent were men and of the colored 
high school staff 51 per cent were men in 1937. For the past two 
years there have been more colored men than women teaching 
in the county high schools. (See Table IX, page 291.) 

In Baltimore City 163 of the 810 colored teachers or 20.2 per 
cent were men. This was an increase of 6 in number and .3 in 
per cent over the 1936 figures. (See Table IX, page 291.) 

SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average number of pupils per colored elementary teacher 
in the Maryland counties increased slightly from 33.2 in 1936 to 
33.3 in 1937. Among the counties the average size of class in the 
colored elementary schools varied from 23.3 pupils per teacher 
to approximately 42 pupils. In Baltimore City there were 37.5 
colored pupils per elementary teacher and principal, making the 
average for the entire State 35.2 pupils. For junior high schools 
the corresponding figures were 27.8 and for vocational schools 
23.3 pupils. (See Chart 24.) 

Decreases in number of pupils per colored elementary teacher 
in 1937 under 1936 were found in 13 counties, but were more 
than offset by increases in 8 counties. (See Chart 24.) 



Schools Training Colored Teachers; Men Teachers; 173 
Size of Class in Colored Schools 



CHART 24 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED ELEMENTARY TEACHER 



County 



1935 1936 1937 



Co. Average 34.0 33.2 



Celvert 
Baltimore 
Allegany 
Caroline 
T icomico 
Montgomery 
Anne Arundel 
Pr. George's 
Howard 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Queen Anne' s 

Talbot 

Cecil 



42.9 
43.4 
41.5 
32.4 
34.2 
32.8 
35.6 
36.3 
31.3 
33 . 7 
30.5 
35.9 
35.5 
28.6 
31.0 
32.5 
26.4 
31.6 
32.9 
31.9 
29.6 
25.6 



40.9 
42.2 
41.3 
33.6 
34.9 
32.1 
35.5 
34.4 
33.1 
32.9 
27.6 
33.4 
33.5 
51.1 
30.1 
21.8 
24.5 
32.6 
30.8 
30.3 
28.7 
25.1 



Balto. City 38.0 37.3 
State 35.8 35.0 





t Excludes 27.8 pupils for junior high and 23.3 pupils for vocational schools. 

High Schools 

There were on the average 30.7 high school pupils belonging 
per county colored high school principal and teacher in 1937, an 
increase of .9 over 1936. The range in ratio of colored pupils to 
high school principals and teachers in individual counties was 
from 15 in a newly organized school to over 40 in two counties 
with inadequate building facilities. In seven of eight counties in 



174 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



which the number of pupils per high school teacher and principal 
was lower in 1937 than in 1936, the change was due to an increase 
in teaching staff. (See Chart 25.) 



CHART 25 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 



County 1935 1926 1937 
Co. Average 26.5 29.8 



Worcester 
Calvert 
Montgomery- 
Somerset 
St. Mary's 
Kent 

A. Arundel 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Pr. Geo. 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Q. Anne's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Carroll 

Washington 

Howard 



39.6 
44.5 
40.9 
27.5 
45.8 
24.5 
27.0 
33.8 
29.7 
16.6 
28.1 
20.6 
20.7 
21.8 
24.1 
34.3 
18.8 
20.5 
19.8 
18.8 



32.2 
34.0 
41.2 
30.4 
29.2 
29.4 
28.0 
35.8 
31.7 
35.3 
36.0 
25.4 
25.5 
24.3 
25.5 
36.7 
18.6 
26.7 
24.1 
19.3 





Balto. City 25.8+ 26. 8 t 
State 26.2 26.0 




t Includes Baltimore County pup?ls whose tuition in Baltimore City is paid by the county. 

The average number of pupils belonging per colored senior high 
school principal and teacher in Baltimore City in 1937 was 30.2, an 
increase of 3.4 pupils over the number in 1936. (See Chart 25.) 



Average Number of Pupils and Average Salary per 175 
Colored Teacher 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COLORED PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 

CHART 26 

$1,000 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 



$ 600 




$ 400 



$ 200 



1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937 



Elementary Schools 

The average salary per county colored elementary teacher in- 
creased by $17 from $636 in 1936 to $653 in 1937. The 1937 aver- 
age salary was the same as that received in 1932, and was only ex- 
ceeded during the period since 1923 by the average of $657 paid in 
1933. Salaries since 1923 have been determined with respect to 



176 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the minimum paid by the schedule established by the 1922 legis- 
lature, which were cut by 10 per cent by the 1933 and 1935 legis- 
latures, the cuts affecting salaries from 1934 to 1937, inclusive. 
With the annual increase of teachers having standard professional 
training of graduation from a two-year normal school course and 
the greater stability of the staff, more teachers have become eli- 
gible to the salaries paid teachers holding the higher grades of 
certificate and to increments due to experience. These factors 
explain in part the gradual and steady increase in average salary 
from 1923 to 1933 inclusive. Since the latter year the cuts have 
been in effect, but after the first cut evident in 1934 there has 
been a gradual rise again so that 1937 salaries had almost reached 
the highest point before the cuts were in effect. (See Table 131 
and Chart 26.) 

TABLE 131 



Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1923-1937 











Year Ending June 30 


Average 


Year Ending June 30 


Average 




Salary 




Salary 


1923 


$513 
532 
546 
563 
586 
602 
621 
635 


1931 


$643 
653 
657 
595 
602 
636 
653 


1924 


1932 


1925 


1933 


1926 


1934 


1927 


1935 


1928 


1936 


1929 


1937 


1930 





The average salary for colored elementary school teachers 
among the counties ranged from $497 to $1,286. Average salaries 
in twelve counties fell between $501 and $577 and in seven coun- 
ties between $623 and $773. Ten counties paid higher salaries 
in 1937 than in 1936, four counties with the lowest average 
salaries paid the same amount as for the preceding year, while 
eight counties showed decreases in average salary. (See Chart 
27.) 

Since salaries of colored teachers are paid on a monthly basis, 
the counties having the highest average salaries are those which 
keep their schools open the longest time. The minimum number 
of days required is eight months or 160 days; but Allegany, Bal- 
timore, Cecil, and Washington Counties keep the schools for 
colored children open as long as those for white pupils, and in 
Prince George's and Harford the session is considerably longer 
than the minimum required. According to Chapter 552 of the 
laws of 1937, after September, 1939, all colored schools must be 
kept open at least 180 days. 



Average Salary per Colored Teacher 



177 



The 1937 average salary per colored elementary teacher in 
Baltimore City was $1,670, an increase of $58 over the amount 
paid in 1936. The State average in 1937 was therefore $1,120 per 
colored elementary teacher. (See Chart 27.) 

CHART 27 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1933 


1935 


1936 


Co. Average $657 


$602 


$636 


Allegany 


1223 


1180 


1287 


Baltimore 


1139 


1085 


1139 


Washington 


907 


714 


771 


Pr. George' s 


744 


677 


711 


Cecil 


726 


757 


759 


Montgomery 


649 


631 


663 


Anne Arundel 661 


621 


682 


Harford 


703 


664 


719 


Frederick 


590 


542 


614 


Carroll 


587 


537 


562 


Wicomico 


586 


521 


565 


Calvert 


593 


530 


572 


Kent 


582 


525 


535 


Howard 


568 


501 


514 


St. Mary's 


570 


514 


537 


Charles 


578 


544 


547 


Queen Anne' 


s 561 


511 


527 


Talbot 


562 


504 


513 


Caroline 


534 


501 


518 


7' ore ester 


559 


498 


507 


Somerset 


539 


486 


501 


Dorchester 


541 


485 


497 


Balto. City 1614 


1586 


1612 


State 


1056 


1037 


1076 




Excludes $1,886 for junior high and $2,010 fcr vocational teacher: 



High School Salaries 

In 1937 the average salary per county colored high school prin- 
cipal and teacher was S821 compared with $817 in 1936. (See 
Chart 26, page 175.) The 1937 average represented a range from 



178 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



$638 to $1,440 in average salary in individual counties. The 
length of session affects the salary paid because the salary sched- 
ule is set up on a monthly basis. Counties having higher salaries 
have a longer school year. Twelve counties paid on the average 
more in 1937 than in 1936. The average salary for a colored 
senior high school teacher in Baltimore City was $2,270 in 1937, 
an increase of $154 over 1936. The average salary in the State 
as a whole was $1,303. (See Chart 28.) 

CHART 28 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 



County- 


ig33 


1935 


1936 


Co. Average 


I 837 $ 790 $ 817 


Allegany- 


1377 


1311 


1501 


Washington 


832 


1020 


1065 


Anne Arundel 


984 


958 


994 


Cecil 


994 


924 


924 


Frederick 


1082 


882 


968 


Montgomery 


832 


859 


832 


Pr. George 1 s 


854 


807 


858 


Harford 


777 


756 


772 


Kent 


866 


764 


763 


Carroll 


782 


695 


733 


Caroline 


795 


757 


797 


Charles 


875 


811 


736 


Talbot 


794 


716 


752 


Wiconico 


751 


660 


739 


Dorchester 


700 


676 


702 


Howard 








Worcester 


701 


702 


679 


Queen Anne's 


808 


680 


699 


St. Mary's 




709 


641 


Calvert 


720 


720 


668 


Somerset 


693 


605 


622 


Balto. City 


1796* 


1984* 


2116* 


State 


1197 


1246 


1290 




* These teachers instruct Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is paid by the county. 



COST PER PUPIL IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average cost per county colored elementary pupil belonging 
for current expenses increased from $26.73 in 1936 to $28.75 in 
1937, a gain of $2.02. Costs in the individual counties ranged 
from $22 to over $50. Allegany, Baltimore, and Washington, 



Average Salary per Colored High School Teacher; 
Cost per Colored Elementary School Pupil 



179 



which pay the highest salaries to colored teachers, and Cecil with 
small classes and ranking near the top in average salary per 
teacher have the highest per pupil costs in the State, since these 
two items are the most significant factors in determining per pupil 
costs. A comparison of Charts 25 and 27 with Chart 29 indicates 
the effect of size of class and salary schedule on current expense 
costs per pupil. 

CHART 29 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1935 1956 1937 
Co. Average £24 $ 27 

Allegany 
Cecil 
Ealtimore 
Washington 
Montgomery 
Harford 
Queen Anne's 
Caroline 
Carroll 
Frederick 
Pr. George's 
Talbot 

Anne Arundel 
Kent 

St . Mary 1 s 
Charles 
Wicomico 
Dorchester 
Somerset 
V.'orcester 
Howard 
Calvert 



Balto. City 



Total 




f Excludes 83 for junior hiph and $126 for vocational schools. 



180 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The current expense cost per colored elementary pupil in three 
counties was lower in 1937 than in 1936. In Baltimore City the 
average cost per colored elementary pupil was $55.80 in 1937, an 
increase of $.64 over the corresponding cost in 1936. (See Chart 
29 and Table 163, page 225.) 

High Schools 
CHART 30 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1935 1936 1957 
Co. Average *$, 49 52 



Baltimore 
Washington 
Allegany 
Queen Anne's 
Carroll 
Howard 
Cecil 

Pr. George's 

Caroline 

Harford 

Frederick 

Charles 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Baltimore 
City 

State 



♦114 *127 




* 97 *: 



* Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 196 Baltimore County pupils attending Balti- 
more City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown above separately 
for Baltimore County. 



Cost per Colored Pupil; Growth in County High Schools 



181 



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liiii 



182 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The average current expense cost per colored pupil in the county 
high schools was $51.57 in 1937 as against $51.62 in 1936. Costs 
per colored high school pupil for current expenses varied in individ- 
ual counties from $25 to $81. The average tuition payment to Balti- 
more City, $133, for 205 Baltimore County pupils attending Balti- 
more City junior and senior high schools has been computed to 
represent the average cost to Baltimore County per high school 
pupil. It exceeds the average current expense cost per senior 
high school pupil in Baltimore City, $95, by $38. The Baltimore 
City current expense cost per pupil, however, excludes costs for 
general control, fixed charges, debt service and capital investment. 
(See Chart 30 and Table 163, page 225.) 

GROWTH IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

By comparing the county colored high school enrollment, teach- 
ing staff, and salary expenditures in 1937 with corresponding 
figures for preceding years, the great gains made in secondary 
education for colored pupils are clearly seen. In 1937 the counties 
enrolled 4,030 pupils for whom 118 teachers were employed at 
a salary expense of $96,912 as compared with 3,544 pupils and 
108 teachers costing $88,798 in 1936. In 1925 the fifteen counties 
providing high school facilities for colored pupils enrolled 862 
pupils with 43 teachers in charge at a salary cost of $33,587. (See 
Table 132.) 

All but three counties had more colored high school pupils 
enrolled in 1937 than in 1936. Nine counties reported a larger 
teaching staff in 1937 than in 1936. Fifteen counties showed 
increases over 1936 in the 1937 salaries for colored high school 
teachers. (See Table 132.) 

TRANSPORTATION OF COLORED PUPILS AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

There were 1,727 colored elementary pupils in 18 counties trans- 
ported to school at public expense in 1937, 7.3 per cent of all 
county colored elementary pupils. This was an increase of 399 
pupils or 1.9 per cent over the number and per cent transported 
the preceding year. In the counties which provided transporta- 
tion the range in per cent of colored elementary pupils transported 
ran from 1 to 31.4 per cent. (See Table 133.) 

The total cost to the public for transporting colored elementary 
pupils in 1937 was $32,295 and the cost per colored elementary 
pupil transported, $18.70, as against $25,480 and $19.19 per pupil 
transported in 1936. Costs per colored elementary pupil trans- 
ported varied from under $10 in two counties to over $32 in four 
counties. (See Table 133.) 

There were 2,395 county colored pupils in 18 counties trans- 
ported to high schools in whole or in part at public expense in 
1937, an increase of 600 pupils over the number transported the 



Cost per Colored High School Pupil; Growth in Colored 183 
High Schools; Transportation of Colored Pupils 

preceding year. These pupils included 58.5 per cent of the county 
colored high school enrollment. In the individual counties the 
percentage of colored high school pupils transported at county 
expense ranged from none at all in four counties and less than 10 
per cent in two counties in which the population is concentrated 
in cities to 80 per cent or more in seven counties. In fifteen coun- 
ties having colored high schools within the county, all pupils were 
instructed in one building, in four counties in two schools, and in 
two counties in three schools. (See Table 133.) 

TABLE 133 



Pupils Transported, Expenditures for Transportation and Cost Per Pupil 
Transported to County Colored Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Colored Elementary Schools 


Colored High Schools 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 
portation 


Cost 
per 

Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


tU, 727 


7.3 


$32,295 


$18.70 


2,395 


58.5 


$42,656 


$17.81 


Allegany 


6 


2.6 


388 


64.63 


10 


8.1 


545 


54.47 


Anne Arundel 


t 
















Baltimore 


254 


i3!i 


A, 667 


18! 37 


*i34 


*74^9 


*2,A89 


*18i57 


Calvert 


92 


8.6 


1,753 


19.06 


133 


96.4 


3,281 


24.67 


Caroline 


212 


31.4 


3,392 


16.00 


165 


80.9 


2,646 


16.03 


Carroll 


55 


16.3 


809 


14.72 


66 


70.2 


1,377 


20.86 


Cecil 


63 


19.4 


2,282 


36.22 


62 


75.6 


1,153 


18.59 


Charles 


46 


3.2 


820 


17.83 


184 


86.4 


3,680 


20.00 




120 


9.4 


2,960 


24.67 


208 


72.7 


4,396 


21.14 


Frederick 


124 


15.3 


2,272 


18.32 


83 


54.2 


2,050 


24.70 


Harford 


38 


5.0 


477 


12.56 




























Kent 


105 


13.7 


2^007 


19^12 


124 


80^6 


2^923 


23! 57 


Montgomery 


242 


15.3 


4,840 


20.00 


217 


82.8 


°2,569 


°11.84 


Prince George's . . . 


t 








228 


60.3 


3,339 


14.65 


Queen Anne's 


47 


7.7 


1^543 


32^83 


78 


88.6 


2,748 


35.23 


St. Mary's 


104 


10.2 


1,050 


10.10 


138 


89.0 


1,845 


13.37 


Somerset 


72 


5.1 


535 


7.44 


201 


70.5 


2,844 


14.15 


Talbot 
















Washington 


' 21 


8.5 


lji84 


56^36 


" " "4 


7.5 


205 


5l!22 


Wicomico 


114 


8.9 


996 


8.74 


247 


67.3 


3,174 


12.85 




12 


1.0 


320 


26.63 


113 


45.7 


1,392 


12.32 



t Excludes 32 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
t Excludes 48 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
* Pupils from Baltimore County transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior high 
schools at county expense. In addition each pupil paid 10 cents a day. 
° In addition each pupil paid $15 per year. 



The cost to the public of transporting pupils to colored high 
schools in 18 counties was §42,656 in 1937, an increase of $5,865 
over the corresponding amount spent in 1936. The average cost 
to the public per colored high school pupil transported in 1937 of 
$17.81 varied among the counties from approximately $12 to over 
$35. Baltimore County paid 82,489 or $18.57 toward the cost of 
transporting each of 134 pupils who attended junior and junior- 



184 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



senior high schools in Baltimore City. In addition high school 
pupils in Montgomery and Baltimore Counties who were trans- 
ported paid $15 and $19 a year toward the cost of transportation. 
(See Table 133.) 



colored school libraries aided by rosenwald fund 

During the school year 1936-37, the Rosenwald Fund distrib- 
uted a number of well-selected sets of library books valued at $36 
and $15 to the colored schools of the South. The county or school 
paid two-thirds of the cost of each set, while the Rosenwald Fund 
paid the remaining third plus transportation charges. The more 
expensive sets were received by 3 schools in two counties, while 
the less expensive sets were supplied to five schools in five coun- 
ties in 1937. The list of colored schools which have received 
libraries through the aid of the Rosenwald Fund from 1928 to 
1937 is given in Table 134. Schools in Allegany and Worcester 
secured Rosenwald Fund libraries for the first time in 1937. 



TABLE 134 

Colored Schools Receiving Libraries Through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



County and School 



Allegany: 

Cumberland .... 
Anne Arundel: 

Brown's Woods . 

Annapolis El. . . . 

Camp Parole. . . . 

Annapolis High . 

Churchton 

Bristol 

Furnace Branch . 

Jones 

Galilee 

Queenstown .... 

Freetown 

Conway 

Eastport 

Galesville 

Calvert: 

Prince Frederick 

Mt. Hope 

Caroline: 

Federalsburg 

Lockerman High 

Ridgely 

Denton 

Carroll: 

Westminster. . . . 

Robert Moton El 

Johnsville 

Union Bridge . . . 

Parrsville 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1937 

1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1936 
1936 

1929 
1931 

1928 
1936 
1936 
1936 

1929, 1937 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 



County and School 



Cecil: 

Elkton 

Charles: 

Pomonkey 

Dorchester: 

Cambridge. . . . 

Pine Street .... 
Frederick: 

Frederick 

Lincoln 

Bentz Street. . . 
Harford: 

Bel Air 

Havre de Grace 

Kalmia 

Howard: 

Cooksville 

Dorsey 

Ellicott City.. . 

Highland 

Kent: 

Coleman 

Chestertown . . . 
Montgomery: 

Sandy Spring . . 

Rockville 

Takoma Spring 
Prince George's: 

Marlboro 

Berwyn 

Brentwood. . . . 

Highland Park . 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929, 1937 

1929, 1936 

1932, 1937 
1936 

1928 
1931, 1936 
1935 

1928, 1936 
1931 
1935 

1936, 1937 
1936 
1936 
1936 

1928 
1930 

1928 
1929 
1930 

1928 
1929 
1929 
1929 



County and School 



Queen Anne's: 

Corsica 

Starr 

St. Mary's: 

Abel 

Hollywood 

Mechanicsville . . 

Scotland 

Jarboesville 

Great Mills 

Banneker 

Oakville 

Milestown 

Piney Point 

Clements 

Fenwick 

Phyllis Wheatley 
Somerset: 

Princess Anne . . . 

Crisfield 

Mt. Vernon 

Talbot: 

Easton 

St. Michael's. . . . 
Wicomico: 

Sharptown 

Nanticoke 

Salisbury 

Rockawalkin 

Worcester : 

Snow Hill 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1936 



1929 

1930 

1935 

1935 
1935,1936 

1935 
1935, 1936 

1935 

1935 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1937 

1929, 1931 
1930, 1935 
1935 

1928 
1928 

1928 
1929, 1936 
1929, 1931 

1936 

1937 



Libraries; Capital Outlay; Value of School Property per 185 
Colored Pupil 

services of the maryland public library advisory commission to the 
colored schools of maryland, 1936-37 

Two county colored schools borrowed 37 books from the Mary- 
land Public Library Advisory Commission in 1936-37. One 
colored elementary school in Baltimore County borrowed one 
traveling library of thirty-five books. Colored elementary teach- 
ers in Howard County borrowed two books. Bowie Normal 
School borrowed 37 volumes. The only expense to the schools 
was the cost of transporting the books from and back to the 
library, at 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Md. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COLORED SCHOOLS IN 1937 

Capital outlay in 1937 for county colored schools amounted to 
$70,242, a decrease of $9,777 under the amount spent in 1936. 
The largest capital outlay in 1937 for colored pupils was approx- 
imately $23,000 in Wicomico. In 1937 in Baltimore City the 
capital outlav for colored children was $5,948, making the total 
for the State as a whole §76,190. (See Table 175, page 241, and 
Tables XXVI and XXVII, pages 308 and 309.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

The value of public school property used by county colored 
pupils amounted to $1,635,948 in 1937, an increase of $54,700 over 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. The value of school 
property includes equipment in most of the counties, reported 
separately for the first time in many counties in 1937. The aver- 
age value of school property per colored pupil belonging was $61 
in 1937 compared with $59 in 1936. Among the counties the 
range in value of school property ran from $21 in two counties to 
$199. Most of the counties with the lowest amount per pupil were 
using a number of rented buildings, the value of which was not 
included in the figures given. Fifteen counties showed an increase 
in the value of school property per colored pupil belonging. (See 
Table 178, page 244, and Chart 31.) 

School property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City was 
valued at $7,260,833 in 1937 or $256 per colored pupil belonging, 
a decrease or $7 under the corresponding valuation in 1936. The 
1937 valuation per colored pupil for the entire State was $161. 
(See Table 178, page 244, and Chart 31.) 

Of 293 one-teacher school buildings used by county colored 
pupils in 1937, the condition of 54 or 19 per cent was rated excel- 
lent, of 109 or 37 per cent was rated as good, and of 85 or 29 per 
cent fair. Ten per cent of the buildings housing one-teacher 
schools located in 15 counties were considered unfit to be used. 
Of the buildings rated as excellent, one was of stone and one of 
brick. (See Table 135.) 



186 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 31 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY* PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
County 1935 1936 1937 
Co. Average $ 60 $ 59 



Allegany 

Washington 

Mcomico 

Baltimore 

Pr. George's 

Harford 

Frederick 

Queen Anne' s 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Charles 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Dorchester 
Anne Arundel 
Worcester 
Howard 
Somerset 
Calvert 
St. Mary's 
Kent 



182 
153 
96 
128 
84 
40 
94 
27 
81 
49 
51 
51 
41 
44 
42 
51 
29 
32 
27 
25 
21 
20 



171 
151 
86 
90 
84 
75 
84 
52 
73 
60 
52 
58 
35 
39 
41 
50 





149 








^1 


91 


I 



Baltimore City 267 263 
State 164 162 




* In 1937 includes value of equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City. 

Of 163 school buildings containing two or more rooms in use 
by county colored pupils in 1936-37, 53 per cent were rated excel- 
lent, 28 per cent good, and 14 per cent fair. Nineteen of these 
buildings, five of which include both high and elementary grades, 
were built of brick, stone, or stucco. (See Table 135.) 

SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
Of the 451 colored elementary schools in the counties in 1937, 
293 had one teacher, 117 had two teachers, 19 employed three 
teachers, 12 employed four teachers, and 10 had five or more 



Value and Condition of School Buildings Used by Colored 187 
Pupils; Size of Colored Elementary Schools 



TABLE 135 



Condition of School Buildings Used by Colored Pupils, by County, Type of 
School, and Material, 1936-1937 



County 


One-Teacher Schools 


Schools Having 
Two or More Teachers 


Total 


Excel- 
lent 


Good 


Fair 


V ery 
Poor 


Unfit 
for 

Use 


Total 


Excel- 
lent 


Good 


Fair 


V r 
Poor 


Total Number. . 


293 


54 


109 


85 


15 


30 


163 


86 


45 


23 


9 


Total Per Cent. . 


i (\n 

1UU 


1 Q 


O 1 




5 


1 o 


i nn 


53 


28 


1 4 


g 


Allegany 


1 






1 






1 


*°1 








Anne Arundel . . . 


18 


5 


6 


5 




2 


23 


*tl9 


3 


i 




Baltimore 


14 


t*2 


i2 


9 




1 


10 


***4 


5 


l 




Calvert 


15 


3 


2 


4 




6 


4 


1 


1 




°2 


Caroline 


8 


1 


5 


2 






3 


a°2 


1 






Carroll 


7 


1 


**4 


1 






2 


1 


°1 








6 




1 


3 






4 




°3 


i 




Charles 


22 


*6 




6 






10 


t6 


4 






Dorchester 


24 




5 


18 






5 


t2 


1 


2 




Frederick 


13 




%9 


3 






6 


tl 


**3 


2 




Harford 


13 


3 


5 


2 


2 




5 




*1 






Howard 


10 


3 


2 


4 






3 


°1 


1 






Kent 


15 




10 


3 


i 




3 


2 




°i 




Montgomery. . . . 


15 


6 


4 


4 


1 




15 


Ul 


2 


2 




Prince George's. 


19 


9 


5 


5 






24 


bl9 


5 






Queen Anne s. . . 


15 


1 


10 


3 






3 


tl 




2 




St. Mary's 


17 




5 


2 


6 


4 


8 




°3 


°5 




Somerset 


10 


2 


2 


1 


3 


2 


14 


*4 


4 


2 


°°4 


Talbot 


18 


4 


11 


2 


1 




4 


°2 




°2 




Washington .... 


3 




2 


1 






1 


*°1 








Wicomico 


12 


"a 


6 


2 






7 


*°3 


"a 






Worcester 


18 


4 


6 


4 




4 


8 


°1 


3 


2 


°°2 



° Represents a high school which is in the same building with an elementary school, 
t Represents a high school which is in a separate building ; all of these are brick with the 
exception of the frame structure in Queen Anne's. All are rated excellent. 
* Represents a brick building. 
+ Represents a stone building, 
a Represents a stucco building. 

b Includes four brick buildings and three high schools, two of which are combined with 
elementary schools. 

teachers. The largest elementary school with a staff of 13 teach- 
ers was located at Annapolis, and the next largest with 10 teachers 
was at Salisbury. The number of colored elementary teachers 
employed in individual counties ranged from 2 and 4 in the coun- 
ties having a small colored population to 40 and 43 in the counties 
with the largest colored population. (See Table 136.) 

There were 15 fewer colored elementary schools in the counties 
in 1937 than in 1936. There were 17 fewer one-teacher schools. 
On the other hand, there was one additional two-teacher and one 
more school with four teachers in 1937. An eighth teacher was 
added to the staff of a school which employed 7 teachers the pre- 
ceding year. In individual counties, there were from 1 to 6 fewer 
one-teacher colored schools in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 136.) 



188 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 136 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools, 
Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 



Total . 

*2... 
*3... 
*4. . . 
*5. . . 
*6. . . 
*7. . , 
*8. . . 

*10. . , 

*13. . . 



451 

293 
117 
19 
12 
4 
2 
1 
1 

1 

1 



19 



11 



12 X 



18 



13 



18 



22 



19 



Indicates that this number of teachers was employed the entire year or part of the year. 

Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 
TABLE 137 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1937 



School Year Ending June 30 



1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 



Colored Elementary Teachers 





In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 








Number 


Per Cent 


683 


422 


61.8 


694 


408 


58.8 


708 


406 


57.3 


712 


403 


56.6 


728 


395 


54.4 


721 


397 


55.1 


728 


394 


54.1 


725 


382 


52.7 


734 


378 


51.5 


734 


372 


50.7 


733 


363 


49.5 


739 


353 


47.7 


727 


344 


47.3 


718 


334 


46.5 


708 


331 


46.7 


714 


318 


44.5 


709 


309 


43.6 


697 


293 


42.0 



Size of Colored Elementary Schools; Approved High Schools 189 

During the school year 1936-37, there were 293 county colored 
teachers employed in one-teacher schools or 42 per cent of the 
colored elementary teaching staff. This was a decrease of 16 
teachers or 1.6 per cent under the number of one-teacher schools 
in 1936, and 129 fewer teachers than were employed in one- 
teacher schools in 1920. (See Table 137.) 

In individual counties the number of colored one-teacher schools 
varied from 1 to 24, while the per cent of colored elementary 
teachers giving instruction in one-teacher schools ranged from 
16.4 to 71.4 per cent. (See Table 138.) 



TABLE 138 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary Schools 
in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



County and Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Cecil 

Caroline 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



293 

1 
18 
19 
13 
13 
14 
12 

3 



42.0 

16.4 
23.1 
24.8 
28.9 
29.5 
31.8 
34.3 
37.5 
42.9 
44.4 



County 



Worcester . . . 

Charles 

Frederick 

St. Mary's . . . 

Harford 

Howard 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Dorchester. . 

Carroll 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



18 


47.4 


21 


48.8 


13 


50.0 


17 


50.6 


13 


52.0 


10 


59.5 


18 


61.6 


15 


62.5 


24 


63.2 


7 


63.6 


15 


65.2 


15 


71.4 



NUMBER OF APPROVED COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 29 county colored approved high schools in 1937, 
one more than in 1936. Of these 25 were first group and 4 were 
second group schools. Since Howard County organized a two- 
year high school in October, 1936, and Baltimore County contin- 
ued its practice of paying the tuition fee of its qualified colored 
elementary school graduates who attend the secondary schools in 
Baltimore City, all of the counties offer high school opportunities 
to their colored population. In 1937 all of the high schools offered 
four years of work except one in Harford which gave a three-year 
course, and 3 in Worcester and Howard which gave a two-year 
course. Baltimore City had 2 junior-senior high schools, one with 
grades 7-12, the other with grades 7-11, and 2 junior high schools 
with grades 7-9. (See Table 139 and Chart 15, page 116.) 



190 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 139 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1937 
with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



otal 


Group 


County 


Total 


Group 


u 


t2 


tl 












1 


1 






4 




t4 


Cecil 


1 


1 












1 


1 






16 


*11 


t5 


Dorchester 


1 


1 






16 


*12 


t4 




1 


1 






19 


*13 


t6 




2 


1 




' i 


21 


14 


7 


Howard 


1 


. ... 




i 


24 


14 


10 


Kent 


1 








25 


17 


8 


Montgomery 


1 


1 






26 


21 


5 


Prince George's .... 


3 


3 






26 


23 


3 




1 


1 






26 


24 


2 


St. Mary's 


2 


2 






26 


24 


2 




2 


2 






28 


25 


3 


Talbot 


2 


2 






28 


25 


3 


Washington 


1 


1 






29 


25 


4 




1 


1 












Worcester 


3 


1 




' *2 


1 


1 














1 


1 






4 


°1 




x3 


1 
1 






State 


33 


26 




7 



t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enroll- 
ment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

x Junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, one having grades 7 to 11. 
° Junior-senior high school, grades 7-12. 
For individual schools see Table XXVIII, pages 310 to 315. 



SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The 29 county colored high schools employed from 1 to 11 
teachers in 1937 and ranged in average enrollment from 18 to 
338 pupils. The largest colored high school at Salisbury enrolled 
338 pupils with a principal and 10 assistant teachers giving 
instruction. The median county colored high school had a teach- 
ing staff of 4.1 teachers and an enrollment of 110 pupils. (See 
Table 140 and Table XXVIII, pages 310 to 315.) 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 

In 1937 there were 28,240 individual participations of colored 
pupils in the badge tests, games, track and field events scheduled 
in connection with the spring county meets held in all but one of 
the counties having colored schools through the cooperation of the 
Playground Athletic League. These figures represent gross par- 
ticipation and include duplicates, since any one individual who was 
included for a badge test may also have appeared and been counted 
for one game, one track, and one field event. (See Table 141.) 



nubmer and slze of colored hlgh schools; physical 
Education 



191 



TABLE 140 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1937 



No. of 






0) 
T3 






















>> 


rge's 


~<u 














Teachers 


Total 




C 






















0) 


o 


c 


to 






13 
o 






Average 


No. 
High 


>> 
c 


Aru 




C 






to 
o> 


0) 
CO 

V 


rick 


t_ 


13 




gom 


0) 

O 

CD 


c 
<3 
c 


ary' 


rset 




ingt 


C 

e 


estei 


No. 


Schools 


be 


CD 


> 


'o 


Ih 




T! 


-g 


<U 
T3 


o 


rt 
E* 




c 


c 


3i 




cu 


o 


CO 


c 


o 


Belonging 






c 
c 




u 
rt 


rt 


'C 


rt 
-C 


I* 
O 


CD 


c5 


o 


c 

CP 


o 




3 




E 

o 








Wo 




< 


< 


O 


U 


O 


o 


O 


Q 






a 




s 






w 


w 


Eh 





Size of Teaching Staff 



All Schools 


29 


1 


l 


l 


l 


l 


i 


i 


i 


i 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


l 


l 


3 
2 


1* 


3 
4 
7 
8 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 






















1 




















2 




















1 
1 










2 


i 

1 


1 

i 






3 


i 




l 




i 


i 














1 
1 
1 


i 


l 




1 


4 






i 




1 




5 




















6 














i 












1 
















7 








l 
































8 














i 




























9 




l 






































11 




































l 













































Size of Enrollment 



18- 40. . . 


2 


41- 50. . . 


3 


51- 75. . . 


2 


76-100. . . 


5 


101-125. . . 


7 


126-150. . . 


3 


151-175. . . 


1 


176-200. . . 


2 


226-250. . . 


1 


251-275. . . 


1 


301-325. . . 


1 


326-350. . . 


1 



* Mid-point of interval. 



At the county meets in 1937, 4,462 colored boys and 6,026 
colored girls, an increase of 261 boys and 137 girls over 1936, who 
had passed the badge tests given at their schools took part in the 
badge test finals, under the supervision of the officials of the meets. 
As a result badges were won by 1,230 boys and 2,881 girls, 641 
fewer boys and 142 fewer girls than won them the preceding 
year. 

In 1937, 2,713 colored boys and 2,971 colored girls took part in 
team games at county meets, an increase of 49 boys and 61 girls 
over the corresponding figures for 1936. The players engaged 
in dodge, speed and volley ball. 

In 1937, 6,461 colored boys and 5,607 colored girls engaged in 
track and field events, a decrease of 152 boys and an increase of 
289 girls compared with similar figures for 1936. 



192 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Every county, except Washington, had colored pupils who 
took part in the county meets. The winners in each county of track 
and field events, dodge ball and speed ball for boys, and of volley- 
ball for girls were invited to the Shore Championship. The East- 
ern Shore Championship was held at Pocomoke and was won by 
Caroline County. The Western Shore Championship was held 
at Maryland State Normal School, Bowie, and was won by Anne 
Arundel County. 

TABLE 141 



Participation of Colored Pupils in County Meets — 1937 



County 


Badge Tests 


Games 


Track and Field 


Grand Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1937 


1936 


Allegany 


44 


109 


60 


56 


72 


52 


393 


341 


Anne Arundel 


307 


468 


252 


307 


340 


426 


2,100 


1,531 


Baltimore 


221 


257 


86 


93 


185 


270 


1,112 


1,408 


Calvert 


201 


273 


122 


123 


234 


153 


1,106 


1,283 


Caroline 


157 


270 


99 


113 


263 


215 


1,117 


1,191 


Carroll 


91 


138 


57 


79 


173 


143 


681 


691 


Cecil 


108 


97 


95 


71 


170 


142 


683 


686 


Charles 


316 


413 


200 


223 


413 


427 


1,992 


1,817 




220 


340 


137 


181 


373 


249 


1,500 


1,500 




191 


257 


91 


105 


307 


233 


1,184 


1,450 


Harford 


181 


233 


101 


115 


385 


194 


1,209 


1,165 


Howard 


165 


98 


71 


68 


212 


157 


771 


506 


Kent 


187 


126 


100 


96 


241 


162 


912 


807 


Montgomery 


407 


495 


192 


204 


513 


415 


2,226 


2,133 




401 


568 


247 


265 


482 


553 


2,516 


2,516 


160 


212 


98 


95 


219 


235 


1,019 


832 


St. Mary's 


243 


314 


192 


193 


523 


328 


1,793 


1,959 


189 


313 


140 


156 


387 


320 


1,505 


1,505 


Talbot 


111 


213 


128 


123 


285 


185 


1,045 


1,065 


Wicomico 


357 


524 


124 


142 


373 


402 


1,922 


1,934 




205 


308 


121 


163 


311 


346 


1,454 


1,275 


Totals, 1937 . . 


4,462 


6,026 


2,713 


2,971 


6,461 


5,607 


28,240 




Totals, 1936. . 


4,201 


5,889 


2,664 


2,910 


6,613 


5,318 




27^595 



* Figures for 1936. 

During the winter months a basket-ball tournament was held in 
which 68 boys from six counties participated. The Western Shore 
Championship was won by Lincoln High School of Frederick 
County. In the Western Shore Girls' Tournament in which 47 
girls from four counties had teams, girls from Frederick Douglass 
High School, Upper Marlboro, won. In the Eastern Shore tour- 
nament in which 67 boys from four counties were on teams, F. D. 
St. Clair High School, Cambridge, won. In the girls' tournament, 
four counties had 58 team members, and it was won by Salisbury 
High School. The Afro-American presented a trophy to the boys 
and the girls who were the Eastern Shore champions. 

HEALTH ACTIVITIES OF STATE AND COUNTY DEPARTMENTS OF HEALTH 
AFFECTING COLORED CHILDREN 

The colored children given a complete physical examination 
are included with the totals reported by the county health officers 
for all schools. (See Table 40, page 62.) 



Physical Education and Health Activities for Colored 193 

Schools 

Child health conferences for the examination of children 
approaching school age in preparation for their admission to 
school were held in all of the counties having colored schools 
except three, under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child 
Hygiene of the State Department of Health and the County 
Departments of Health. For 1,600 colored children examined in 
1937, an increase of 227 over 1936, the following conditions were 
found : 

Number Per Cent 



Free of conditions needing correction 332 21 

In need of dental attention 570 36 

Unfavorable conditions of the throat 523 33 

Unfavorable conditions of the nose 175 11 

Faulty nutrition 305 19 

Faulty posture 54 3 

Rachitic bone changes 36 2 

Mentally retarded 14 1 



Nearly half of the children, 795, had not been vaccinated against 
smallpox and over a third, 594, had not been protected against 
diphtheria. (See Table 40, page 62.) Parents were urged to have 
their children protected against these diseases and follow-up clin- 
ics were held in a number of counties for the benefit of children 
who could not be protected otherwise. Parents who were inclined 
to be negligent with regard to protection against smallpox were 
reminded of the State law which requires a child to be vaccinated 
before he or she may be enrolled in any public school in the State. 

National Negro Health Week Observances 

Negro Health Week serves as a starting point for year-round 
activities in colored communities throughout the State and occu- 
pies a very important part in the public health program. In many 
parts of the State there has been a marked improvement in both 
personal and neighborhood standards of living as a result of the 
emphasis placed year after year in the last twenty-five years on 
the essentials of personal and community hygiene. 

During Negro Health Week in April, 1937, there were public 
meetings in schools and churches ; child health conferences ; med- 
ical examination of school children; clinics for immunization 
against diphtheria, for protection against typhoid, and for vacci- 
nation against smallpox; chest clinics with special reference to 
tuberculosis; venereal disease clinics; health education exercises, 
plays, pageants, and poster contests in the schools; community 
clean-up and sanitation campaigns; cleanliness and neatness 
improvement contests in some rural schools and a special contest 
in Anne Arundel County. The observance in the counties of 
Maryland was carried on under the leadership of the State Depart- 
ment of Health, the County Departments of Health, the school 
authorities, the churches and other local groups. 



194 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Certificates of merit, all in Class "A", were awarded by the 
National Negro Health Week Committee of the United States 
Public Health Service to the Departments of Health in the State 
and Baltimore City, and in Cecil, Kent, Montgomery, Prince 
George's, and Wicomico Counties, for activities in connection with 
the 1937 observance of Health Week. 

Cleanliness and Neatness Improvement Contest 

The special cleanliness and neatness contest limited to the rural 
colored schools in Anne Arundel County was under the charge of 
the. county health officer and the County Superintendent of Schools. 
The contest was held in response to the offer of special awards 
to the two schools that showed the greatest improvement during 
the period planned for, in the cleanliness and neatness of the chil- 
dren, and in the "appearance of the school buildings and grounds. 
The schools at Cedar Hill and Rutland won the awards of an 
attractively framed portrait of the distinguished Negro teacher 
and scientist, Dr. George W. Carver. The prizes were the gift 
of Dr. H. Maceo Williams, a colored physician of Baltimore. 

Day by day scores were kept by the teachers and "effort" was 
recorded as well as definite accomplishment. A general inspection 
of the schools was made at the beginning of the contest by the 
county health officer, and a check-up inspection at the close. 
Record was kept of the following: Personal habits, cleanliness 
and appearance of the pupils ; neatness of dress. School buildings, 
exterior: play grounds; toilets; woodpile, care of the grounds; 
interior: desks; walls; stove; ventilation; trash baskets; water- 
bucket or cooler; individual drinking cups or glasses; provision 
for hand-washing; individual towels; lunch boxes. The final 
reports showed marked improvement not only in the winning 
schools but in all of them. 

The plan of holding contests of this sort in one or more counties 
as follow-up of Negro Health Week was started in 1931 with St. 
Mary's and Dorchester Counties as the pioneers. Since then, sim- 
ilar contests have been held in Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, 
and Somerset. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 388 parent-teacher associations organized in 84.9 
per cent of the county colored schools during 1936-37. This was 
an increase of 2 in number and 2.9 in per cent over corresponding 
figures for the preceding year. Four counties had a parent-teach- 
er association in every school. On the other hand, there were no 
P.-T.A.'s in the colored schools of one county and less than half 
of the colored schools in 2 other counties had such organizations. 
Eight counties had a higher percentage of schools with P.-T.A.'s 



Cleanliness and Neatness Contests; Colored P.-T.A's 195 



in 1937 than in 1936. Since these groups can become a great 
stimulus in improving conditions for children, their activities 
should be encouraged by the supervisors and teachers. (See 
Chart 32.) 

CHART 32 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1936 AND 1937 



County 

Total and 
Co. Aver age 




Colored teachers reported that the parents or guardians of 
7,597 colored pupils visited the schools during 1936-37 to confer 
with the teachers. This means that 26 per cent of the parents 
took sufficient interest in their children's progress and welfare to 
follow up on difficulties or showed concern in what the schools 
were attempting to accomplish for their children. 



196 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Public 197 
Funds; Supervision of Schools for Colored Pupils 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
COUNTY PUBLIC FUNDS 

The ten counties which reported receipts and expenditures 
from other than public funds in colored schools showed gross 
receipts of $12,830. Of this amount, 32.6 per cent was contrib- 
uted by P.-T.A.'s, 18.6 per cent by parents toward high school 
transportation and 12.4 per cent was derived from sales. Only 
1.6 per cent was collected in dues. Expenses amounting to $2,143 
brought the net receipts to $10,687. (See Table 142.) 

Of the net receipts the largest proportion, 25.2 per cent, was 
expended for transportation of high school pupils. Montgomery 
County required a payment of $15 per year for transportation of 
each high school pupil. In addition, 15.9 per cent was spent for 
physical education, 10.5 per cent for buildings and grounds, and 
9 per cent for regular classroom instruction. The amounts 
expended in ten counties reporting ranged from $20 to $2,382. 
(See Table 142.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of colored schools spends most of his 
time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of 
colored schools and working with the colored high school princi- 
pals and teachers. At several conferences held for colored super- 
visors the following subjects w r ere discussed : reduction of over- 
ageness, irregular attendance, overcoming difficulties revealed 
by recent tests, and devices by which needs of individual pupils 
can be met. 

The State Supervisor of colored schools visited the Bowie 
Normal School during the year to study the quality of instruction, 
and to confer with both faculty and students. Much of his time 
at the office is spent in interviewing prospective county teachers 
in order to make suggestions regarding desirable colored teachers 
to the county superintendents. The salary and expenses of the 
State Supervisor of colored schools are paid by the General Edu- 
cation Board. 

Each of 15 counties received S750 from the State as reim- 
bursement toward the salary of a full-time colored supervisor. 
Ten of the supervisors employed were men and five were women. 
In 4 counties the supervisor devoted some time to high school 
instruction in home economics or industrial arts. The attendance 
officers in Cecil, Howard, Queen Anne's, and Somerset spent 
part of their time in supervising colored schools, and the Assist- 
ant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore County had the super- 
vision of colored schools as part of his duties. In Allegany and 
Washington Counties, supervision of the colored schools was given 
by the white elementary school supervisors and the county super- 
intendent. 



198 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment 

There were 116 students enrolled at the Bowie Normal School 
during the school year 1936-37, an increase of 20 over 1935-36. 
In the fall of 1937 the enrollment was 138, of whom 63 were fresh- 
men, 40 juniors, and 35 seniors. The 1937 fall enrollment included 
108 women and 30 men. There was an increase of 17 freshmen 
and 8 juniors, and a decrease of 3 seniors in comparing the enroll- 
ment in the fall of 1937 with that in the fall of 1936. (See Table 
143.) 

TABLE 143 



Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Year 


Total 


Freshmen 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Graduates 


Ending 


Enroll- 


















June 30 


ment 






















Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


1924 


11 






7 


4 










1925 


23 






7 


6 


5 


"5 


' "5 


5 


1926 


36 






16 


8 


6 


6 


6 


5 


1927 


81 






43 


15 


15 


8 


12 


8 


1928 


104 






34 


16 


41 


13 


38 


11 


1929 


128 






57 


19 


35 


17 


28 


16 


1930 


120 






34 


13 


56 


17 


45 


14 


1931 


109 






44 


11 


39 


15 


30 


12 


1932 


106 






34 


16 


43 


13 


41 


11 


1933 


122 






44 


26 


33 


19 


30 


19 


1934 


99 






29 


8 


39 


23 


36 


19 


1935 


100 


' '42 


' ' 9 


1 


1 


28 


19 


a27 


bl7 


1936 


96 


28 


9 


31 


7 


12 


9 


cfl2 


ct9 


1937 


116 


34 


12 


25 


7 


29 


9 


f28 


t9 


Fall of 1937 . 


138 


49 


14 


32 


8 


27 


8 







a Includes 3 who completed the three-year course, two of whom had completed the two-year 
course in 1934. 

b Includes 9 who completed the three-year course who had completed the two-year course 
in 1934. 

t Completed the three-year course. 

c All except three had previously completed the two-year course. 

The high schol principals ranked 89.2 per cent of the 63 mem- 
bers of the freshmen class in the upper and middle third of their 
high school classes, the same percentage reported in 1936. 



Graduates 

There were 37 graduates of the Bowie Normal School in 1937. 
Teaching positions in Maryland counties were secured by 25 and 
of these 15 took positions in their home counties. Of the 12 who 
failed to secure positions, 9 were men and 3 were women, two of 
whom married before graduation. (See Table 144.) 



Enrollment, Graduates, Faculty and Costs at Bowie 199 
Normal School 

TABLE 144 



Home and Teaching County of 1937 Graduates of Bowie Normal School 





County 


Home County 


Teaching 
County 


County 


Home County 


Teaching 
County 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Total Counties .... 


ff26 


%i 


25 




1 




1 








Charles 


1 




ce3 




ahk5 


***3 


2 




fl 






Prince George's . . . 


5 


*1 


5 


Harford 


ml 






Wicomico 


t3 


**2 


2 




tl 




' al 


Dorchester 


2 


2 


Howard 




kl 




b2 




f2 


Kent 






bl 


Somerset 


cl 


"*i 








Baltimore 


dl 




ml 


Baltimore City. . 


*g2 


** 2 




Calvert 


1 




dgh4 






Caroline 


el 






Entire State 


*tt28 


J9 


25 



a One from Montgomery teaching in Worcester, f One from Frederick teaching in Queen Anne's, 
b One from Queen Anne's teaching in Kent. g One from Baltimore City teaching in Calvert, 

c One from Somerset teaching in Charles. h One from Montgomery teaching in Calvert, 

d One from Baltimore teaching in Calvert. k One from Montgomery teaching in Howard, 

e One from Caroline teaching in Charles. m One from Harford teaching in Baltimore. 

* Each asterisk represents one graduate not teaching. 

% Not teaching. t Each dagger represents one married before graduation. 

Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1937, the staff of the Bowie Normal School in- 
cluded 16 persons — the principal, 8 instructors, 2 teachers in the 
demonstration school, a librarian, a financial secretary, a regis- 
trar, a stenographer, and a dietitian. In addition to these, there 
were 4 individuals in the federally supported nursery school which 
was a part of the demonstration school. There were 10 teachers 
in practice schools which included 4 two-teacher and 2 one-teacher 
schools located in rural sections. These teachers acted as critic 
teachers for the practice teaching done by senior students. Each 
normal school student was given at least 160 clock hours of prac- 
tice teaching during the three-year course. 

Cost per Student 

Current expenses for the Bowie Normal School for 1937 totalled 
$47,601, of which $24,281 was spent for instruction and $23,320 
for the dormitory. This was an increase of $4,636 over the ex- 
penditure for 1936. 

The total instruction cost per student was $219, of which $13 
was paid by each student and $206 by the State. Of the average 
enrollment of 111, all but 9 were resident students. The total 
dormitory expenditures per student amounted to $228. Since 
each student in the dormitory paid an average of $159 in fees or 
service for room and board, etc., the cost to the State per student 
for these purposes was $69. The combined cost to the State for in- 
struction and dormitory expenses amounted to S275 per resident 
student in 1937, a decrease of $70 under the corresponding amount 
in 1936. (See Table 145.) 



200 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 145 

Expenditures, Receipts and Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1936-37 



expenditures 



Administration: 

Salaries 

Other t,han Salaries 

Instruction: 

Salaries 

Other than Salaries 

Operation and Maintenance: 

Salaries and Wages 

Other than Salaries, excluding Food . 

Food 



Instruction 

$1,884.50 
709.70 

12,495.46 
3,375.68 

1,965.14 
3,850.27 



Totals $24,280.75 

RECEIPTS 

From Students excluding Refunds: 

Board and Lodging. t 

Estimated Value of Service Rendered by Students 

Laundry and Contingent Fees 

Health Fees 

Registration Fees 

Athletic Fees 

Special Deposits 



$551.00 
425.50 
d476.56 



Residence 

$1,785.17 
670.01 



a6,151.78 
b4,911.68 
c9,801.96 

abc$23,320.60 



$12,515.45 
al,844.05 
1,218.50 
520.50 



dl21.90 



Total Receipts from Students $1,453.06 $16,220.40 

From State $22,827.69 $7,100.20 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students Ill 102 

Average Total Cost per Student e$218 . 75 $228 . 63 

Average Payment per Student 13.09 159.02 

Average Cost to State per Student e205 .65 69 . 61 



Total Cost to State per Resident Student e$275.26 

a Includes $1,844.05, estimated value of services rendered by students. 

b Excludes $233.45 for services rendered to and paid for by faculty and students and $896.08 
from special deposits. 

c Excludes $388.44 for food paid for by faculty and students. 

d Excludes $896.08 not spent for educational activities, but includes expenditures for athletic, 
musical and other miscellaneous activities from the special deposits fund. Excludes $621.89 
collected from miscellaneous sources. 

e The entire cost of instructing 65 pupils in the campus two-teacher elementary school is 
included in calculating cost per normal school student. 

Thirty-six students of the Bowie Normal School received $1,800 
through the Federal appropriations for the National Youth 
Administration, an average of $50 per student, in return for 
which they rendered service to the school. 

Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School property as of 
September 30, 1937, totalling $217,115 was distributed as follows: 
Land, $11,729; buildings, $153,169; equipment and other, includ- 
ing motor vehicles, $52,217. 

Bond Issue and P. W. A. Funds 
With the funds from a bond issue of 8162,000 authorized by the 
1937 legislature and a grant of $132,545 from the federal Public 
Works Administration, plans are under way for construction and 
equipment of a girls' dormitory, dining-room, kitchen and cafe- 
teria, boys' dormitory, academic wing to administration building, 
sewerage system, water tank and fire prevention system for the 
Bowie Normal School. 



Bowie Normal School Finances; Coppin Training School; 201 
k P. A. L. County Physical Education Program 

FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1936-37 there were 43 men and 120 women enrolled at 
the Coppin Training School for colored teachers in Baltimore 
City. The average net roll of 158 students was an increase of 22 
over that for the preceding year. Ten men and 32 women were 
graduated from the three-year course. The faculty consisted of 
the principal and 4 assistants. The current expenses for the 
school amounted to $18,007, making the average instruction cost 
$114 per student. 

The Federal government through the National Youth Adminis- 
tration made available $1,753 to 23 students at the Coppin Train- 
ing School in return for services rendered, an average of $76 per 
student. 

THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE MARYLAND 
COUNTY SCHOOLS* 

The Playground Athletic League continued to plan and cooper- 
ate with the State Department of Education and county superin- 
tendents of schools in carrying out the program for physical edu- 
cation in the counties of Maryland during 1936-37. 

Spring County Meets 

An outstanding characteristic of the physical education pro- 
gram in the counties is the participation of a large proportion of 
pupils above Grade 3. In 1937 there were 73,344 individual par- 
ticipations in the badge tests, games, track and field events sched- 
uled in connection with the spring meets for white county pupils. 
These figures represent gross participation and include duplicates, 
since any one individual who was included for a badge test may 
also have appeared and been counted for one game, one track, and 
one field event. In 15 counties there was a larger number of indi- 
vidual participations in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 146.) 

In the badge tests 11,285 boys and 17,970 girls took part in the 
final test the day of the county meet under the supervision of the 
officials of the meet. Of these, 4,921 boys and 8,105 girls won 
their bronze, silver, gold, and super-gold badges. The emphasis 
in the badge tests is on individual attainment of physical skill. 
(See Table 146.) 

There were 8,982 boys and 7,363 girls who played as members 
of team games in the county meets. (See Table 146.) In 8 coun- 
ties for boys and in 7 counties for girls, there was an increase in 
the participation in games over the previous year. 

In addition to team games and badge tests, the spring meet 
program included running, jumping and throwing events. In 
16 counties there was an increase in boys' track and field activities, 



* Statement prepared by Thomas C Ferguson, State Supervisor of Physical Education. 



202 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

while the participation of girls increased in 15 counties over the 
previous year. There were 13,831 boys and 13,913 girls who took 
part in these activities. (See Table 146.) 

TABLE 146 



Participation of White Pupils in County Meets — 1937 



County 


Badge Tests 


Games 


Track and Field 


Grand Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1937 


1936 


A 11 


875 


1,577 


750 


472 


891 


1,210 


5,775 


5,533 




189 


212 


130 


120 


263 


274 


1,188 


1,035 


Anno Arundel w . . 


342 


580 


513 


347 


768 


740 


3,290 


4,566 


Baltimore 


1,233 


2,553 


982 


615 


1,193 


1,353 


7,929 


8,632 


Calvert 


115 


223 


121 


120 


244 


221 


1,044 


1,001 




237 


512 


234 


226 


484 


465 


2,158 


2,173 


Carroll 


734 


946 


323 


392 


873 


923 


4,191 


4,570 


Cecil 


383 


689 


331 


335 


660 


568 


2,966 


2,854 


Charles 


227 


424 


187 


188 


386 


450 


1,862 


2,007 


Dorchester 


341 


714 


248 


222 


414 


431 


2,370 


2,338 




1,051 


1,358 


555 


374 


823 


778 


4,939 


4,607 


Garrett 


408 


545 


275 


219 


461 


373 


2,281 


2,286 




503 


889 


445 


372 


372 


515 


3,096 


3,289 




299 


479 


202 


199 


602 


409 


2,190 


2,087 


Kent 


279 


390 


208 


199 


329 


309 


1,714 


1,655 




774 


1,449 


886 


792 


1,178 


1.028 


6,107 


6,107 


Prince George's* 

Prince George's, Rural* 
Queen Anne's 


809 


1,003 


548 


416 


711 


617 


4,104 


4,104 


186 


352 


220 


209 


313 


432 


1,712 


1,712 


223 


329 


195 


189 


357 


348 


1 ,641 


1,491 


St. Mary's 


199 


259 


161 


156 


414 


290 


1,479 


1,475 


Somerset* 


189 


327 


171 


155 


288 


255 


1 ,385 


1,385 


Talbot 


195 


426 


229 


213 


289 


349 


1,701 


1,684 


Washington 


905 


839 


604 


390 


798 


772 


4,308 


4,079 




422 


561 


282 


276 


363 


477 


2,381 


2,537 




167 


334 


182 


167 


357 


326 


1,533 


1,562 


Totals, 1937. . 


11,285 


17,970 


8,982 


7,363 


13,831 


13,913 


73,344 




Totals, 1936. . 


12,135 


18,912 


9,190 


7.602 


13.508 


13,422 




74^769 



* Figures for 1936. 



The winners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete 
for State-wide championships. The girls were entertained at the 
State Teachers College at Towson. The boys were housed at the 
State Teachers College at Towson, at Johns Hopkins University, 
and in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teachers' Asso- 
ciations. Baltimore County which won the greatest number of 
points was awarded the Sun trophy. 

Fall Athletics 

There were 2,206 boys on 117 teams in 21 counties who entered 
the State-wide soccer tournament. County championships were 
first determined by a series within each county. Glen Burnie 
High School, winner of the Western Shore division, and Cam- 
bridge High School met at Cambridge for the State championship. 
The News-Post trophy was awarded to the winner, Glen Burnie 
High School, to be held permanently. 



P. A. L. County Physical Education Program 



203 



From 20 counties 108 teams with 1,902 girls entered the State- 
wide field ball tournament. The Eastern and Western Shore 
winners, Trappe and Central High Schools, respectively, met at 
Lonaconing for the State championship game, with Central High 
School winning. 

Winter Athletics 

From 17 counties 714 boys took part in the State-wide basket- 
ball tournament with Cambridge High School, the Eastern Shore 
champion, meeting Allegany High School in Cumberland for the 
State championship, which Allegany High School won. 

The State-wide basket-ball tournament had 16 counties with 
699 girls competing. An Eastern and Western Shore champion- 
ship was held, Cambridge High School winning the Eastern Shore 
and Central High School the Western Shore championships. 

Baseball for boys was confined to county championships with 14 
counties playing a schedule of games. There were 699 boys who 
took part. 

Expenditures of P. A. L. for County Work 

The State-wide program under the direction and supervision 
of the Playground Athletic League which terminated on June 30, 
1937, required a total expenditure by the League during the school 
year 1936-37 of $13,072, which was a portion of the $15,000 appro- 
priated in the State Public School budget. 

TABLE 147 

Expenditures of Playground Athletic League for Work in Maryland Counties 
from October 1, 1936, to June 30, 1937 

Salaries $4,457.00 

Wages 1,319.68 

Postage 196.68 

Telephone 139.85 

Supplies 514.28 

Awards : 2,204.36 

Traveling Expenses 2,787.92 

Printing 346.15 

Expenses of State Meet 1,022.01 

Miscellaneous 84.52 

Total $13,072.45 

The expenditures for salaries paid for the services of field lead- 
ers who conducted the meets and tournaments, and of the athletic 
leaders for boys and girls who acted as teachers, referees, and 
umpires. 

The amount for wages took care of the cost of recording the 
badges and medals won by different pupils. The system of regis- 
tration prevented unnecessary duplication of awards. The badges, 
date bars, medallions, pendants awarded to county pupils, and 



204 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



badges for officials were paid for through the State appropriation. 
These incentives to effort in the physical education program bring 
returns out of all proportion to the amount of money spent for 
this purpose, $2,204. (See Table 147.) 

The amount of $2,788 spent on travel included transportation 
costs of the leaders who acted as officials at the many county meets 
and athletic tournaments that were conducted during the year. 
(See Table 147.) 

The balance of the State appropriation was used in paying the 
salary and expenses of the State Supervisor of Physical Educa- 
tion, who became a member of the staff of the State Department 
of Education on July 1, 1937. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS* 

During the summer of 1936 elementary, junior high, and senior 
high school instruction was made available in 14 Baltimore City 
buildings for a period of eight weeks. The total enrollment of 
6,428 pupils included 702 who were candidates for advanced stand- 
ing and 5,726 who attended to make up subjects in which they had 
failed. The summer schools passed 593 of the former group and 
4,333 of the latter. Of the advanced senior high pupils who 

TABLE 148 



Baltimore City Summer Schools 







Total 


Net Roll at End of Term 


Per Cent of Net 








Enrollment 








Roll Recom- 


















mended for Pro- 




Type of 


No. 








Taking 


motion Taking 


No. 


School 


of 
















of 




Schools 






Total 










Teachers 






Boys 


Girls 




Review 


Advance 


Review 


Advance 












Work 


Work 


Work 


Work 




White Schools: 




















Secondary: 




















Senior 


2 


1,192 


688 


1,737 


1,661 


76 


92.7 


96.4 


30 


Junior 


1 


582 


426 


876 


842 


34 


96.0 


100.0 


14 


Elementary 


4 


522 


429 


702 


668 


34 


89.4 


100.0 


21 


Demonstration .... 


1 


155 


172 


261 




261 




100.0 


13 


Total White . . 


8 


2.451 


1,715 


3,576 


3,171 


405 






78 


Colored Schools: 




















Secondary: 




















Senior 


1 


141 


217 


315 


304 


11 


93.4 


100.0 


7 


Junior 




114 


182 


232 


227 


5 


92.5 


100.0 


5 


Elementary 


'4 


627 


798 


1,261 


1,261 




78.3 




26 


Demonstration .... 


1 


67 


116 


160 




i60 




98^4 


6 


Total Colored . 


6 


949 


1,313 


1,968 


1,792 


176 






44 


All Schools: 




















1936 


14 


3,400 


3,028 


5,544 


4,963 


581 






122 


1935 


14 


4,150 


3,929 


7,015 


6,304 


711 






128 


1934 


15 


3,728 


3,472 


6,139 


5,324 


815 






120 


1932 


12 


3,644 


3,263 


6,081 


5,393 


688 






107 


1931 


16 


4,399 


4,088 


7,192 


6,354 


838 






154 


1930 


16 


3,865 


3,798 


6,504 


5,592 


912 






145 



* Excerpt from pages 22-25 of 1937 Report of Board of School Commissioners, of Balti- 
more City. 



Baltimore City Summer Schools 



205 



passed their subjects in summer school and continued these sub- 
jects during the fall, 91 per cent completed the semester's work 
successfully. The corresponding rate of success attained by 
pupils who were enrolled in review summer schools was 79 per 
cent. (See Table 148.) 

"During the past five years, the number of pupils attending sum- 
mer school has been steadily declining, although there have been 
some temporary reversals of this trend and the rate has varied 
in the several types of schools. In all, the number on roll at the 
end of the 1936 session was 1,650 less than it was five years ear- 
lier in 1931. During this time the total enrollment in day schools 
has been more or less stationary. The question, therefore, arises 
as to what has brought about the decrease in summer school en- 
rollment. As is usually the case, there is probably no single cause ; 
but rather, a number of factors have entered in to bring about 
this condition. The following have been suggested : 

1. Various kinds of classes have been established in the regular schools 
to take care of (a) subnormal and retarded pupils on the one hand, 
and (b) accelerate pupils on the other hand. Since these classes have 
been available, many pupils who formerly entered summer school to 
make up work in which they had failed, and a considerable number of 
pupils who went to summer school to gain advance standing, no longer 
do so. Various types of atypical children in the regular grades are now 
taught in separate homogeneous groups, and this procedure makes it 
practically impossible for them to go to summer school, because the 
new curriculum in which they are placed is not included in the summer 
school program. 

2. There are now more jobs available, especially for the older boys, than 
there were in preceding summers. This naturally causes a decrease 
in the enrollment of boys in the secondary summer schools. To a lesser 
extent, this statement is true of older girls, also. 

3. The continued operation of the retardation rule automatically elimi- 
nates a number of pupils who formerly were sent to summer school 
to make up two deficiencies. 

4. The restriction of summer school enrollment to pupils who have failed 
and the restriction of summer school offerings in the elementary grades 
to arithmetic, reading, and English eliminate another group of pupils 
who formerly were sent to summer schools. Pupils who are merely 
weak in these subjects and are promoted to the next grade in June 
may not go to summer schools. 

5. Better provision for individual differences in classes of normal children 
and differentiation of teaching methods now prevent failure in many 
cases where failure was common in past years. 

6. A general improvement in classroom teaching has taken place in re- 
cent years, and this improved teaching naturally means a lower per- 
centage of failure among pupils. 

"It may be, of course, in some instances, that not all of the pupils 
who should have taken advantage of the privilege of advance or 
remedial schooling have done so. On the other hand, although 



206 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

the summer schools have salvaged many thousands of failing stu- 
dents, the extent to which the need for them has been reduced by 
better school organization and management is indeed a genuine 
index of school efficiency." 

Expenditures for 1936 summer schools totalled $24,056, an 
increase of $219 over those for 1935. Of this total $17,000 was 
spent for white pupils, an increase of $2,480 over 1935, while for 
summer schools for colored pupils costs dropped $2,261 to $7,056 
in 1936. The types of schools which showed decreases in costs 
were the elementary and junior high schools attended by colored 
pupils. (See Table 149.) 

TABLE 149 



Expenditures for Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1936 



Type of School 


White 


Colored 


Total 




$6,736.16 


$4,542.84 


$11,279.00 


Junior High '. 


3,662.18 


1,009.61 


4,671.79 


Senior High 


6,601.99 


1,503.60 


8,105.59 


Total, 1936 


$17,000.33 


$7,056.05 


$24,056.38 


Total, 1935 


$14,520.27 


$9,316.70 


$23,836.97 



THE ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM 

Baltimore City Night Schools and the Parent Education Program 

"During 1936-37 the Baltimore City night schools continued to 
provide elementary education for those denied this opportunity 
in childhood or who had neglected early educational advantages. 
Though the compulsory attendance law has been in effect since 
1906, there are still many adults who have come into the city 
from elsewhere who need fundamental elementary education. 
Some have forgotten its factual content by reason of the lapse of 
time since they left school and now desire to review this work in 
order to continue further with their education. In every evening 
school there is at least one class where adults may individually 
learn or review the fundamental subjects. (See Table 150.) 

"In the city proper, among native-born white adults, there is 
practically no illiteracy, but Baltimore contains a large foreign- 
born population, approximately 13 per cent of whom are illiterate, 
and a large Negro population which has approximately the same 
percentage of illiteracy. The night schools have accomplished 
much in their effort to eliminate illiteracy or near-illiteracy and 
to give Americanization and citizenship training. (See Table 
150.) 



♦Excerpts from pages 116-127 in 1937 Report of Board of School Commissioners of Balti- 
more City. 



The Baltimore City Summer and Evening School Program 207 

I 

TABLE 150 
Baltimore City Night Schools 



Baltimore City Night Schools 



Type of Work 


White 


Colored 


Number of 
Nights in 
Session 


















1937 


1936 


1932 


1937 


1936 


1932 


1936-37 


Net Enrollment: 
















Americanization 


710 


701 


1,215 








72 


Academic: 
















Elementary 


266 


362 


583 


1,400 


1,472 


1,461 


72 


Secondary 


2,464 


2,630 


3,181 


656 


711 


540 


96* 




2,496 


2,773 


2,704 


320 


354 


350 


84 


Vocational: 
















Industrial 


1,419 


1,246 


2,418 


257 


271 


376 


48 


Home Economics 


463 


625 


736 


452 


484 


576 


48 




1,750 


1,027 




425 


99 








6,280 


6,225 


7,310 


3,023 


2,948 


2,815 




Average Attendance 


4,804 


4,804 


5,920 


2,384 


2,281 


2,359 




Per Cent of Attendance .... 


76.5 


77.2 


80.8 


78.9 


77.4 


83.4 




Number of Teachers 


252 


233 


268 


94 


85 


74 





* Junior high 84 nights. 



"Above the elementary level, there are available academic, com- 
mercial, vocational, and home economics courses offering all the 
subjects that are found in the day school curricula. Completion 
of a standard high school education at night requires at least six 
years. Two hundred and seventy-four students satisfactorily 
completed their high school courses and received diplomas. The 
work that these diplomas represent is practically equivalent to 
that required in the day high schools. This evidence is accepted 
for entrance to colleges and universities, as a prerequisite for 
admission to examinations conducted by various state boards for 
candidates who seek to enter certain prescribed professions, such 
as public accountants, and for employment in commerce or indus- 
try where high school graduation is required. (See Table 151.) 

TABLE 151 



Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing Definite 

Courses or Units 









Completion of 




High 


Vocational 






Year 


School 


3 or 4 Year 








Graduation 


Course 


2-10 Units 


One Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


1931 


237 


165 


1,687 


634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


1934 


285 


242 


943 


297 


1935 


339 


332 


1,587 


492 


1936 


289 


176 


1,586 


713 


1937 


274 


153 


1,654 


716 



208 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

"The most difficult problem in promoting an adult program of 
serious educational endeavor is psychological rather than prac- 
tical. In every language and in every land there are certain com- 
mon maxims such as 'too old to learn,' 'can't teach an old dog new 
tricks,' etc. These sayings are absorbed and believed without 
question and, consequently, many adults make no effort to avail 
themselves of educational advantages from which they could 
profit. These so-called self-evident truths have been proven false. 
In fact, there is scientific evidence that there is practically no 
limiting age beyond which learning is impossible. Under certain 
conditions, adults learn better, and in some cases, more rapidly 
than children or the adolescent. The Night School Division is 
gradually and successfully putting these findings before adults." 

Short Courses for Special Groups 

A number of short courses were designed to meet the needs of 
specific groups, such as unit courses in civics, problems of citizen- 
ship, parliamentary procedure, commercial subjects for high 
school graduates, sewing classes for physically handicapped girls 
over 16, mechanics, and others. 

Parent Education Classes in Baltimore City 

"Classes for parents, designed to help them in understanding 
and directing young children and to provide for educational and 
social experiences which would help to make happier homes, were 
first made possible in 1934 through the financial sponsorship of 
the Works Progress Administration. During the year 1935-36 
a portion of these classes, and in the season 1936-37, all of these 
classes were financed entirely by the City Department of Educa- 
tion. From October to June over 2,300 parents were enrolled in 
60 classes which met in school buildings for weekly meetings. A 
net enrollment of 1,750 white and 425 colored parents was re- 
corded with an average attendance of 64 per cent for white and 
73 per cent for the colored groups. The staff consisted of a super- 
visor, ten white teachers and four colored teachers." (See Table 
150.) 

Cost of Night Schools and Parent Education Financed by Baltimore City 

Baltimore City night school students ranged in age from 14 to 
over 60 years. The median age for individuals in the Americani- 
zation classes was 42.6 years, and for those taking academic work 
was 21 for white and 29.3 years for colored. In the commercial 
courses the median age of white persons was 19.8 years and for 
colored 22.7 years, while in the industrial classes the median age 
was 21.5 years for the white enrollment and 29.7 years for the 
colored. 



4 Adult Education in Baltimore City and Counties 



209 



The total cost to Baltimore City of the night school program, 
$72,275, was a slight decrease under 1936. The largest increases 
in expenditure from 1936 to 1937 were for parent education, ele- 
mentary instruction, and Americanization for white adults. (See 
Table 152.) 

TABLE 152 

Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City, 1936-37 



Type of Work 



Expenditures 



White 



Colored 



Americanization . . 

Elementary 

Handicapped . . . . 

Junior High 

Senior High 

Vocational 

Parent Education 

1936-37. 
1935-36. 



$3,833.31 
5,252.78 
170.00 
8,578.30 

27,002.88 
4,925.50 
5,062.29 



$6,733.61 



1,899.13 
7,395.32 
1,422.19 



$54,825.06 



$17,450.25 



$72,275.31 
72,580.12 



EVENING WORK IN THE COUNTIES 

The regular evening school program in the counties was limited 
to vocational work in industries in Allegany, Garrett, and Wash- 
ington, and to home economics in Cumberland. The enrollment 
and expenditures in Allegany were larger in 1937 than in 1936. 
(See Table 153.) 

TABLE 153 



Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening: 
Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of Voca- 
tional Education in County Evening Schools 


Enroll- 












ment 




County Funds 


Federal Funds 


Total 




Industries: 














*$3,066.25 


*$3,066 


25 


*$6,132.50 


350 


Garrett 


U, 441. 00 


tl.441 


00 


t2.882.00 


130 


Queen Anne's 


20.00 


20 


00 


40.00 


16 


Washington 


575.00 


575 


00 


1,150.00 


85 


Home Economics: 












Allegany 


766.50 


766 


50 


1,533.00 


156 


Total 


$5,868.75 


$5,868 


75 


$11,737.50 


737 



* Includes $1,250.00 from county and also from federal funds for mining classes — 107 en- 
rollment. 

t Mining classes supported by funds from the Bureau of Mines. University of Maryland and 
federal funds. 



210 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



WPA FEDERAL EMERGENCY EDUCATION PROGRAM 

In addition to the regular evening school program in Baltimore 
City and the evening vocational work in three counties, 15 coun- 
ties, Baltimore City, and several institutions, including the Bowie 
Normal School and University of Maryland, had classes in 1936- 
37 financed by Federal funds available through the Works Prog- 
ress Administration. The chief purposes were to provide employ- 
ment for unemployed persons and recreation leaders and to offer 
education and recreation for unemployed youth and adults who 
wished to use their time profitably. 



TABLE 154 

Federal Emergency Program Under Works Progress Administration 1936-37 



County 

AND 

Institution 


Maximum Number of 


Expendi- 
ture 


Teachers 


Classes 


Enrollment 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total Counties: J935-36 


117 


64 


380 


244 


5,640 


4,225 


$80,606 


71 


44 


160 


130 


2,760 


2,232 


75,420 


Washington 


15 


8 


22 


10 


461 


100 


23,099 




8 


11 


9 


64 


94 


1,611 


18,229 


Anne Arundel 


8 


8 


27 


24 


545 


292 


12,387 




2 


4 


5 


17 


140 


100 


3,839 


Carroll 


8 


3 


35 


9 


519 


38 


3,607 


Somerset 


8 




17 




265 




3,197 




5 




10 




124 




2,844 




2 




6 




22 


10 


1,756 


Dorchester 


4 




6 




69 




1,485 


Caroline 


2 




5 




143 




1,205 


Kent 












' 81 


1,039 


Worcester 


' 2 




"4 




70 




921 


Wicomico 


3 




4 




68 




674 


Cecil 


2 




5 




175 




569 


Talbot 


2 




5 




65 




569 


Baltimore City 


27 


22 


35 


5 


653 


90 


52,011 


P. A. L 


14 


2 


25 


3 


3,240 


145 


18,794 


Penitentiary 


13 


4 


6 


14 


202 


408 


14,113 


University of Maryland 


4 




1 




19 


' 27 


3,490 


Bowie Normal School. . 




' ' ' 4 




i 




2,159 


Sheppard Pratt 


' 2 




' 18 




' 65 




1,980 


Entire State 


131 


76 


245 


153 


6,939 


2,902 


167,967 



In the 15 counties which participated in the emergency pro- 
gram, the teachers, classes and enrollment for 1936-37 were con- 
siderably below those for 1935-36. The maximum number of 
white teachers employed in the counties was 71 for a maximum 
of 160 classes, enrolling a maximum of 2,760 individuals. Cor- 
responding figures for colored were 44 teachers, 130 classes, and 
an enrollment of 2,232. The expenditure of $75,420 meant an 
average payment per teacher of $656, per class of $260, and per 
individual enrolled of $15. (See Table 154.) 



4 

W.P.A. Federal Emergency Education Program 211 

The maximum expenditure in any county was $23,099, which 
provided for a nursery school project, while at the opposite ex- 
treme two counties each spent $569. 

Baltimore City's WPA education program required $52,011 
in Federal funds paid to 49 teachers who took care of 40 classes 
of 743 individuals, an expenditure per teacher of $1,062, per class 
of $1,302, and per individual instructed of $70. (See Table 154.) 

TABLE 155 



Subjects Taught in the Maryland Federally Supported Emergency Education 

Program 1936-37 



Subject 


Maximum Number of 


Teachers 


Classes 


Enrollment 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Physical Education 


21 




83 




3,913 




Music (Choral, Band, Orchestra) . . . 


12 




48 


42 


754 


559 




11 


4 


32 


15 


575 


249 ' 




3 


3 


6 


13 


160 


544 




7 




23 




399 




Home Nursing 


3 




8 




200 




Cooking 


1 




3 




80 






3 




2 




46 






48 


43 


13 


9 


355 


246 




3 


12 


6 


45 


98 


988 






1 




4 




53 


Illiteracy 


3 


6 


5 


16 


' 75 


174 




2 




7 




162 






3 






6 




79 




1 




' ' 2 




40 




Upholstering and Refinishing 


3 




1 




39 




Mechanical Drawing 


1 




1 




25 






3 




2 




10 












' 3 




' 10 


Braille 


' 3 




' 3 




' ' 8 





The largest number were enrolled for physical education, while 
music comprising chorus, band, and orchestra attracted the second 
largest enrollment. Homemaking activities, including sewing, 
cooking, needlecraft, home nursing and home management ap- 
pealed to a large number of women. The nursery schools took 
care of pre-school children in Baltimore City, Hagerstown, Cris- 
field, Cambridge and Secretary in Dorchester County, Bowie 
(Normal School), and College Park (University of Maryland). 
The largest number of the colored were enrolled in classes desig- 
nated as "General Adult" and in elementary school subjects. 
There were also a number enrolled in classes for the elimination 
of illiteracy and for Americanization. (See Table 155.) 



212 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 

The 97 individuals rehabilitated in 1936-37 were four fewer than 
for the previous year. The average beginning wage of the 1937 
group was slightly more than $3.00 above the average for 1936. 
A total of 558 disabled persons received some type of rehabili- 
tation service during 1936-37, and on June 30, 1937, there were 
283 additional cases pending. (See Table 156.) 

TABLE 156 

Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1937 



- 










rJe.ng 














1 raining 


Prepared 


O A 

ourveyeo . 


Closed 


County 


Total 






Completed 


for 


under 






Number 


xveriduiii- 


T7 1 11 A 

t ollowecl 


Awaiting 


Employ- 


A.Qvise- 


winer 




of Cases 


tated 


on Jobs 


Jobs 


ment 


ment 


Services* 


Total Counties. . 


280 


56 


3 


26 


62 


72 


61 


Allegany 


42 


8 




4 


13 


12 


5 


Anne Arundel . . . 


15 


3 






3 


5 


4 


Baltimore 


23 


3 




2 


1 


13 


4 


Calvert 


7 


2 




1 


2 


1 


1 


Caroline 


9 


1 




2 




2 


4 


Carroll 


13 


2 






5 


5 


1 


Cecil 


10 


1 






5 




4 


Charles 


3 


1 






1 




1 


Dorchester 

Frederick 


9 


1 






1 


3 


4 


19 


5 




i 


1 


8 


4 


Garrett 


16 


2 




3 


4 


3 


4 


Harford 


13 


3 




4 


3 


1 


2 


Howard 


2 


1 








1 




Kent 


4 


2 








1 




Montgomery .... 


11 


1 




3 


3 


3 




Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . . 


11 


2 




1 


3 


5 




3 


1 






1 






St. Mary's 


6 


2 






2 


2 




Somerset 


11 


2 






2 


1 


5 


Talbot 


3 










1 


2 


Washington 


30 


ii 




4 


8 


4 


3 


Wicomico 


15 


l 


2 


1 


3 


1 


7 




5 


l 






1 




3 


Baltimore City. . 


278 


41 


13 


26 


77 


94 


27 


Entire State 


558 


97 


16 


52 


139 


166 


88 



t Through training, artificial appliances, hospitalization, or otherwise. 
* Cases accepted and rendered service, but not rehabilitated. 

Rehabilitation service was rendered to persons in every county 
and Baltimore City, the distribution between city and county cases 
being about equal. The following are vocations for which some of 
the disabled persons were trained during 1936-37 : 



Auto mechanic 

Barber 

Bookkeeper 

Carpenter 

Chauffeur 

Draftsman 

Electrician 

Electric welder 

Handicrafts 

Key punch operatoi 



Lawyer 

Linotype operator 
Machinist's helper 
Meat cutter 
Monotype operator 
Office clerk 
Painter 
Poultryman 
Repairman, electric 
refrigerators 



Repairman, radio 

Salesman 

Seamstress 

Stenographer 

Stock clerk 

Teacher 

Textile worker 

Typewriter mechanic 

Watch repairman 

Waterman 



Statement prepared by R. C. Thompson, Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation. 



« 



Vocational Rehabilitation; Financing the Maryland Schools 213 

Legislation 

The following legislation affecting the Maryland Rehabilitation 
Program was passed by the State legislature at its 1937 session : 

1. The Maryland Employment Service was established according to the 
plan of the Wagner-Peyser Act of Congress which requires coopera- 
tion with the rehabilitation service. 

2. The annual appropriation for rehabilitation was increased from $10,000 
to $15,000. 

3. Services for Crippled Children under the Social Security Act were 
authorized and a new division for this purpose was established in the 
State Department of Health. An annual appropriation of $49,000 was 
made and this amount will be supplemented by an equal sum from the 
Children's Bureau. Physical restoration for rehabilitation cases be- 
tween the ages of 16 and 21 years will be available under this program. 

FINANCING THE MARYLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The county boards of education spent $9,082,500 for current 
operation of public schools in 1937, an increase of $367,000 over 
the amount spent in the previous year. Looking back to the period 
beginning in 1920 there was a steady increase in expenditures 
each year to 1932, after which there was a decline to 1934 due 
to the salary cuts made necessary by the depression, since which 
year the upward climb has continued. An increasing enrollment, 
especially in the high school years which are more expensive than 
the elementary grades, a better trained teaching staff eligible to 
certificates of higher grade commanding the higher salaries pro- 
vided for in the salary schedule enacted by the 1922 legislature, a 
more stable teaching staff with increasing years of experience 
therefore qualifying for experience increments, a longer term for 
the colored schools especially in the early years of the period, 
increasing provision for vocational classes and special classes for 
handicapped children which must be taught in smaller groups 
than the regular classes, increased provision for transportation 
of pupils at public expense, are some of the factors which explain 
the higher costs over the period. (See Table 157 and Chart 33.) 

State aid for county schools has grown from $1,174,300 in 1920 
to $3,583,300 in 1937, showing definite increases in most of the 
biennial budget periods, except that the amounts from 1926 to 
1930 were rather stationary. The establishment of the Equali- 
zation Fund in the 1923 budget and the provision of the $1,500,000 
fund for reduction of taxation in the 1934 budget explain the large 
increases evident in the State aid in those particular years. (See 
Table 157 and Chart 33.) 

Federal aid for county schools increased from $12,000 in 1920 
to 892,550 in 1937, due chiefly to the increase in the number of 



214 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 157 

School Current Expenses from State, Federal, and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay by Boards of Education in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1920-1937 



Current Expense Disbursements 












Capital 




From State 


From Federal 


From Local 


Outlay 


Total 


Funds 


Funds 


Funds 





$7,409,795 
10,438,579 
11,885,292 
12,764,250 
13,269,851 
13,981,008 
14,623,320 
15,396,448 
16,147,689 
16,932,052 
17,649,482 
18,518,458 
18,307,235 
16,873,271 
16,002,647 
16,691,983 
17,459,840 
18,113,555 



Total Counties 



$3,703,153 


$1,174,270 


$11,923 


$2,516,960 


$485,601 


5,043,923 


1,537,621 


17,073 


3,489,229 


929,024 


5,291,124 


1,527,627 


t33,853 


3,729,644 


1,121,554 


5,964,456 


2,005,335 


f33,710 


3,925,411 


1,475,269 


6,475,803 


2,041,155 


f43,244 


4,391,404 


949,720 


6,743,015 


2,130,518 


f43,252 


4,569,245 


2,527,823 


7,143,150 


2,212,857 


148,010 


4,882,283 


2,602,745 


7,517,729 


2,291,235 


f48,965 


5,177,529 


1,023,362 


7,787,298 


x°2,207,335 


f51,910 


5,528,053 


1,532,718 


8,164,657 


x°2,279,589 


f54,425 


5,830,643 


1,773,070 


8,456,414 


x2, 299, 380 


f69,779 


6,087,255 


2,450,144 


8,852,073 


2,323,767 


f78,755 


6,449,551 


2,172,088 


8,892,181 


2,661,382 


t77,470 


6,153,329 


1,650,065 


8,485,146 


2,531,668 


f78,343 


5,875,135 


688,497 


8,010,425 


3,622,840 


t67,903 


4,319,682 


1,132,433 


8.189,909 


3,665,763 


t75,727 


4,448,419 


1,590,879 


8,715,542 


3,580,265 


t84,854 


5,050,423 


2,000,321 


9,082,523 


3,583,329 


t92,553 


5,406,641 


2,531,071 



♦Baltimore City 



$3,706,642 


$704,771 


5,394,656 


1,023,597 


6,594,168 


1,015,034 


6,799,794 


1,052,845 


6,794,048 


1,046,561 


7,237,993 


1,024,179 


7,480,170 


1,034,372 


7,878,719 


1,066,385 


8,360,391 


x999,753 


8,767,395 


xl, 017, 153 


9,193,068 


976,083 


9,666,385 


932,251 


9,415,054 


974,431 


8,388,125 


1,072,738 


7,992,222 


948,586 


8,502,074 


954,383 


8,744,298 


946,396 


9,031,032 


943,073 



$8,516 
8,945 
11,939 
13,256 
14,551 
18,301 
22,522 
20,112 
17,240 
20,338 
18,980 
13,773 
11,131 
10,663 
10,081 
25,913 
26,363 
22,536 



$2,993,355 


$60,741 


4,362,114 


1,267,636 


5,567,195 


1,417,569 


5,733,693 


3,301,086 


5,732,936 


5,336,889 


6,195,513 


3,224,734 


6,423,276 


3,484,767 


6,792,222 


4,200,038 


7,343,398 


1,897,871 


7,729,904 


633,632 


8,198,005 


I , 508 , 678 


8,720,361 


3,658,046 


8,429,492 


2,678,922 


7,304,724 


1,268,159 


7,033,555 


1,087,351 


7,521,778 


642,191 


7,771,539 


223,669 


8,065,423 


1,156,748 



♦Entire State 



$1,887,915 
2,561,218 
2,542,661 
3,058,180 
3,087,716 
3,154,697 
3,247,229 
3,357,620 
x3, 207, 088 
x3, 296, 742 
x3, 275, 463 
3,256,018 
3,635,813 
3,604,406 
4,571,426 
4,620,146 
4,526,661 
4,526,402 



$11,565 
26,018 
45,792 
46,966 
57,795 
61,553 
70,532 
69,077 
69,150 
74,763 
88,759 
92,528 
88,601 
89,006 
77,984 
101,640 
111,217 
115,089 



$5,510,315 
7,851,343 
9,296,839 
9,659,104 
10,124,340 
10,764,758 
11,305,559 
11,969,751 
12,871,451 
13,560,547 
14,285,260 
15,169,912 
14,582,821 
13,179,859 
11,353,237 
11,970,197 
12,821,962 
13,472,064 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 

t Includes amounts received from the federal government towards salaries and expenses at 
Indian Head. 

x Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

° Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



< 



Financing the Maryland Public Schools 



215 



teachers of agriculture, vocational home economics, trades and 
industries, and the provision of Federal aid for Indian Head in the 
later years. (See Table 157.) 

CHART 33 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in 23 Counties 
and Baltimore City*, 1919 to 1937 




1920 1922. 1924- 191.4 i928 1930 1932 1934 193b 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 



The county levy and other county sources increased their con- 
tributions to the current expenses for public schools by S356,000 
in 1937 over 1936. These county sources of school funds were 
$2,517,000 in 1920 and gained each year until they reached 
$6,450,000 in 1931, after which they decreased to a low point of 
$4,320,000 in 1934, since which time they have grown to S5,407,- 
000. The great decrease in 1934 came about because the county 
levy required for participation in the State Equalization Fund 
was reduced from 67 cents to 47 cents and salaries were cut by 
from 10 to 15 per cent. Restoration of salary cuts and provision 
of teachers needed for increased enrollment, denied in the period 
from 1932 to 1935, account for the increases in 1936 and 1937. 
(See Table 157.) 



216 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Capital outlay for schools which totalled $2,531,00 in the coun- 
ties in 1937 included Federal aid available through the Public 
Works Administration. (See Table 157.) 

The Baltimore City total current expenses for public schools 
closely parallel those for the county schools, although from 1921 
to 1932 the current expenses of schools in the city were above 
those in the counties. State and Federal aid for the city schools 
were lower over the entire period than they were for the county 
schools, necessitating higher levies from the city than from the 
counties. Of the $9,031,000 spent to operate the city schools in 
1937, $943,000 came from the State, $22,500 from Federal voca- 
tional funds, and $8,065,000 from the city levy. Capital outlay 
for city schools was $1,157,000 in 1937. The city figures do not 
include city and State contributions to the Retirement System 
on account of teachers. (See Table 157 and Chart 33.) 

For the entire State, operating costs for the public schools 
aggregated $18,113,000 in 1937, of which $4,526,000 came from 
State funds, $115,000 from Federal funds and $13,472,000 from 
local levies. These figures exclude State and city aid to the re- 
tirement systems on account of teachers. The capital outlay for 
public schools in the entire State totalled $3,688,000. (See Table 
157.) 

Increase in Enrollment 



TABLE 158 

Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City, 1920 to 1937 



School Year 
Ending June 30 


23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Entire State 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


1920 


*145,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241,618 


175,312 


1921 


*149,045 


108,178 


*100,092 


81,570 


*249,137 


189,748 


1922 


*147,409 


114,190 


*101,480 


84,208 


*248,889 


198,398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


256,546 


201,867 


1924 


151,538 


117,222 


104,764 


86,540 


256,302 


203,762 


1925 


153,636 


121,665 


107,133 


89,467 


260,769 


211,132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108,280 


90,844 


263,249 


214,104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111,029 


91,925 


267,817 


218,943 


1928 


158,368 


131,439 


112,532 


94,230 


270,900 


225,669 


1929 


160,217 


131,923 


113,315 


94,731 


273 , 532 


226,654 


1930 


162,209 


137.481 


115,250 


98,074 


277,459 


235,555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101,064 


281,517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145,676 


119,205 


103,722 


288,169 


249,398 


1933 


172,745 


150,301 


121,374 


105,627 


294,119 


255,928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104,987 


293,678 


252,226 


1935 


172,409 


148,174 


123 , 068 


106,443 


295,477 


254,617 


1936 


172,921 


148,398 


125,236 


105,903 


298,157 


254,301 


1937 


173,642 


149,318 


123,748 


104,243 


297,390 


253,561 


Increase, 1920-37 




49,506 




28,743 




78,249 






49.6 




38.1 




44.6 



Duplicates not excluded as in later years. 



Financing Maryland Public Schools; Increases in Enroll- 217 
ment; Per Cent of Aid from State and Federal Funds 

There were 49,506 more county and 28,743 more city children 
attending public schools in 1937 than there were in 1920, an in- 
crease of 49.6 per cent for the county and 38.1 per cent for the 
city attendance over the period. As explained before a large 
part of this increase is in high school enrollment. 

It will be noted that the counties spent 50 per cent of the total 
State school current expenses (See Table 157), although they 
had 59 per cent of the public school pupils in the State. (See 
Table 158). The greater expenditure in Baltimore City was due 
to higher salary schedules for teachers and janitors, more spe- 
cialized provision for vocational education and for handicapped 
pupils, provision for night and summer schools, specialized pro- 
vision for individual and group testing programs and educational 
guidance. On the other hand, the counties, because of the terri- 
tory to be covered, had to have many more schools and teachers 
than Baltimore City, requiring many small classes in one- and 
two-teacher schools and small high schools, and had to provide 
transportation to consolidated schools for many pupils living too 
far to walk to school. (See Tables 157 and 158.) 

PER CENT OF AID FROM STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS 

Of the county school current expenses, 39.5 per cent came from 
the State, including 5.4 per cent from the Equalization Fund, 1 
per cent came from Federal funds, leaving 59.5 per cent to be 
provided from the county levy and other county sources. State 
aid ranged from 22.4 per cent of the current expenses in the 
wealthiest county to nearly 68 per cent in two of the poorest 
counties. Federal aid ranged from nothing in four counties Which 
did not have a vocational program to just over 2 per cent of the 
current expenses in the counties which spent the largest propor- 
tion for vocational instruction, and 11.6 per cent in Charles Coun- 
ty which received Federal aid for the vocational program and in 
addition Federal funds toward the expense of the public schools 
on the government reservation at Indian Head. Support of school 
current expenses from the county levy and other county sources 
varied from 26 per cent in a financially poor county to 77 per cent 
in a wealthy county. (See Table 159 and Chart 34.) 

Fourteen counties shared in the Equalization Fund. As little 
as 3 per cent of the total current expenses came from this fund 
in a county of average wealth which has an eight-grade elemen- 
tary system and a salary schedule in excess of the minimum, 
while at the opposite extreme as much as 38 per cent of the total 
operating cost came from the Equalization Fund in a financially 
poor county with salaries paid in accordance with the State mini- 
mum schedule and in which the elementary course had seven 
grades. The Equalization Fund is that item in the State aid pro- 



218 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



gram which takes into consideration financial ability to carry the 
minimum State program with existing aid and a 47-cent levy on 
the county assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county 
purposes. (See Table 159 and Chart 34.) 



TABLE 159 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State and Federal 
Funds for School Purposes for Year Ending July 31, 1937 





tTotal 


Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 


Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 
































Disburse- 










c 


c 
















County 


ments 






tCounty 




o 


c 












>> 






for 






w 




'Z- 
es 








< 




%i 


! 




Current 






Levy and 


















"is m 




Expenses 


-(-State 


^Federal 


Other 






— 


< 








So 8 




Aid 


Aid 


County 
Sources 


i ate 
Excl 
Equ 
Fun 


tate 
Rom 


Fun 


tate 




Vdcl 




.! S£ 




















v. 




— 




u 




Total Counties. 


$9,082,523 


$3,583,329 


x$92,553 


$5,406,641 


34 


1 


5. 


4 


39 


5 


1. 





59 


5 




198,802 


134,462 


928 


63,412 


43 


2 


24. 


4 


67 


6 




5 


31 


9 


Garrett 


293,898 


198,313 


6,203 


89,382 


29 


8 


37. 


7 


67 


5 


2. 


1 


30 


4 


Calvert 


105,523 


69,508 


1,383 


34 , 632 


38 


1 


27. 


8 


65 


9 


1. 


3 


32 


8 


St. Mary's 


124,327 


79,965 




44,362 


47 


.3 


17. 





64 
62 


3 






35 


7 


Charles 


179,492 


111,361 


x20^780 


47,351 


39 


5 


22. 


5 





a. 


6 


26 


4 


Caroline 


186,489 


111,051 


2,194 


73,244 


39 


.6 


19. 


9 


59 


5 


i. 


2 


39 


3 


Dorchester. . . . 


260,139 


132,518 


1,694 


125,927 


39 


.4 


11. 


5 


50 


9 




7 


48 


4 


Worcester 


206,246 


103,960 


834 


101,452 


41 


.9 


8. 


5 


50 


4 




4 


49 


2 


Carroll 


395,549 


194,206 


1,650 


199,693 


35 


.1 


14. 





49 


1 




4 


50 


5 


Wicomico 


292,417 


143,043 


1,232 


148,142 


40 


.0 


8 


9 


48 


9 




4 


50 


7 


Kent 


149,963 


66,699 




83,264 


39 


6 


4. 


9 


44 


5 






55 


5 


Queen Anne's. . 


161,705 


70,088 


3^117 


88 , 500 


37 


.4 


6 





43 


4 


i. 


9 


54 


7 


Talbot 


181,030 


75,063 




105,967 


41 


.5 






41 


5 






58 


5 


Howard 


166,414 


66,858 


3^596 


95,960 


40 


.2 






40 


2 


2. 


2 


57 


6 


Cecil 


265,992 


101,970 




164,022 


38 


.3 






38 
38 


3 


1 




61 


7 


Harford 


337,229 


128,048 


4^688 


204,493 


38 


.0 









4 


60 
61 


6 

8 


Anne Arundel . . 


573,954 


217,987 


1,483 


354,484 


32 


.6 


5 




38 





1 


2 


Washington .... 


651,034 


231,178 


10,468 


409,388 


35 


.5 






35 


5 


6 


62 


9 


Frederick 


540,852 


191,938 


3,741 


345,173 


35 


.5 






35 


5 




7 


63 


8 
8 


Prince George's 


713,184 


245,049 


6,268 


461,867 


34 


.3 






34 


3 


1* 


9 


64 


Allegany 


930,552 


309,248 


10,256 


611,048 


30 


.4 


2 




33 


2 


1 


65 


.7 


Baltimore 


1,287,236 


403,053 


4,278 


879,905 


31 


.3 






31 


3 




3 


68 
76 


4 


Montgomery . . . 


880,496 


197,763 


7,760 


674,973 


22 


.4 






22 


4 




9 


7 


Baltimore City 


°9,013.025 


°943,073 


22,536 


°8,047,416 


10 


.5 






10 


5 




2 


89 


3 


State 


18,095,548 


4,526,402 


xll5,089 


13,454,057 


22 


.3 


2 


7 


25 







6 


74 


4 



t Excludes estimated State and county funds amounting to $203,922 for public school health 
services expended by County and City health offices. 

♦Excludes Federal aid for 1935-36 received after July 31. 1936, but includes Federal funds 
for 1936-37 received after July 31,1937. 

x Includes $18,755 received from the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at 
Indian Head. 

° Excludes $899,882 for teachers in Baltimore City Retirement System, of which $517,265 
was paid by the State. 

Toward the Baltimore City school current expenses, excluding 
State and Federal aid to the retirement system on account of 
teachers, the State contributed 10.5 per cent and the local levy 
over 89 per cent. 



Source of Funds for School Current Expenses 



219 



CHART 34 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1937 



Received from 



County Average 



Baltimo. 



| State, Excluding Equalization Fund 
] Equalization Fund 
3 Federal Aid 



• K////1 County Levy and Other County Sources 




WzMfflfflSnMnzL 



mnmnzmm 



wnmmnm. 



wzzzmmzmm 



» . mnnmzzznm 



vnmznm 



U////////////777TT? 



wzzuznznzzSnznzni 



MmmzmmmnnzL 



WWMzzrnzMznL 



\/////////////////////////// 



wzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 



///////////////////////////// 



ttZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 



V/////////////////////////////. 



V/////////////////////////////ZZ 



W222znzznmznmzamnmL 



mnzznzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzznzzzzz2L 



W/////W//////////////////////////L 



For the State as a whole, just one-fourth of the school current 
expenses came from State aid, less than 1 per cent from Federal 
funds, and over 74 per cent from the local levy and other local 
sources. (See Table 159 and Chart 34.) 



220 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



HOW THE 1937 SCHOOL CURRENT EXPENSE TAX DOLLAR 

WAS USED 

In the counties as a group of every dollar devoted to expenses 
of school children including estimated expenditures on health of 
school children by county health offices, 65V2 cents were used 
for salaries of teachers and principals, 13.8 cents for transporta- 
tion, libraries and health, 7.1 cents for heating and cleaning build- 
ings, 4.1 cents for books, materials, clerical service in schools and 
other costs of instruction, 3.3 cents for repairs and replacements, 
3 cents for administration, 1.7 cents for supervision, and 1.5 cents 
for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties. (See Table 
160 and Chart 35.) 

CHART 35 

How the County Tax Dollar for School Current Expenses was Used in 1936-37 




* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 

If current expenditures of the county school boards excluding 
transportation are considered, the percentages run as follows: 
for salaries of teachers and principals 75.5 cents, for cleaning and 
heating buildings 8.2 cents, for books, materials, clerical service 
in schools and other costs of instruction 4.7 cents, for repairs and 



Expenditure of School Current Expense Tax Dollar 



221 



replacements 3.8 cents, for administration 3.4 cents, for super- 
vision 1.9 cents, for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining coun- 
ties 1.8 cents, for libraries, health and community activities .7 of 
one cent. The requirement therefore that counties sharing in 
the Equalization Fund spend at least 24 per cent of current ex- 
penses excluding transportation for purposes other than teachers' 
salaries is therefore very close to actual practice in the 23 coun- 
ties for the year 1937. 

TABLE 160 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Outlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Hooks, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies ' 


Fixed ( 'Marges and 
Tuition t > Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average 


3.0 


1.7 


65. 5 


4.1 


7.1 


3.3 


13.8 


1.5 


21.4 


Allegany 


2.1 


1.5 


69.0 


5.2 


8.3 


1.7 


10.7 


1.5 


12.9 


Anne Arundel 


3.0 


1.3 


61.5 


4.5 


6.9 


4.8 


15.6 


2.4 


16.4 


Baltimore 


2.6 


1.3 


69.8 


3.5 


7.2 


2.3 


10.0 


3.3 


2.6 


Calvert 


6.0 


3.3 


46.5 


2.8 


4.9 


1.7 


34.0 


.8 


7.8 


Caroline 


4.1 


2.1 


60.0 


3.0 


6.0 


3.4 


20.7 


.7 


13.1 


Carroll 


3.4 


1.7 


61.2 


4.1 


6.1 


2.1 


20.1 


1.3 


38.5 


Cecil 


2.9 


1.5 


67.9 


5.3 


6.0 


2.5 


12.5 


1.4 


39.4 


Charles 


3.2 


1.9 


53.1 


3.3 


6.1 


8.1 


23.4 


.9 


9.0 


Dorchester 


3.3 


2.2 


61.2 


3.3 


7.1 


2.8 


18.8 


1.3 


34.1 


Frederick 


2.2 


1.6 


65.8 


3.9 


5.9 


2.5 


17.0 


1.1 


3.5 


Garrett 


3.8 


1.8 


58.6 


2.3 


4.5 


4.3 


22.8 


1.9 


18.3 


Harford 


2.7 


1.7 


72.6 


3.1 


6.9 


4.9 


7.3 


.8 


14.6 


Howard 


4.3 


1.8 


60.9 


4.3 


6.4 


3.3 


15.8 


3.2 


11.3 


Kent 


4.6 


2.6 


58.0 


3.0 


6.8 


4.2 


20.1 


.7 


.1 


Montgomery 


2.4 


1.6 


66.1 


5.5 


9.5 


4.0 


9.8 


1.1 


39.4 


Prince George's 


2.4 


1.8 


69.3 


4.8 


7.5 


6.4 


7.1 


.7 


24.1 


Queen Anne's 


5.3 


2.1 


54.4 


4.8 


6.3 


3.0 


22.7 


1.4 




St. Mary's 


5.9 


2.7 


53.6 


3.0 


4.7 


3.4 


25.7 


1.0 


5^8 


Somerset 


4.0 


1.8 


62.9 


4.1 


6.9 


1.8 


16.8 


1.7 


9.7 


Talbot 


4.6 


2.3 


62.5 


3.5 


7.2 


2.8 


15.9 


1.2 


5.9 


Washington 


2.1 


1.4 


73.4 


4.0 


7.1 


2.3 


8.8 


.9 


16.2 


Wicomico 


4.0 


1.9 


65.1 


3.4 


6.5 


3.7 


14.7 


.7 


59.8 


Worcester 


3.6 


1.8 


59.8 


2.7 


7.7 


3.2 


20.0 


1.2 


5.2 


Baltimore City 


3.5 


1.4 


75.5 


3.5 


9.9 


3.3 


2.6 


.3 


11.3 


State 


3.2 


1:6 


70.5 


3.8 


8.5 


3.3 


8.2 


.9 


16.7 



* Auxiliary agencies include estimated expenditures by health officers in counties and Bal- 
timore City for services rendered to school children. 



In general, percentages for teachers' salaries were highest in 
the counties which had a low percentage for auxiliary agencies 
and vice versa. A population concentrated in large centers, a 
large proportion of teachers in one-teacher schools, a policy of 
charging pupils for high school transportation are all factors tend- 
ing to decrease the percentage of public expenditures for trans- 



222 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



portation and increase those for salaries of teachers, while the 
reverse of these conditions usually brings high percentages of 
children transported and increases the per cent of the budget 
used for transportation and reduces the per cent for salaries. 
(See Table 160.) 

The small counties tended to have high percentages devoted to 
administration and supervision, while the large counties needed 
only a small percentage of their funds for these purposes. (See 
Table 160.) 

The accessibility and cheapness of fuel and the use of pupils 
and teachers for janitorial work instead of employing outside 
janitorial help necessary in the larger schools tend to affect the 
per cent of funds needed for operation of schools. (See Table 
160.) 

The availability of labor through the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration had a relation to the expenditures required for mainte- 
nance in some of the counties and in Baltimore City. (See Table 
160 and Tables 167 and 168, pages 230 and 231.) 

Tuition to adjoining counties did not require over 2 per cent 
of the current expense budget, except in three counties which 
had a number of residents attending school in adjoining counties 
or Baltimore City. (See Table 160 and Table 179, page 247.) 

If the school current expenses and capital outlay are combined, 
the per cent of this combination devoted to capital outlay aver- 
aged 21.4 per cent for the 23 counties, but the range was con- 
siderable, viz., from nothing to nearly 60 per cent. The counties 
which had a large school capital outlay received aid from the 
Federal Public Works Administration. (See Table 160.) 

AVERAGE COST PER PUPIL 

It cost on the average $56.29 to provide for the education and 
health service of a county pupil belonging in the day schools in 
1937, an increase of $2.58 over the cost in 1936. The cost in 1937 
which included an estimate of SI. 24 for the health service given 
children through the county health offices was not as much as 
the 1931 cost of $56.44 which took no account of the health serv- 
ice given school children by the county health offices. These per 
pupil costs, however, exclude expenditures for home teachers of 
handicapped children, payments to adjoining counties and states 
and cost of evening and adult classes. Also pupils in the ele- 
mentary schools at the State Teachers Colleges and Bowie Normal 
School are excluded from the number belonging for the counties 
in which these schools are located, since the cost of their instruc- 
tion is provided for by the State. (See Table 161.) 

The cost per day school pupil varied among the counties from 
$47.11 to $72.29, and every county, except two, showed an in- 
crease from 1936 to 1937. (See Table 161.) 



Expenditure of School Tax Dollar; Cost per Pupil 



223 



The proportion of high school pupils, the proportion of colored 
pupils, the length of session in colored schools, the proportion of 
pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils to teachers, 
the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the proportion of 
pupils transported to school, the length of transportation route 
and type of vehicle used, the number and variety of books and 
materials provided, and the salary schedule are some of the fac- 
tors which affect the total average cost per pupil. (See Table 161.) 

TABLE 161 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1931, 1933, 1935, 1936, and 1937 



County 


fl931 


tl933 


tl935 


°tl936 


°fl937 


Increase 

1937 
over 1936 


County Average 


$56 


44 


$51 


89 


$49 


90 


$53 


71 




$56 


29 


$2 


58 


Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 


68 


29 


59 


17 


62 


14 


67 


83 




72 


29 


4 


46 


57 


55 


59 


01 


55 


27 


59 


34 




62 


83 


3 


49 


Garrett 


69 


17 


61 


22 


55 


37 


58 


92 




61 


79 


2 


87 


Carroll 


68 


75 


60 


82 


57 


62 


59 


43 




60 


51 


1 


08 


Allegany 


61 


45 


55 


97 


51 


35 


58 


29 




60 


09 


1 


80 


Cecil 


60 


84 


57 


38 


56 


74 


57 


30 




59 


93 


2 


63 


Kent 


61 


15 


58 


19 


52 


46 


59 


78 




59 


06 




72 


Talbot 


54 


86 


51 


79 


52 


44 


55 


97 




58 


82 


2 


85 


Baltimore 


58 


05 


50 


03 


48 


64 


53 


31 




57 


14 


3 


83 


Caroline 


57 


13 


54 


15 


51 


08 


55 


73 




55 


40 




33 


Harford 


56 


05 


50 


26 


49 


94 


53 


23 




54 


90 


1 


67 


Frederick 


52 


88 


49 


03 


49 


68 


53 


16 




54 


68 


1 


52 


St. Mary's 


49 


59 


49 


09 


48 


28 


48 


18 




53 


87 


5 


69 


Charles 


47 


86 


46 


03 


49 


63 


50 


76 




53 


83 


3 


07 


Anne Arundel 


53 


72 


49 


47 


48 


29 


50 


05 




53 


65 


3 


60 


Howard 


56 


02 


51 


87 


47 


66 


47 


94 




53 


24 


5 


30 


Calvert 


47 


94 


47 


07 


45 


18 


51 


39 




52 


29 




90 


Dorchester 


54 


21 


50 


68 


46 


47 


49 


80 




51 


65 


1 


85 


Wicomico 


46 


42 


46 


45 


45 


08 


48 


55 




50 


98 


2 


43 


Worcester 


53 


36 


49 


36 


46 


43 


49 


44 




50 


95 


1 


51 


Prince George's 


51 


55 


49 


87 


46 


23 


48 


34 




50 


07 


1 


73 


Washington 


51 


31 


47 


41 


43 


36 


47 


85 




49 


89 


2 


04 


Somerset 


45 


75 


44 


57 


42 


35 


45 


66 




47 


11 


1 


45 



t In making this calculation salaries and expenses for home teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening schools and 
adult classes have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury Teach- 
ers Colleges and Bowie Normal Elementary Schools have been eliminated. 

* Decrease. 

° Includes estimated expenditures by county health officers for services rendered to school 
children. 



Cost Per Pupil for General Control 

In 1937 it cost on the average SI. 69 per pupil for general con- 
trol which covers administration or management to make it pos- 
sible for teachers to instruct children under good conditions. The 
cost per pupil for general control in 1937 was an increase of ten 
cents over that in 1936, but was lower than the corresponding 
amount spent in any year from 1925 to 1932, inclusive. (See 
Table 162.) 



224 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The counties varied in cost of general control per pupil from 
$1.04 to $3.33. In seven of the largest counties the cost per pupil 
for general control was $1.60 or less while in five of the smallest 
counties it was $2.70 or more. All of the administrative functions 
must be performed whether a county be large or small and this 
cost per pupil is therefore necessarily larger in the counties with 
a small school population. (See Table 162.) 

TABLE 162 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 


1935 


1936 


1937 


Increase 
1937 
Over 
1936 


County 


1935 


1936 


1937 


Increase 
1937 
Over 
1936 


County Average . . 


$1 


55 


$1.59 


$1 


69 


$ .10 


Montgomery .... 


$1 


75 


$1.60 


$1 


76 


$ .16 














Cecil 


1 


67 


1.42 


1 


73 


.31 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


2 


68 


2.85 


3 


33 


.48 


Dorchester 


1 


72 


1.75 


1 


72 


*.03^ 


St. Mary's 


2 


86 


2.71 


3 


20 


.49 


Charles 


1 


63 


1.62 


1 


71 


.09 


Calvert 


2 


83 


2.93 


3 


11 


.18 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


55 


1.22 


1 


60 


.38 


Talbot 


2 


80 


2.66 


2 


72 


.06 




1 


27 


1.30 


1 


53 


.23 


Kent 


2 


53 


2.82 


2 


70 


*.12 


Harford 


1 


42 


1.55 


1 


48 


*.07 


Garrett 


2 


13 


2.46 


2 


38 


*.08 


Allegany 


1 


17 


1.32 


1 


27 


*.05 


Howard 


2 


14 


2.30 


2 


32 


.02 




1 


26 


1.27 


1 


23 


*.04 


Caroline 


2 


34 


2.37 


2 


31 


*.06 


Prince George's . 


1 


18 


1.21 


1 


23 


.02 




1 


73 


1.91 


2 


06 


.15 


Washington .... 




94 


1.01 


1 


04 


.03 


Carroll 


1 


46 


1.67 


2 


04 


.37 


















1 


72 


1.87 


1 


89 


.02 


Baltimore City. . 


2 


36 


2.48 


2 


75 


.27 


Worcester 


1 


79 


1.94 


1 


83 


*.ll 






























Entire State .... 


1 


89 


1.96 


2 


13 


.17 



* Decrease. 



There were eight counties which showed a decrease ranging 
from 3 to 12 cents in cost per pupil for general control from 1936 
to 1937. Increases in cost per pupil for general control were as 
low as two cents and as high as 49 cents. 

Some of the causes of large increases in cost per pupil for gen- 
eral control were increased office expenses and larger amounts 
for other costs of general control, restoration of salary cuts, ap- 
pointment of an assistant superintendent, increased expense for 
legal services, employment of a superintendent for an entire year 
in a county which had been without one for a large part of the 
year preceding, and decrease in enrollment. 

The cost per pupil for general control in Baltimore City was 
$2.75, an increase of 27 cents over 1936. (See Table 162.) 

Comparative Cost Per White Elementary and High School Pupil 

Excluding the cost of general control, the current cost of in- 
structing a county white high school pupil in 1937 was $82.47, while 
that for a county white elementary pupil was $51.24, the cost for 
the high school pupil being 1.61 times that for the white elemen- 
tary pupil. These were increases over 1936 of $1.99 for each high 



Cost per Pupil for General Control and in Types of Schools 225 



school and $2.34 for each white elementary school pupil. (See 
Table 163 and Chart 36.) 

TABLE 163 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses by Types of 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Cost Per 

Pupil 
Belonging 
for 
General 
Control 


Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Day School Pupil in 


White 
High 
Schools 


White Elementary Schools 


Colored Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools* 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools* 


Graded 
Schools* 


All 

Elemen- 
tary 

Schools* 


High 
Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 
Schools* 


County Average . 


$1 


69 


$82 


47 


$56.12 


$52.35 


$49.28 


$51.24 


$51.57 


$28.75 


Allegany 


1 


27 


76 


82 


55 


58 


45.68 


51.60 


52.56 


67.96 


50.93 


Anne Arundel 


i 1 


60 


74 


82 


125 


32 


60.52 


52.55 


54.15 


40.92 


27.47 


Baltimore 


1 


53 


73 


57 






53.43 


50.33 


51.33 


132.67 


40.12 


Calvert 


3 


11 


116 


20 


78 


73 


63.87 


59.91 


63.95 


45.60 


21.98 


Caroline 


2 


31 


91 


91 


59 


24 


55.67 


43.77 


46.99 


56.33 


29.69 


Carroll 


2 


04 


92 


37 


58 


20 


44.08 


47.48 


48.84 


64.30 


29.39 


Cecil 


1 


73 


82 


53 


54 


32 


47.84 


45.90 


49.10 


62.09 


50.14 


Charles 


1 


71 


101 


32 


40 


98 


49.65 


60.45 


60.36 


49.42 


24.46 


Dorchester . . 


1 


72 


86 


19 


53 


50 


51.67 


45.25 


49.02 


45.06 


23.74 


Frederick 


1 


23 


74 


84 


60 


08 


49.30 


47.62 


49.25 


51.75 


29.39 


Garrett 


2 


38 


86 


48 


59 


35 


45.42 


45.61 


52.18 






Harford 


1 


48 


75 


75 


49 


91 


48.91 


46.85 


48.88 


53! 93 


36!7i 


Howard 


2 


32 


82 


00 


50 


04 


41.14 


47.59 


48.77 


63.64 


22.31 


Kent 


2 


70 


91 


23 


62 


73 


64.36 


51.10 


60.19 


45.50 


27.32 


Montgomery 


1 


76 


107 


15 


84 


48 


73.43 


63.90 


66.23 


49.30 


35.53 


Prince George's . . . 


1 


23 


75 


94 


49 


02 


53.89 


43.23 


45.61 


60.21 


29.09 


Queen Anne's 


3 


33 


97 


94 


61 


15 


56.07 


55.10 


57.68 


64.60 


30.33 


St. Mary's 


3 


20 


90 


37 


62 


08 


58.23 


69.53 


63.97 


36.34 


26.36 


Somerset 


1 


89 


83 


98 


54 


65 


46.86 


44.47 


47.36 


31.01 


23.43 


Talbot 


2 


72 


92 


66 


58 


43 


63.58 


52.38 


55.34 


39.60 


28.86 


Washington 


1 


04 


75 


31 


50 


20 


44.19 


40.87 


42.84 


81.05 


36.05 


Wicomico 


2 


06 


84 


72 


52.38 


63.41 


42.12 


46.55 


39.51 


23.79 


Worcester . . 


1 


83 


91 


83 


52 


45 


60.06 


48.12 


50.99 


25.43 


22.87 


Baltimore City. . . . 


2 


75 


106 


15 










67.40 


95.09 


55.80 


State 


2 


13 


89. 


34 










56.83 


64.27 


41.98 



* Includes estimated expenditures by county health officers on services rendered to school 
children. 



The 1937 salary cost per county white elementary school pupil 
was $34.49, while that of a white county high school pupil was 
$59.96. These were increases of 87 cents and $1.33 respectively 
oyer corresponding figures in 1936. The excess salary cost per 
high school pupil is due to the higher basic salary schedule for 
high school teachers, who until very recently have been required 
to spend one or two more years in professional preparation than 
were considered necessary for elementary school teachers, to the 
fact that the ratio of pupils to teachers in high school is lower 
than in elementary school, and to inclusion of high school super- 
visory costs with teachers' salaries in the two counties which em- 
ploy supervisors, while in elementary schools supervision is re- 
ported as a separate item. (See Chart 36.) 



226 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 36 

1937 Cost Excluding General Control Per County Pupil Belonging 

in White Elementary Schools, $51.24 in White High Schools, $82.47 




a Supervision. 

b Books, Materials and Other' Costs of Instruction. 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation, libraries, and 
health service, cost the public $8.20 for each white elementary- 
pupil and $8.91 for each white high school pupil. These were 
increases over 1936 of 93 cents for each white elementary and 
26 cents for each white high school pupil. The amount per white 
elementary pupil includes an estimate of expenditures on health 
services for school children by the county health offices. Since 
most of the communicable diseases are prevalent in the elemen- 
tary schools, and examinations of school children are usually 
made in grades 1, 3, and 7, none of these estimated costs were 
charged against the high school pupils. Since the number of 
high schools available is smaller than the number of elementary 
schools, there is a larger proportion of high school pupils for 
whom transportation must be provided and the distance these 
high school pupils must travel is greater than for the average 
elementary school pupil. This is offset partially by the fact that 
in four counties each high school pupil transported paid a part 
of the cost of transportation and the amount paid by the pupil is 
not included in the cost shown. High school pupils need to use 
library books to a greater extent than elementary pupils. (See 
Chart 36.) 

The 1937 cost of janitors, fuel, and repairs was $5.64 per county 
white elementary pupil as against $8.76 per county white high 
school pupil, increases of 30 cents and 25 cents, respectively, over 
1936 costs. The small size of many high school sections using 



Cost per County White Pupil in Elementary and High 227 
Schools Compared; Federal Aid to Vocational Education 

rooms of ordinary size makes the cost of operating and maintain- 
ing high schools greater than that for elementary schools. The de- 
crease in elementary enrollment and the increase in high school 
enrollment probably account for the fact that the cost per ele- 
mentary pupil increased more than that per high school pupil. 
(See Chart 36.) 

Books, materials, and other costs of instruction required §1.73 
per county white elementary school pupil and $4.84 per county 
white high school pupil in 1937, an increase of 20 cents for each 
elementary pupil and 15 cents for each high school pupil when 
compared with 1936. The difference between the costs in the 
two types of schools is due to the fact that the older, more mature 
pupils need more, larger, and more expensive books than the ele- 
mentary school pupils. (See Chart 36.) 

The comparative cost per pupil in white high, white one-teacher, 
two-teacher, graded, and all white elementary as well as colored 
high and colored elementary schools for each county is shown in 
Table 163. These costs are analyzed in detail for the counties 
for white elementary schools on pages 51 to 67, for white high 
schools on pages 127 to 134, for colored schools on pages 178 
to 185. 

FEDERAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1936-37 from the Federal gov- 
ernment for vocational education under the Smith-Hughes and 
George-Elzey Acts was $127,272, approximately the same amount 
as for the two years preceding. Of this amount, a maximum of 
$43,926 was allocated to the teaching and supervision of agricul- 
ture, $70,004 to the teaching and supervision of industrial edu- 
cation and home economics, and $13,342 to teacher-training and 
supervision. The amount of Federal funds actually used totalled 
$111,698, which left an unexpended balance of $15,574 not avail- 
able. Part of the Federal funds could only be used for agricul- 
ture and for part-time industrial education and the programs for 
these types of work were not sufficiently extensive to use up the 
entire amount available. 

Of the $111,698 actually received from Federal funds, there 
was expended for salaries of teachers $38,089 for agriculture, 
$20,571 for home economics, and $39,116 for trades and industry, 
and for administration, supervision, and teacher training in the 
three fields $13,922. 

These Federal funds had to be matched by State or local funds. 
Vocational work was further aided by State appropriations 
amounting to $7,885 for administration and supervision, by coun- 
ty funds and State funds for high school aid and the Equalization 
Fund for county high school teachers' salaries totalling $69,370, 



228 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



and by funds from the University of Maryland aggregating $9,045 
for teacher-training. The total amount of Federal, State, county, 
and University of Maryland funds spent in the Maryland counties 
in 1936-37 for the vocational program provided for by the Smith- 
Hughes and George-Elzey Acts was $179,890, an increase of 
$10,763 over the corresponding amount for the preceding year. 
For these vocational salary expenditures in the individual coun- 
ties, see Table 94, page 131, and Table 153, page 209. 

The Federally Aided Program in Baltimore City 

The 1937 expenditures for salaries of teachers in vocational 
schools in Baltimore City were $190,421, an increase of $12,529 
over those for 1936. The Federal reimbursement was $22,536, 
leaving the city contribution towards salaries for this program 
$167,885. (See Table 164.) 

TABLE 164 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education. 
Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enrol 
Boys 


ment 
Girls 


Vocational 
Education 
Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Vocational 

Part-time Industrial* 

General Continuation! 

Evening Industrial 

Evening Home Economics. . . 

Total 


$157,568.06 
1,406.16 
1,937.20 
3,093.50 
3,879.73 


$15,931.26 
1,406.16 
1,937.20 
3,093.50 
168.27 


$173,499.32 
2,812.32 
3,874.40 
6,187.00 
4,048.00 


1,799 
18 

815 


457 

208 
17 
837 


$76.91 
156.24 
18.63 
7.44 
4.84 


$167,884.65 


$22,536.39 


$190,421.04 


2,632 


1,519 


$45.87 



* Printing School, 
t Department Stores. 



Over 91 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational work 
in Baltimore City went to teachers in the six day vocational 
schools which enrolled 1,799 boys and 457 girls at a salary cost 
for vocational teachers of nearly $77 per pupil. Strict trade 
training was given in four schools and specific training along 
mechanical lines in two general vocational schools organized for 
boys not eligible to enter the Boys' Vocational School. One gen- 
eral vocational school opened in 1935-36 and the second in 1936-37. 
For the type of work offered in the day vocational schools in 
Baltimore City and in trades and industries in county day high 
schools in 1936-37 see Table 165°. 



Baltimore City data secured from page 98 of Report of Board of School Commissioners 
for Year 1936-37. 



The Vocational Education Program in Baltimore City 229 



The part-time industrial work in Baltimore City in 1936-37 was 
limited to 18 boys at the printing school and cost §156 per boy. 

General continuation classes had an enrollment of 208 girls 
in four department stores, the salary expense per pupil being S19. 

Evening vocational courses were available to 815 men and 854 
women in Baltimore City at an expenditure for salaries of $10,235, 
the cost being $7.44 for each evening industrial school student 
and S4.84 for each evening home economics student. 

The chief development during the year occurred in the day 
and evening vocational classes of Baltimore City. For general 
continuation classes the expenditure was approximately the same 
as in 1936, but more girls were given instruction. (See Table 164.) 

TABLE 165 

Trades Taught in County High Schools and Baltimore City Day Vocational 

Schools, 1936-37 



Trades Taught 



Auto Assembly 

Auto Mechanics 

Business Practice 

Carpentry 

Commercial Art 

Decorating 

Electrical Shop 

Electricity 

General Industrial 

Machine Shop 

Mechanical Drafting. . . . 
Painting and Decorating 

Pattern Making 

Plumbing 

Printing 

Radio 

Sheet Metal 

Shoe Repairing 

Sign Painting 

Tailoring 

Welding 

Woodwork 

Adjustment Shop 



County 



a69 



b28 
cl31 
d224 



e32 



f!68 



Boys 



Baltimore City 



White 



55 
96 
41 
23 
52 
13 
105 
55 

159 
41 
13 
19 
13 
89 
15 

116 

47 

28 
104 
g25 



Colored 



Trades Taught 



Cookery 

Dressmaking 

Junior Office Practice 
Junior Salesmanship . 

Millinery 

Personal Hygiene .... 

Power Machine 

Tea Room Service . . . 
Trade Cookery 



Girls 



Baltimore City 



White 



89 
139 
67 
13 
73 
24 
49 



Colored 



57 
121 



16 



a Includes 27 in Montgomery and 42 in Washington County, 
b Includes 28 in Washington County. 

c Includes 18 in Caroline. 9 in Frederick and 114 in Prince George's, 
d Includes 93 in Allegany and 131 in Baltimore County, 
e In Washington County. 

f Includes 131 in Baltimore County and 37 in Washington County. 

g A shop for pupils not successful in their selected trade for whom exploratory courses are 
provided. 



Administration, Supervision, and Teacher-Training in Vocational Education 

For agriculture the cost through State and Federal funds of 
supervision and teacher training was S7,508. For trades and 
industries the expenditure of $13,421 covered not only super- 



230 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



vision and teacher training, but also administration by the direc- 
tor of vocational education. For supervision and teacher training 
in home economics the total expenditure was $8,484. The teacher 
training was given at the University of Maryland. (See Table 
166.) 



TABLE 166 



Expenditures for Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training in 
Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


University 
of Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry . . 
Home Economics 

Total 


*$1,196.33 
3,829.49 
2,859.62 


*$1,196.31 
2,996.94 
2,124.67 


$2,557.55 
3,297.19 
1,749.67 


$2,557.56 
3,297.20 
1,749.69 


*$3,753.88 
7,126.68 
4,609.29 


*$3,753.87 
6,294.14 
3,874.36 


*$7,885.44 


*$6,317.92 


$7,604.41 


$7,604.45 


*$15,489.85 


*$13,922.37 



* Includes $750 for part-time State supervisor of agriculture which was charged to the 
agricultural fund. 



WORK RELIEF PROJECTS BENEFITING SCHOOLS 
TABLE 167 



School Sanitation Projects, August 1, 1936 to July 31, 1937 













Cost of 




County 


Number 


Number 


Labor, 


Source of 


Materials 


Total 




Privies 


Schools 


Truckage 


Funds 


Local 


Cost 






Sanitated 


Cost 




Sources 




Total Counties . . . 


265 


al35 


/ $403.10 


Local 1 


$5,803.21 


$10,850.81 








14,644.50 


W.P.A./ 






Alleganv 


*2 


1 


/ 3.10 


Local 




46.84 


99.84 






\49. 90 


W.P.A. 








Anne Arundel .... 


67 


J34 


/107.20 


Local 




1 ,479.69 


2 , 320 . 72 






\ 733. 83 


W.P.A. 


; 






Calvert 


13 


17 


/ 20.80 


Local 1 




240.50 


459.82 








1 198. 52 


W.P.A. 










*3 


%2 


/ 4.80 


Local 




62.95 


129.48 






161.73 


W.P.A. 








St. Mary's 


f59 


J30 


/ 73.60 


Local ' 




1,197.73 


2,226.68 




\955. 35 


W.P.A. 








Washington 


68 


34 


/ 108.80 


Local ' 




1,557.80 


3,580.05 






11,913. 45 


W.P.A. 










53 


J27 


/ 84.80 


Local 




1,217.70 


2,034.22 








1731.72 


W.P.A./ 







School privy projects are completed in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, 
Charles, Frederick, Garrett, Howard, Kent, Montgomery. Queen Anne's. Somerset, St. Mary's, 
Wicomico and Worcester ; and are working toward completion in Washington County. 

Completion of school privy projects is contemplated as soon as relief labor is made avail- 
able in Baltimore. Calvert. Dorchester, Harford. Talbot and Prince George's Counties. 

* Restored to approved type. 

$ At one school either a boys' or girls' privy was sanitated, 
a At five schools either a boys' or girls' privy was sanitated, 
t In private or parochial schools. 



Vocational Education Control and Teacher Training; 231 
W.P.A. School Projects 

The counties reported the estimated value of Federal aid for 
work relief projects affecting school buildings in sixteen counties 
as $184,452 for the school year 1936-37. This amount does not 
include §78,559 spent in cataloguing, and in reconditioning library 
and textbooks, which project in sixteen counties was sponsored 
by the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission, nor does 
it include §10,851 spent for 265 sanitary privies installed under 
the supervision of the Marvland State Department of Health. 
(See Tables 167 and 168.) 

TABLE 168 

Work Relief Projects Benefiting Schools: Number of Schools Benefited; Type 
of Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid for School Year 1936-37 





No. of 
Schools 
Benefited 


w 

be 
a 








Sanitation Projects! 


jects 


Walks, Driveways, 
Roads 


Heating 


Alterations and 
Improvements 


lding 


T3 


tn 






posal 


Id and 


Estimated 
Value of 
Federal 
Aidt 


County 


White 


Colored 


New Buildi: 


| Grading 


| Painting 


| Repairs 


| Library Pro 


Additional ] 


Moving Bui 


Stadium an 
Grounds 


| Bus Shelter 


| Hot Lunche 


Cleaning 


Sewage Dis] 
Plant 


Athletic Fie 
Bleachers 


All Counties 


tH9 
39 


f42 
1 


































$184,452 

76,910 

t. . . . 


Allegany 








X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 










Anne Arundel .... 










X 






















Baltimore 
















X 






















t- • • 
19,577 
8,000 
8,251 
5,800 
4,633 
3,315 
2,015 
4,786 


Caroline 


3 






X 








X 






X 
















Carroll 


1 






X 


























Cecil 




i 


X 
































Charles 


8 


3 


























X 










2 














X 


X 














X 






Howard 


10 


2 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Kent 


1 














X 


X 




















Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 
St. Mary's 


2 






X 








X 






















5 








X 


X 




X 






















10,036 
3,576 


2 


4 


X 








X 
























Somerset 


2 


1 


X 










X 




















X 


9,770 


Talbot 


20 


23 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 
















10,464 


Washington 


15 


2 








X 
























1,385 
3.038 


Wicomico 


9 


3 






X 






X 


X 




X 
















Worcester 




2 


X 










X 




















12,896 
777.348 


Baltimore City. . . 








X 


X 


X 








X 


X 




X 










X 


































t$961,800 









































t Excludes number of schools affected by library projects and the expenditures on library 
projects since they were planned and sponsored by the Maryland Public Library Advisory 
Commission. See Table 174, page 240. 

t See Table 167 for school sanitation projects carried on under the supervision of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health. 



The projects reported by superintendents of schools included 
grading and cleaning school grounds, building walks, driveways 
and roads, repairing furniture and equipment, moving, altering 
and constructing school buildings, painting, sanitation, installa- 
tion of heating plants, building a stadium and bleachers, erecting 
bus shelters, and providing free lunches. 



232 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The highest value placed on the WPA projects for schools was 
nearly $77,000 in one county. Most of the counties which had 
no projects were those lacking persons who could be certified for 
work relief of the type which could benefit the schools. (See 
Table 168.) 

In Baltimore City the following work relief projects were fi- 
nanced by the Federal government through the Works Project 
Administration. 

Project 15 for which $777,348 was expended in 1936-37 brought 
about an amount of reconditioning which would not have been 
possible for a number of years through the annual levy. The 
following types of building projects were undertaken in Baltimore 
City in 1936-37 : 

a. Painting interiors and exteriors. 

b. Patching, pointing, and replacing plaster, brick and stone work. 

c. Replacement of blackboards, sanding and refinishing of slate black- 
boards, wood floors, and furniture. 

d. Installation of new bulletin boards and frames; shelving; new electric 
wiring and fixtures, including new wiring for program, fire alarm, and 
power systems; additional steam lines; renewal of obsolete vents and 
indirect systems; pipe covering of steam lines; and panic bolts, door 
checks, and miscellaneous hardware. 

e. Sheet metal and carpentry repairs to prepare buildings for exterior 
painting. 

f. Laying new wooden and concrete floors, hardening and sealing con- 
crete and terrazzo floors. 

g. Regrading, improving drainage, laying hard surfaces for play areas, 
fences, and development of playgrounds and athletic fields. 

h. Repairs to lockers, reconditioning of gymnasium mats and athletic 
equipment. 

i. Miscellaneous activities associated with plans for and keeping records 
of repair projects. 

j. Tuning and repairing pianos and victrolas in school buildings. 

Project 220, for which $93,263 was expended in 1936-37, was 
carried out under the immediate supervision of the Department 
of Supplies and Equipment of the Business Division of the Balti- 
more City school system. In addition to the central continuing 
inventory of typewriters, mimeographs, adding machines, and 
sewing machines in schools, the accomplishments included: 

a. The marking or branding of approximately 150,000 tools and other 
pieces of equipment. 

b. The typing of approximately 17,000 cards for school libraries. 



Baltimore City W.P.A. Projects; Transportation of Pupils 233 



c. The reconditioning of about 250,000 textbooks. 

d. The reorganization of Business Office files. 

e. Some progress in a study of school records to determine the number 
of cases yet requiring assistance of the Division of Special Education. 



TRANSPORTATION OF MARYLAND COUNTY PUPILS 
CHART 37 

Number of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 
and Expenditures Therefor, 1923-1937 



Public 

toH "TRAniPORTAHoM 



$ 1.100.000 



1.00 0.0 00 



900.000 



700.000 



yoo.ooo 



*oo.ooo 



"500,000 



200. 060 



100.000 



Number or 

TRftHiPORTBD 



















- 












r / 

/ / 


- 










/ /' 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 












/ 


/ / 

A* << 
7 ;* 
/f 

t T 















/ 4 














7"*" 















sr.ooo 
ro.ooo 

4e.ooo 

35.000 
30,000 



- 25.000 



- 15.000 



10.000 



5.000 



M25 1925 132T 13J9 19*51 1933 1335 133* 



In 1936-37 the counties transported nearly 52,250 pupils to 
school at an expenditure to the public of $1,019,872. This was an 
increase of 3,197 in number transported and $167,274 in cost 
over corresponding figures for 1936. The gradual growth of the 



234 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



policy of transporting pupils to school at public expense since 
1910, when four counties spent $5,210, to the program in 1937 is 
shown in Table 169. The number of pupils transported at public 
expense first reported as 4,344 in 1923 grew to over twelve times 
this number by 1937. The average cost to the public per pupil 
transported decreased from $30.59 in 1923 to $19.55 in 1937. 
Except for slight increases in 1926 and 1937, there has been a 
decrease each year in the cost per pupil transported at public ex- 
pense, and this has been accomplished in the later years partly 
by the use of larger busses more carefully routed, but at the same 
time the type of bus used with respect to safety, arrangement, 
weight, etc., has been much improved in most of the counties. 
(See Table 169 and Charts 37 and 38.) 

TABLE 169 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting Pupils to School 1910-1937 



Year 


Public 
Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


fCost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4^344 


$30^59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 




312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


*13,385 


f27.92 


1928 


436,583 


23 


*15,907 


t27.49 




512,385 


23 


*18,928 


f27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


*22,814 


t26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


*29,006 


f25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


*35,019 


1-23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


*40,308 


t21.33 


1934 


863,549 


23 


*42,241 


t20.47 


1935 


892,422 


23 


*44,576 


120.04 




952,598 


23 


*49,051 


119.48 


1937 


1,019,872 


23 


*52,248 


U9.55 



* Includes number of pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at State expense, 
t Pupils transported at State expense to Bowie Normal School excluded in obtaining cost 
per pupil transported. 



Baltimore City transported 566 crippled children in 12 busses 
costing $22,454 at a cost per crippled pupil transported of $39.67. 
There were 476 white and 90 colored pupils transported to ele- 
mentary, vocational, junior, and senior high schools. 

Of the 52,248 county pupils transported at public expense in 
1937, 35,883 were carried to elementary and 16,365 to high 
schools. This was an increase of 1,818 elementary and 1,379 high 
school pupils over the number transported in 1936. All counties, 



Transportation of Maryland Pupils to School 235 
CHART 38 

Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported at Public Expense, 1923-1937 

$ *° I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

IS - 




15" - 
10 - 



I L_: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1323 W 1923 1331 1933 m5 1337 

except two transported more pupils at public expense in 1937 
than in 1936. Two counties transported fewer than 1,000 pupils 
at public expense, while at the opposite extreme the county hav- 
ing the largest population transported nearly 7,100 pupils at pub- 
lic expense. (See Table 170.) 

Every county spent more for transporting pupils to school in 
1937 than in 1936. At one extreme two counties spent less than 
$20,000 and at the other one spent over $100,000, for transporta- 
tion of pupils. Four counties required high school pupils to con- 
tribute toward the expense of their transportation. (See Table 
170.) 

Cost Per Pupil Transported 

The average cost to the public per county pupil transported in 
1937 was $19.55, seven cents more than in 1936. Under ordinary 
conditions it costs more to transport a high school pupil than an 
elementary school pupil, since the average high school pupil has 
to travel a longer distance and requires more bus space. To se- 
cure accurate costs it would be necessary to calculate the number 



236 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 170 



Maryland County Pupils Transported to School in 1937 at County Expense 





Pupils Transported 


Public Expenditures for Transportation 


County 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


1 O 




Total 


mentary 


mgn 


Total 


mentary 


VfitrV, 








OtllUUl 




ocnooi 


ocnooi 


Total Counties 


f52 ,248 


+3^ 883 


16 365 


+<t i 019 872 






Baltimore 


7 075 


4 874 


2 201 


$110,359 


81 683 


t98 R7fi 


Frederick 


3 932 


2 904 


1 028 


82^980 


58 846 


24 134 




*4 326 


*2 952 


1 374 


74 797 


53 482 


21 315 


Carroll 


3 803 


2 800 


1 003 


73 '777 


^9 Q08 


20 869 




3 466 


2 644 


822 


63615 


48 882 


14 733 




4,' 062 


3,' 070 


992 


$62^135 


55^455 


t6[680 


Garrett 


1,927 


1,222 


705 


59,955 


37,282 


22,673 




2,266 


1,582 


684 


43,017 


29,039 


13,978 




x2,552 


xl,667 


885 


41,296 


27,258 


14,038 




1,796 


1,144 


652 


40,472 


25,033 


15,439 




1,556 


989 


567 


35,319 


21,583 


13,736 




1,714 


1,156 


558 


34,631 


24,047 


10,584 




1,841 


1,278 


563 


33,705 


23,537 


10,168 




1,845 


1,085 


760 


32 , 548 


19,637 


12,911 


Calvert 


1,014 


645 


369 


31,802 


18,375 


13,427 




1,219 


819 


400 


31,798 


21,477 


10,321 




1,045 


554 


491 


27,410 


13,348 


14,062 




1,374 


831 


543 


26,928 


15,243 


11,685 


Cecil 


1,437 


878 


559 


26,060 


16,531 


9,529 


Talbot 


868 


572 


296 


23,911 


15,763 


8,148 


Kent 


1,012 


571 


441 


23,601 


13,272 


10,329 


Howard 


1,206 


806 


400 


J21.200 


14,688 


$6,512 




912 


840 


72 


$18,556 


18,426 


$130 



t Includes 80 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
* Includes 32 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense, 
x Includes 48 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at State expense. 
$ Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Baltimore, Montgomery, 
Howard, and Harford Counties. 



of miles each elementary and high school pupil is transported. 
This complicated and detailed calculation has not been required. 
Most counties have prorated the cost of busses transporting 
both elementary and high school pupils on the basis of number 
of elementary and high school pupils carried, which, of course, 
does not take into consideration the factors of distance and addi- 
tional space needed by older pupils. (See Table 171.) 

The cost per pupil transported in counties paying the entire 
cost averaged close to $17 in two counties and over $31 in two 
counties. Road conditions, the distance pupils have to be carried, 
the size and type of vehicle used, the contract price for busses, 
are some factors which would have to be considered in making 
comparisons of cost per pupil transported among the individual 
counties. (See Table 171.) 



Cost per County Pupil Transported; Per Cent Transported 237 



TABLE 171 



Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School at Public Expense, 
for Year Ending July 31, 1937 



_ 

County 


Average 
Cost to 
Public per 
Pupil 
Transported 


White 


Colored 


Klpmpn- 

tary 


High 


Klpmpn - 
tary 


Hitrh 




$19.55 


$19 . 76 


*$19.43 


$18 70 


*$17 . 81 


Calvert 


31.36 


30.06 


42.99 


19.06 


24 67 


Garrett 


31.11 


30. 51 


32 . 16 






Talbot 


27.55 


27. 56 


27. 53 








26.23 


27!33 


34!61 


io!io 


13^37 




26.09 


25.82 


23.52 


32.83 


35.23 


Kent 


23.32 


24.17 


23.36 


19.12 


23.57 




22.70 


22.02 


26.26 


17.83 


20.00 


Dorchester 


22.53 


21.56 


24.87 


24.67 


21.14 




21 . 10 


20.35 


23.37 


18.32 


24.70 


Harford 


*20.35 


22.38 


*1.81 


12.56 




Worcester 


20.20 


20.74 


20.66 


26.63 


12! 32 


Somerset 


19.60 


19.38 


25.85 


7.44 


14.15 


Carroll 


19.40 


18.98 


20.80 


14.72 


20.86 


Washington 


18.98 


17.84 


20.25 


56.36 


51.22 


Allegany 


18.35 


18.38 


17.47 


64.63 


54.47 




18.31 


18.90 


18.90 


16.00 


16.03 


Cecil 


18.14 


17.48 


16.85 


36.22 


18.59 


Wicomico 


17.64 


19.20 


18.98 


8.74 


12.85 




*17.58 


18.22 


*16.28 








17.09 


17.76 


16.29 




li!65 


Anne Arundel 


17.07 


17.80 


15.51 






Baltimore 


*15.60 


16.67 


*12.67 


18.37 


x*18!57 




*15.30 


17.90 


*5.30 


20.00 


*11.84 



* Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Harford, Howard, Balti- 
more, and Montgomery Counties. 

x Cost to Baltimore County per pupil transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior 
high schools. 



Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The counties transported 34,076 white elementary pupils, 31.9 
per cent of the total white elementary enrollment, 13,970 white 
high school pupils, 41.8 per cent of the white high school enroll- 
ment, 1,727 colored elementary pupils, 7.3 per cent of all colored 
elementary school pupils, and 2,395 colored high schoool pupils, 
58.5 per cent of all county colored high school pupils. Seven 
counties transported over half of their white elementary school 
enrollment. At the opposite extreme, fewer than 20 per cent of 
the white elementary school pupils in two counties were trans- 
ported to school at county expense. (See Table 172.) 

In two sparsely settled counties, each of which has two high 
schools for white pupils, nearly 100 per cent and 96 per cent of 
the white high school enrollment were transported at public ex- 
pense. In nine additional counties from 57 to 72 per cent of the 
white high school pupils were transported to school at public ex- 
pense. On the other hand, in three counties the public paid to- 
ward the transportation of fewer than 24 per cent of the white 



238 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



high school pupils who were concentrated to a large extent in 
densely populated towns and cities, and in one county, high school 
pupils were required to pay most of the cost of their transporta- 
tion. (See Table 172.) 

TABLE 172 



Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


White 


Colored 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Number 


Irer i^ent 


Number 


rev L/ent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 




34,076 


31.9 


13,970 


41.8 


tl,807 


7.3 


2,395 


58.5 


Carroll 


2,745 


57.6 


937 


60.7 


55 


16.3 


66 


70.2 




1,066 


53.5 


398 


57.4 


212 


31.4 


165 


80.9 




772 


53.3 


322 


63.9 


47 


7.7 


78 


88.6 


Calvert 


553 


71.5 


236 


95.9 


92 


8.6 


133 


96.4 




943 


66.2 


383 


72.4 


46 


3.2 


184 


86.4 




450 


49.6 


353 


99.7 


104 


10.2 


138 


89.0 




1,144 


55.7 


445 


57.5 


12 


1.0 


113 


45.7 


Garrett 


1,222 


31.9 


705 


67.3 












2,920 


50.4 


1,374 


63.5 


*32 










2,780 


39.9 


945 


42.0 


124 


15^3 


' 83 


54!2 




806 


41.0 


400 


64.2 












466 


37.6 


317 


59.7 


i05 


i<$!7 


i24 


80.0 




1,024 


36.4 


444 


46.3 


120 


9.4 


208 


72.7 




2,828 


33.7 


775 


31.7 


242 


15.3 


217 


82.8 


Cecil 


815 


26.4 


497 


43.8 


63 


19.4 


62 


75.6 




4,620 


28.2 


2,067 


44.1 


- 254 


13.7 


xl34 


x74.9 




759 


36.4 


342 


47.3 


72 


5.1 


201 


70.5 




971 


28.8 


513 


42.4 


114 


8.9 


247 


67.3 




572 


35.0 


296 


44.4 












2,638 


21.5 


812 


22.4 


' "6 


'2^6 


' 10 


'8.1 




1,619 


18.3 


657 


23.8 


*48 




228 


60.3 


Washington 


1,561 


14.5 


680 


28.1 


21 


8.5 


4 


7.5 


Harford 


802 


20.4 


72 


4.8 


38 


5.0 







* Pupils transported to Bowie Normal Elementary School at State expense, who are excluded 
in obtaining percentages. 

t Includes 80 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Elementary School at State expense, who 
are excluded in obtaining percentages. 

x Pupils transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior high schools. 



The percentage of colored pupils transported to elementary 
schools at public expense varied from none at all in four counties 
in 1937 to over 31 per cent in one county. From 15 to 20 per cent 
of the colored elementary pupils in four counties were transported 
at the cost of the public. (See Table 172.) 

The per cent of colored high school pupils transported entirely 
or partly at public expense was 58.5 in 1937, which was 8.2 higher 
than the corresponding per cent in 1936. Of the seventeen coun- 
ties which paid for transporting colored high school pupils, thir- 
teen had but one high school in the county, two had two high 
schools, and two had three high schools. The percentage of colored 
high school pupils transported at public expense to schools 
within the county varied from none in four counties, under 10 
per cent in two counties, to between 46 and 96 per cent in fifteen 
counties. (See Table 172.) 



Per Cent of Pupils Transported; Schools Having Pupils 239 
Transported 



Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided 

Transportation was provided to 11 more schools for white and 
9 more for colored pupils in 1937 than in 1936, bringing the total 
number to which children were transported at public expense to 
508. Of these schools, 56 were white one-teacher, 73 were two- 
teacher, and 159 were graded elementary schools, 114 were schools 
having both white elementary and high school pupils, 31 were 
for white high school pupils only, and 75 were schools attended 
by colored pupils. (See Table 173.) 

TABLE 173 

Number of County Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at Public 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1937 



County 


Schools 
( 

One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


White 
with Elerr 
irades Onl; 

Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


lentary 

r 

Graded 
Schools 


White 

Having 
Both High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 


Schools 

Having 
High 
School 
Pupils 
Only 


Colored 
Schools 


Total 
Number 
of 

Different 
Schools 


Total Counties 


56 


73 


159 


114 


31 


75 


508 


Allegany 


2 


3 


14 


10 




1 


30 


Anne Arundel 




3 


20 




6 




29 


Baltimore 




3 


18 


"io 




9 


40 


Calvert 




1 


3 


1 


"l 


3 


9 


Caroline 


' ' '4 


2 


3 


5 




4 


18 


Carroll 


i 


3 


7 


9 




2 


22 


Cecil 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


22 


Charles 






1 


5 




1 


7 


Dorchester 


• • 7 




6 


4 


' 2 


8 


31 


Frederick 


1 


6 


16 


6 


1 


7 


37 


Garrett 


22 




4 


4 


2 




39 


Harford 






3 


7 




4 


14 


Howard 






1 


4 






6 


Kent 


"l 


5 


1 


3 


"i 


" ' '4 


15 


Montgomery 


1 


4 


13 


7 


2 


6 


33 


Prince George's .... 




3 


8 


8 


2 


2 


23 


Queen Anne's 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


4 


21 


St. Mary's 


5 


7 




1 


1 


3 


17 


Somerset 


1 


1 


' ' '4 


2 


2 


3 


13 


Talbot 


2 


1 


1 


6 


. . .. 




10 


Washington 


1 


5 


16 


7 




' ' 2 


32 


Wicomico 


2 


4 




5 


2 


4 


24 


Worcester 




4 


4 


5 




3 


16 



*To Elementary Onh 

Baltimore 1 

Harford 5 



Number and Type of Vehicles for Transportation 

In the fall of 1937 the counties used 886 motor vehicles for 
transportation of pupils, of which 77 were owned by the counties 
and 809 were owned by contractors. In addition there were 78 
private cars used to transport small numbers of pupils or to bring 
children from side roads to the main roads to meet the busses. 
There were also in use a motor boat in Calvert and two horse 
drawn vehicles. Of the 77 county owned busses, Montgomery 



240 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



had 49, Baltimore 15, Garrett, 5, Calvert and Harford 3 each, and 
Carroll and Frederick, one each. Baltimore City contracted for 
12 busses to transport physically handicapped children to school. 

The total distance reported in October, 1937, as covered one 
way by the 886 motor busses used in the counties was 11,356 
miles, an average of 12.8 miles per motor vehicle. The 78 private 
cars ran 433 miles one way, an average distance of 5.5 miles, while 
the two horse drawn vehicles each averaged 3.5 miles. In addition 
to transportation in these vehicles, the public paid for transport- 
ing 740 county pupils on trains, electric cars, and public busses. 



W. P. A. LIBRARY PROJECTS 



The county library projects for reconditioning books and cata- 
loguing libraries sponsored by the Maryland Public Library Ad- 
visory Commission required expenditures of $78,559, from funds 
of the Works Progress Administration. There were 76,790 books 
reconditioned, and libraries of two high schools, 13 elementary 
schools and one county were catalogued. The distribution of ex- 
penditures by counties is shown in Table 174. 

There were groups of workers active in 16 counties and the 
Baltimore City office of the Library Commission. Eight of the 
projects closed in March, 1937. Seven counties had no projects 
because suitable workers were not available. (See Table 174.) 



TABLE 174 

Expenditures of W. P. A. Funds for Library Projects Sponsored by 
Maryland Public Library Commission, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County 



Montgomery . . . 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Wicomico 

Dorchester. . . . 

Worcester 

Somerset 



Expenditure 



$9,052 
5,799 
5,624 
5,6Q4 
5,145 
4,536 
4,021 
3,187 
2,581 



County 



Talbot 

Kent 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Baltimore Office of Commission 

Total 



SCHOOL CAPITAL OUTLAY 

School capital outlay in the counties for 1936-37 totalled over 
$2,531,000. This included $884,983 received from the Federal 
Public Works Administration by 13 counties and shown in the 
note to Table 175. Exclusive of Washington and Garrett Coun- 
ties, the largest capital outlay was made in the counties which 
received P W. A. funds. 



Vehicles Transporting Pupils; W.P.A. Library Projects; 241 
School Capital Outlay 



The largest amount, $1,346,471, was spent for high schools for 
white county pupils, while $1,113,530 was devoted to elementary 
schools for white county pupils. The capital outlay for county 
colored children totalled $70,242. (See Table 175.) 

TABLE 175 



Capital Outlay,t Year Ending July 31, 1937 







White 


Elementary 










County 










White 






One- 


Two- 




All 


High 


Colored 


Grand 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Elementary 


Schools 


Schools 


Total 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 








Total Counties .... 


$552 


$25,383 


$1 ,087,595 


$1,113,530 


$1,346,471 


$70,242 


t$2,531,071 


Allegany 






47,121 


47,121 


92,278 


1,741 


1141 , 140 


Anne Arundel . . . 




12! 772 


10,370 


23,142 


76,642 


15,307 


tallS, 584 


Baltimore 




95 


12,904 


12,999 


22,217 




f35,216 


Calvert 






9,404 


9,404 




' 43 


9,447 


Caroline 






6,893 


6,893 


22,065 




t28,958 


Carroll 






29,582 


29,582 


221,091 




t250,673 


Cecil 






22,293 


22,293 


146,043 


8^960 


fl77,296 




' "6 




16,747 


16,753 


1,494 


396 


18,643 








53,111 


53,111 


86,331 




tl39,442 




' 17 


279 


17,006 


17,302 


1,906 


835 


t20,043 




402 


9,346 


27,828 


37,576 


29,919 




67,495 


Harford 


15 


123 


4,562 


4,700 


52,134 


1^702 


t58,536 




108 


83 


3,673 


3,864 


17,770 


166 


121,800 


Kent 






140 


140 






140 








170,065 


170,065 


413,306 


303 


1583,674 


Prince George's . . . 
Queen Anne's 






143,621 


143,621 


85,137 




1b228,858 






777 


777 


14 


3i7 


1,108 








8,044 


8,044 






8,044 


Somerset 






19,716 


19,716 


' 30 


2^405 


22,151 


Talbot 






234 


234 


7,790 


3,596 


11,620 






2^440 


123,820 


126,260 


1,864 




128,124 


Wicomico 




245 


359,684 


359,933 


68,279 


22^890 


1c451,337 


Worcester 










161 


11,581 


11,742 


Baltimore City. . . . 








370,725 


777,114 


5,948 


dl, 156, 748 


Elementary 








361,521 




5,948 


367,469 


Vocational 








3,392 






3,392 


Junior High . . . 








5,812 






5,812 


Senior High .... 










777iiii 




777,114 


Total State. . . 








$1,484,255 


$2,123,585 


$76,190 


1$3,687,819 



a Includes $493 spent in connection with P.W.A. Project. 

b Includes SI 00 not allocated to any school. 

c Includes $235 not allocated to any school. 

d Includes $2,961 expended for Administration Building. 

t Includes $884,983 from P.W.A. distributed as follows : 

Allegany $65,583 Frederick $10,812 

Anne Arundel 53,514 Harford 36,000 

Baltimore 12,497 Howard 7,500 

Caroline 11,526 Montgomery 176.803 

Carroll 82,049 Prince George's 92,112 

Cecil 45,000 Wicomico 234,763 

Dorchester 56,824 



In Baltimore City the capital outlay of $1,156,748 included 
$777,114 for senior high schools and $361,521 for elementary 
schools for white pupils. (See Table 175.) 



242 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING AUGUST 1, 1937 

At the close of the school year in 1937, 19 of the 23 counties 
had school bonds outstanding totalling $15,515,167, a decrease 
of $1,151,000 under the amount outstanding the year preceding. 
Aid from the Public Works Administration which reduced the 
amount of bonds which had to be issued was a factor in making 
this decrease possible in several counties. All counties, except 
five, decreased the school bonds outstanding under the amount 
outstanding the year before. (See Table 176.) 

TABLE 176 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland as of August, 1937 



County 


School Bonds 
Outstanding 
August, 1937 


1937 Assessable 
Basis Taxable 
at Full Rate 
for County 
Purposes 


Assessable Basis 
Back of Each 

Dollar of School 
Indebtedness 


Per Cent that 
Indebtedness 
for School Bonds 
Is of Total 
County Basis 


Total Counties 


$15, 515, 167 


$973,324, 536 


$63 


1 


6 


Allegany 


a2, 305, 000 


79,228,956 


34 


2 


9 


Anne Arundel 


1,272,000 


52,728,493 


41 


2 


4 




3,470,667 


178,918,904 


52 


1 


9 


Calvert 


b64,500 


6,053,549 


94 


1 


1 




64,000 


14,645,344 


229 




4 


Carroll 




36,997,896 








Cecil 


195,000 


39,427,435 


202 




5 


Charles 


b87,000 


9,816,165 


113 




9 


Dorchester 


c366,000 


25,386,761 


69 


1 


4 


Frederick 


d964.000 


65,859,246 


68 


1 


5 


Garrett 




17,487,919 








Harford 


el 67, 500 


52,959,130 


316 




3 




fl96,000 


18,204,235 


93 


1 


1 


Kent 




16,346,916 








Montgomery 


g2, 510,000 


101,293,335 


' 40 


2 


5 


Prince George's 


hi, 386, 000 


74,958,673 


54 


1 


8 


26,000 


16,574,127 


637 




2 


St. Mary's 




8,695,845 








Somerset 


22,500 


12,239,253 


544 




2 


Talbot 


e254,000 


21,309,093 


84 


1 


2 




kl, 163,000 


75,226,241 


65 


1 


5 


Wicomico 


m759,000 


28,703,681 


38 


2 






243,000 


20,263,339 


83 


1 


2 


Baltimore City 


n24, 155,212 


1,223,938,543 


51 


2 







39,670,379 


2,197,263,079 


55 


1 


8 



a Excludes $600,000 authorized but unissued 

b " 25,000 

c " 150,000 

d " 300.000 

e " 100,000 

f Excludes $43,000 authorized but unissued 

8 " 724,000 



h " 442,000 
k " 190,000 
m " 575,000 

of which $450,000 will probably never be issued, 
n Excludes $10,000,000 authorized, which re- 
quires a referendum before issue. 



In Baltimore City, the total of $24,155,212 outstanding August 
1, 1937, was $1,285,441 less than the amount outstanding the 
year before. 

School bonds to the extent of $3,276,000 in twelve counties were 
unissued, although they had been authorized by the regular and 
special sessions of the legislature in 1937. In a number of the 
counties the issue of these bonds was contingent upon the avail- 
ability of grants through the Federal Public Works Administra- 
tion. 



School Bonds Outstanding; Value of School Property 243 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate back of each dol- 
lar of school indebtedness outstanding was $63 in the counties 
and $51 in Baltimore City, an increase of $6 for the counties and 
of $3 for the City over the year preceding. The assessable basis 
back of each dollar of school indebtedness ranged between S34 
and $41 in four counties. 

The per cent that indebtedness for school bonds was of total 
county basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes was 
1.6 per cent for the counties as a group and 2 per cent for Balti- 
more City. These percentages ranged between 2.4 and 2.9 per cent 
in the four counties with the highest rates of indebtedness to 
assessable basis. (See Table 176.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

In the Maryland counties the value of school property, including 
equipment, reported separately for the first time in 1937, totalled 
$30,669,000, and in Baltimore City aggregated $48,917,000. The 
county valuation was an increase of $3,890,000 and the City valu- 
ation of $1,267,000 over corresponding figures shown for 1936. 
The increases for both county and City were possible in part be- 
cause of the aid received through the Federal Public Works Ad- 
ministration. (See Table 177.) 



TABLE 177 
Value of School Property, 1922-1937 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 




















Baltimore 






Baltimore 




Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236.638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451 .111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,761,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51 ,765, 517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24 , 608 , 923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,429,453 


26,778,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 


1937 


*79, 586,262 


*30,668,837 


48,917,425 


*268 


*177 


395 



* Includes value of equipment in Maryland counties for first time. 

t Excludes value of equipment, and also of administration buildings, warehouses, and storage 
buildings. 



The value of school property per county pupil enrolled was $177, 
an increase of $22 over the preceding year, partly accounted for 
by the reporting of the value of equipment for the first time in 
1937. In Baltimore City the value per pupil enrolled, $395, was 
$15 more than for 1936. As noted above, Federal aid played a 
part in bringing about these increases. (See Table 177.) 



244 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In the counties the school property used by white pupils was 
valued in 1937 at $29,032,889, an increase of $3,851,346 over 1936. 
Every county showed an increase for 1937 over 1936 in value of 
school property used by white pupils. The largest increases were 
those of over $300,000 in Washington and Dorchester, of over 
$600,000 in Carroll, and of over $1,200,000 in Montgomery. (See 
Table 178.) 

TABLE 178 



Value of School Property, Including Equipment, Per Pupil Belonging, 1937 





Schools 


for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


County 


















Average 


Value 




Average 


Value 




Value 


Number 


Per 


Value 


Number 


Per 






Belonging 


Pupil 




Belonging 


Pupil 


Total Counties 


$29,032,889 


137,019 


$212 


$1,635,948 


26,822 


$61 




4,291 ,930 


15,410 


279 


67,100 


337 


199 


Anne Arundel 


1,395,200 


7,853 


178 


137,140 


3,020 


45 




4,387,250 


20,468 


214 


166,900 


1,830 


91 


Calvert 


144,000 


996 


145 


27,825 


1,138 


24 




472,100 


2,620 


180 


51,362 


834 


62 


Carroll 


1,138,579 


6,197 


184 


22,800 


419 


54 




659,111 


4,143 


159 


19,144 


405 


47 


Charles 


284,175 


1,915 


148 


90,450 


1,572 


58 




707,100 


3,702 


191 


70,050 


1,509 


46 


Frederick 


1,483,520 


9,042 


164 


64,965 


949 


68 


Garrett • 


331,357 


4,799 


69 








Harford 


932,100 


5.369 


174 


72.850 


853 


' 85 




400,450 


2,573 


156 


22,550 


576 


39 


Kent 


183,479 


1,751 


105 


18,966 


903 


21 




5,000,323 


10,582 


473 


117,750 


1,809 


65 


Prince George's 


2,214,700 


11,395 


194 


260,600 


2,972 


88 


Queen Anne's 


290,175 


1,931 


150 


46,675 


711 


66 




132,400 


1,254 


106 


24,275 


1,151 


21 


Somerset 


342,250 


2,723 


126 


48,450 


1,633 


30 


Talbot 


436,024 


2,244 


194 


52,596 


904 


58 


Washington 


2,428,300 


12,945 


188 


43,300 


291 


149 




904,266 


4,356 


208 


149,100 


1,580 


94 


Worcester 


474,100 


2,751 


172 


61,100 


1,426 


43 




t41,656,592 


87,452 


476 


t7, 260, 833 


28,322 


256 


State 


t70, 689,481 


224,471 


315 


f8, 896, 781 


55,144 


161 



t Excludes $794,546 for Baltimore City administration buildings, warehouses, and storage 
buildings, and also excludes value of equipment. 



The value of school property per white pupil belonging aver- 
aged $212 in the counties, an increase of $28 over 1936. In in- 
dividual counties the value of school property per white pupil be- 
longing varied between $69 and $473. The valuation per white 
pupil belonging was under $145 in four counties and over $200 
in four counties, so that in fifteen of the counties, the valuation 
per white pupil fell within the limits of $145 and $194. (See 
Chart 39 and Table 178.) 

The lowest valuation per pupil was found in the county with 
the largest proportion of white pupils in small buildings of frame 
construction, which, of course, are less expensive than fireproof 



Value of School Property 



245 



or semi-fireproof construction of brick, stone or concrete, neces- 
sary because of fire hazard in the large school buildings. The 
small one-room buildings have no auditoriums, special rooms, 
corridors, or central heating plants, many of which facilities are 
necessary in larger school buildings. 

The highest valuation per pupil was found in the wealthiest 
county with the smallest classes in graded schools, in which the 
population has been increasing rapidly, necessitating much new 
construction of large fireproof buildings. 

CHART 39 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY* IN USE 
PER WHITE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 1935 1936 1937 
Co. Average $185 $184 ~~ 

Montgomery 
Allegany 
Baltimore 
Wicomico 




Charles 
Calvert 
Somerset 
St. iary's 
Kent 
Garrett 

Baltimore City 441 451 
State 288 290 



* In 1937, includes equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City, 
t Cambridge High School burned down. 



246 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Only one county which had an increase of $144,000 in total 
property valuation showed a decrease in valuation of property 
per white pupil. The increase of over 800 white pupils to be ac- 
commodated in this county meant a reduction per pupil in the 
valuation of property. In other counties in which the total value 
of school property did not increase much, the valuation per pupil 
went up because there was a decrease in pupils. 

The valuation of $41,656,592 for property used by Baltimore 
City white pupils in 1937 was an increase of $1,267,000 over 1936. 
The valuation of $476 per Baltimore City white pupil in 1937 was 
an increase of $25 over 1936, due in part to the decrease in white 
public school population in the City. The tendency in cities is 
for the population to decrease in the older part of the City where 
adequate school facilities are available, and to increase on the 
outskirts where there are no or inadequate school facilities to 
take care of the growth in population. (See Table 178 and Chart 
39.) 

The value of school property used by county colored pupils in 
1937 was $1,636,000, an increase of $54,700 over 1936. All, ex- 
cept seven of the counties, showed an increase in the value of 
school property used by colored pupils. The value of school 
property per colored pupil belonging increased from $59 to $61 
in part because of the decrease in the number of colored pupils. 
There were five counties in which the value per colored pupil of 
school property in use was lower in 1937 than in 1936. (See Table 
178 and Chart 31, page 186.) 

COUNTY PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY 
OF RESIDENCE 

The number of Maryland county pupils attending school out- 
side the county of their residence increased by 34 to 1,212 in 1937. 
Baltimore County had 254 pupils in schools outside its limits, 
of whom 179 colored children attended junior and senior high 
schools in Baltimore City. (See Table 179.) 

According to by-law 11, any county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund may make no tuition charge for a pupil who attends school 
in its county whose residence is in another Maryland county. A 
capital outlay charge of 820 per white high; $15 per white ele- 
mentary ; $10 per colored high ; and $7.50 per colored elementary 
pupil is, however, made for each pupil. In addition to the amount 
for capital outlay, counties not receiving the Equalization Fund 
make a charge for tuition which is 60 per cent of the average cur- 
rent expense cost, excluding general control and fixed charges, 
for the preceding year in the various types of school. These 
amounts for 1936-37 were 48.29 for each white high, S29.34 for 
each white elementary, $30.97 for each colored high, and $16.04 
for each colored elementary school pupil. For amounts received 
and paid for pupils attending school in adjoining counties, see 
Table XVII, page 299, and Table XXII, page 304. 



Value of School Property; Pupils Attending Schools in 
Counties in Which They Do Not Live 



247 



TABLE 179 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own Countv During 

School Year 1936-37 



County 
or State 
in Which 

Pupils 
from 
Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 

School 



Total 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll •. 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary s 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City- 
Delaware 

Pennsylvania. . 
West Virginia . . 



County or State from Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
School in Adjoining Counties 



1..329 

170 
26 
18 
12 
64 

155 



>. 
c 

< 

— 

L9 


"a! 

c 
3 

< 

a> 

< 
— 

96 


CD 


254 


+-> 

CP 

> 
Is 
O 
— 

9 


g | Caroline 


_ 

u 
BJ 
O 


25 


"5 

0) 

O 

— 

10 


g | Charles 


£2 | Dorchester 


tg [ Frederick 


03 

s 



160 
98 


T3 
O 

rt 
X 
— 

13 


*3 

a 

o 
X 



127 


2 


>> 
- 
E 
o 

t£ 

z. 
Z 



8 


£ | Prince George's 


% | Queen Anne's 


g | St. Mary's 


2 | Somerset 


4J 

o 
od 

53 


to £o I Washington 


o 

V 

E 

o 

— 
4 


i : o | Worcester 


- 

> 
>. 

c 
c 

cu 
- 
— 

50 

21 


' = 

> 

1 
— 

47 
42 








7 
















16 






3 


















10 












8 






















12 
























































51 
















7 






6 
















8 












98 






41 




8 












































































8 




29 






































































8 






























30 










16 










































8 


4 


2i 


4 
63 














































7 








































7 




















41 


































12 






6 
64 


























63 




2 








13 




























20 














2 












47 
























16 










































































4 






































16 






























18 


























21 


1 












































4 






































61 






4 






179 












































3 
































12 






:i 


















19 

43 


5 



















































































































37 

38 
28 

4 
91 
48 
18 
142 
69 
16 

4 
16 
40 

4 
65 
179 
15 
27 
43 



COUNTY LEVIES FOR 1937-38 
The Total Levy for All County Purposes Including Schools 

County levies for all services rendered by the counties for 1937- 
38 in eighteen counties and for the calendar year 1938 in five coun- 
ties totalled S15,149,600, an increase of more than §1,028,000 over 
the corresponding figure for the preceding vear. All counties, 
except five, levied more for 1938 than for 1937. Over half of the 
total increase was found in Montgomery County, but this included 
use of $436,000 to be obtained from the sale of securities. (See 
Table 180.) 

The School Current Expense Levy 

The levy for school current expenses, which totalled S5, 622, 211 
for 1938, was an increase of nearly S283,000 over the levy for 
1937. For school current expenses seven Equalization Fund coun- 



248 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ties levied less in 1938 than in 1937, two Equalization Fund coun- 
ties levied the same amount in 1938 as in 1937, while the fourteen 
remaining counties levied more in 1938 than in 1937. In this last 
group of counties the largest increases occurred in Montgomery, 
Baltimore, and Cecil, three of the four non-Equalization Fund 
counties. Equalization Fund counties which through the county 
levy had made more restoration of salary cuts than had been 
possible with State aid available prior to October, 1937, were in 
a position to reduce the county levy for 1937-38 to the extent 
that the 1938 Equalization Fund took care of full restoration of 
the minimum schedule of salaries. Several counties used the 
additional State aid as an opportunity to provide increments for 
teachers of experience over and above those available according 
to the present minimum salary schedule. (See Table 180.) 



TABLE 180 
County Tax Levy, 1937-38 



County 



Total 
County 
Levy 



Levy for Public Schools 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Total Counties/ 1936-37 
\ 1937-38 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



$14,121,354 
15,149,609 

1,386,627 
tl, 311, 775 
t3, 158,918 
83,551 
185,189 
448,308 
400,169 
125,021 
313,308 
t834,424 
t281,045 
f561,585 
263,454 
286,832 
b2, 441, 165 
855,655 
188,065 
91,038 
168,311 
249,129 
819,448 
440,228 
256,364 



$5,338,316 
5,622,211 

c581,070 
f354,480 
fd957,912 
28,500 
74,000 
199,176 
211,882 
48,336 
120,200 
f354,450 
f94,966 
f202,500 
92 , 000 
79,628 
757,933 
481,240 
83,000 
*40,750 
57,390 
104,140 
442,354 
155,630 
100,674 



$1,363,504 
1,398,209 

188,063 
tl02,002 
f288,794 
7,319 
6,688 
95,932 
8,763 
10,995 
26,280 
at88,411 



tl6,250 
11,683 
8,000 
164,600 
112,145 
2,350 
e2,710 
2,470 
26,600 
121,769 
79,342 
27,043 



$273,310 
257,851 

10,500 
t3 1,053 
til, 000 
725 
10,000 
3,000 
52,000 
4,500 



tl5,448 
f40,000 
tl , 500 



9,500 
2,000 
500 
13,000 
29,360 
5,815 
9,950 
8,000 



$6,985,130 
7,278,271 

c779,633 
t487,535 
tdl,257,706 
36,544 
90 , 688 
298,108 
272,645 
63,831 
146,480 
t458,309 
tl34,966 
t220.250 
103,683 
87,628 
922 , 533 
602,885 
87,350 
43,960 
72,860 
160,100 
569,938 
244,922 
135,717 



a Includes $24,757 due Board of Education for levy of preceding year. 

b Includes $436,000 to be received from issue of securities and $237,417 from receipts reserved 
for specific purposes to be used for current expenses. 

c Includes $2,353 levied by county commissioners for retirement of teachers. 

d Includes $6,600 levied by county commissioners for retirement of teachers. 

e Includes $2,710 levied by county commissioners towards high school transportation costs 
for 1936-37. 

t Levy for calendar year 1938. * Received $1,309 additional from tongers' licenses. 



County Levies for 1937-38 for Schools and Other Purposes 249 

The Levy for School Debt Service and Capital Outlay 

School debt service in the counties which totalled SI, 398,209 
for 1938, was $34,705 more than for 1937. In most counties the 
amounts for school debt service were not very different from the 
year preceding. Carroll, which was paying off part of the notes 
for its school building program, and Wicomico, which had more 
bonds on which principal and interest had to be paid, showed the 
largest increases in school debt service from 1937 to 1938. 

For school capital outlay provided for in the levies of eighteen 
counties, the total of $257,851 for 1938 was $15,459 less than for 
1937. The largest amounts levied for school capital outlay in 1938 
were in Cecil, Garrett, Anne Arundel, and Talbot. (See Table 180.) 

The county levies for all school purposes totalled 87,278,271 
for 1938, an increase of nearly $300,000 over those for 1937. 
Seven counties levied less than $100,000 for all school purposes, 
while seven counties levied between $458,000 and $1,258,000. 
(See Table 180.) 

County Levies for Purposes Other Than Schools 

The total levied by the counties for purposes other than schools 
for 1938 totalled $7,871,000 which was $725,000 more than for 
1937. Nine counties, however, levied less for purposes other than 
schools for 1938 than they levied for 1937, and the amount for 
Montgomery included S436,000 in receipts from the sale of securi- 
ties. (See Table 180.) 

In ten counties the county levy for purposes other than schools 
was less than the county levy for all school purposes. In these 
ten counties, however, there were incorporated towns and districts 
which levied additional taxes to take care of services which were 
provided for in other counties through the county levy. (See 
Table 180.) 

Levy in Incorporated Places Within Counties 

Certain localities in every county, except Baltimore County, 
which has no incorporated towns, and Howard County, which in- 
cludes the levy for incorporated districts with the county levy, 
levied in addition to the county levy to provide for police, fire, 
water, highway, street cleaning, or other administrative services 
needed over and above those available from the county. The 
amount reported in addition to the county levy was $2,344,788, 
which brought the total levied for county and local governmental 
services within the county to $17,494,397, an increase of $917,548 
over the preceding year. These figures include $436,000 obtained 
in Montgomery County from sale of securities. They do not in- 
clude data for Baltimore City. (See Table 181.) 



250 



1937 



Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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1937-38 Levy dy Counties and Incorporated Places; 251 
Assessable Basis 



Since the counties vary in their administrative set-up for local 
units, no comparison of the proportion of funds devoted to schools 
is fair without including these local funds. The per cent of all 
county and local levies provided for school current expenses was 
32.1 per cent in the 23 counties, just .1 below the preceding year. 
The highest per cent of county and local levies allocated to school 
current expenses was 47.8 and in three additional counties it was 
over 40 per cent. There were seven counties in which the per- 
centage devoted to schools was under 30 per cent, the lowest being 
25 per cent. The county spending only 25 per cent used much 
of its levy for expenditures on roads, while in many other counties 
expenditures on roads were provided through the State Roads 
Commission. (See Table 181.) 

The per cent of all levies within the county used for the total 
of school current expenses, school debt service, and school capital 
outlay averaged 41.6 per cent, was over 50 per cent in four coun- 
ties and under 35 per cent in four counties. (See Table 181.) 

CHANGES IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 
TABLE 182 



Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 
in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


1934 


tl935 


tl936 


tl937 


Total Counties. . 


$661,724 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$923,203 


$920,397 


$930,221 


$955,246 


$973,324 


Allegany 


69,886 


78,837 


80,715 


80,971 


76,553 


76,790 


77,445 


79,229 


Anne Arundel . . . 


30,692 


44 , 565 


47,544 


48,553 


48,560 


50,413 


50,861 


52,728 


Baltimore 


104,232 


139,232 


157,654 


167,242 


174,397 


175, 657 


178,687 


178,919 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,935 


5,305 


5 , 560 


5,737 


5,795 


5,898 


6,054 


Caroline 


14.027 


14,761 


15.283 


15,156 


14,557 


14,604 


14,692 


14,645 


Carroll 


33,382 


35,636 


39,875 


36,265 


35,761 


36,258 


36,518 


36,998 


Cecil 


23,189 


25.628 


30.408 


36,392 


37,098 


37,913 


38,958 


39,428 


Charles 


8,394 


9,315 


9,938 


10,103 


9,801 


9,805 


9,932 


9,816 


Dorchester 


18.987 


20,439 


21,918 


22,188 


21,095 


21,664 


23,989 


25,387 


Frederick 


51,248 


57,655 


65,234 


64,670 


64,030 


64,183 


64,860 


65,859 


Garrett 


16,303 


18,903 


21,653 


20,838 


17,611 


17,630 


17,666 


17,488 


Harford 


28,580 


29,561 


39,763 


51,149 


51,804 


52,132 


52,961 


52,959 


Howard 


15,670 


16,539 


18,063 


18,666 


17,749 


17.846 


17,946 


18,204 


Kent 


14,519 


14,956 


16, 162 


16,138 


16,195 


16,171 


16,209 


16,347 


Montgomery ... 


45,503 


60,239 


77,889 


84,580 


88,043 


88,529 


95,911 


101,293 


Prince George's 


33,651 


42.878 


59.312 


63,301 


64,942 


68,197 


73 , 543 


74,959 




14.793 


14.803 


16.692 


16,247 


16,145 


16,337 


16,513 


16,574 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,809 


8.289 


8 , 590 


8 , 566 


8.583 


8,639 


8.696 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,972 


12,392 


12,055 


11.618 


11,529 


11 .864 


12,239 


Talbot 


16.927 


18,048 


20,478 


21,534 


20,576 


20.707 


20.840 


21,309 


Washington .... 


62.570 


72,867 


72 . 908 


75,322 


71,738 


72,036 


72.865 


75,226 


Wicomico 


20,394 


24.109 


25.092 


26,487 


27.788 


27,557 


28.207 


28,704 


Worcester 


16,579 


18,284 


20,941 


21.196 


20,033 


19.885 


20,242 


20.263 


Baltimore City. . 


902,208 


1,230. 198 


1,255,978 


1,351,403 


1 ,250.561 


1,273.610 


1,228,058 


1,223,939 


State 


$1,563,932 


$2,012,169 


$2,139,486 


$2,274,606 


$2,170,958 


$2,203,831 


$2,183,304 


$2,197,263 



* Includes reassessment figures. f Omits assessment of distilled spirits. 



252 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses in 1937 was over $973,000,000 in the 23 counties, an in- 
crease of $18,000,000 over 1936 and the highest assessment ever 
reported for the counties. Through 1932 there was an annual 
increase in the assessment taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses, but after the drop in 1933, the assessment in the 23 coun- 
ties has shown an increase each succeeding year. Every county, 
except four, had a higher assessment in 1937 than in 1936, but 
there were twelve counties in which the 1937 assessment was 
lower than that reported in one or more preceding years. (See 
Table 182.) 

In Baltimore City the assessable basis taxable at the full rate 
for city purposes, which had increased steadily to a peak of 
$1,351,403,000 in 1931, decreased to $1,250,561,000 in 1934, in- 
creased to $1,273,610,000 in 1935 and decreased again in 1936 and 
1937 to the lowest point since 1927, viz., $1,223,939,000. The 
State taxable basis in 1937, $2,197,263,000, is therefore lower in 
1937 than it was in 1930-1933 and in 1935 and 1936. (See Table 
182.) 

Counties which showed an increase of more than $1,000,000 in 
taxable basis from 1936 to 1937 were Montgomery, Washington, 
Anne Arundel, Allegany, Prince George's, and Dorchester. 

For the 23 counties, all elements which go into the taxable basis 
assessable at the full rate for county purposes increased from 
1936 to 1937. The largest increase, nearly $15,000,000, was in 
real and tangible personal property including automobiles. The 
next largest increase, $2,200,000, and the highest per cent of in- 
crease, 12 per cent, was in ordinary business corporations, which 
are assessed by the State Tax Commission. Railroad rolling stock 
increased by $520,000 or over 5 per cent, but the increase was 
confined to five counties affected by the electrification of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. (See Table 183.) 

All counties shared in the increases from 1936 to 1937, except 
five for real and tangible personal property, fourteen for railroad 
rolling stock, eight for ordinary business corporations, thirteen 
for domestic share corporations, five for personal property of 
non-stock corporations, which showed decreases. (See Table 184.) 

In Baltimore City and for the State as a whole the decrease in 
assessments from 1936 to 1937 affected real and tangible personal 
property. (See Table 183.) 

Complete county reassessments which have not been under- 
taken since 1928 are under way in Allegany, Anne Arundel,- Caro- 
line, Garrett, Kent, St. Mary's, and Wicomico. Frederick reas- 
sesses a part of the county each year. 



Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County 
Purposes 



253 



TABLE 183 

1937 Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 

Data Furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 



Total Counties: 

1936 

1937 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf 

1937° 

1938° 

Baltimore - !". • • • 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 
Frederickf 

1937° 

1938° 

Garrettt 

1937° 

1938° 

Harfordt 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

Entire State . . . 



Total Basis 
Assessable at 
Full Rate for 
County 
Purposes 



$955,246,228 
973,324,536 

79,228,956 

52,728,493 
56,177,846 
178,918,904 

6,053,549 
14,645,344 
36,997,896 
39,427,435 

9,816,165 
25,386,761 

65,859,246 
66,437,202 

17,487,919 
19,725,598 
52,959,130 
18,204,235 
16,346,916 
101,293,335 
74,958,673 
16,574,127 
8,695,845 
12,239,253 
21,309,093 
75,226,241 
28,703,681 
20,263,339 

1,223,938,543 

$2,197,263,079 



Real and 
Tangible Per- 
sonal Property 
Taxable for 
County 
Purposes 



$899,678,144 
914,585,241 

a73,872,043 

51,060,655 
J54, 593,400 
169,828,920 
6,005,224 
14,121,510 
35,156,974 
36,872,945 
9,698,659 
b21,061,715 

c55,469,105 
c56, 567,090 

16,824,460 
J19.105,598 
45,750,240 
17,947,360 
15,856,925 
100,027,385 
73,211,001 
16,313,927 
8,670.285 
11,820,553 
20,509,485 
69,958,203 
24,712,914 
19,834,753 

1,126,016,069 

$2,040,601,310 



Railroad 
Rolling 
Stock 



$9,867,459 
10,386,974 

1,068,164 

784,083 
*744,879 
1,778,219 

97\884 
604,764 
1,164,789 
83,011 
88,761 

334,638 
*317,621 

159,053 
*150,000 
1,112,149 



114,822 



1,019,635 
93,580 



236,160 
91,483 
1,293,770 
88,046 
173,963 

976,305 

$11,363,279 



Ordinary 
Business 
Corpora- 
tions 



$21,799,813 
24,421,515 

3,830,935 

625,995 
*594,695 
5,083,235 
46,215 
418,525 
934,015 
645,900 
32,190 
3,815,565 

1,868,205 
♦1,774,795 



69,930 
*65,000 
288,070 
192,050 
114,875 
518,480 
377,250 
155,265 

21,100 
169,555 
573,850 
219,790 
180,460 
240,060 



28,327,582 
$52,749,097 



Domestic 
Share 

Corpora- 
tions 



$23,834,037 
23,851,086 

453,809 

240,960 
*228,912 
2,217,980 
2,110 
6,590 
297,208 
742,086 
2.205 
420,520 

8,187,048 
*7, 777, 696 

429,276 
*400,000 
5,804,641 
64 , 600 
259,594 
745,820 
326,392 
11,145 
4,460 
12,985 
132,520 
752,938 
2.721,636 
14,563 

68,466,567 

$92,317,653 



Personal 
Property of 
Non-Stock 

Corpora- 
tions 



$66,775 
79,720 

4,005 

16,800 
*15,960 
10,550 

835 
4,935 
1,715 
100 
200 

250 



5,200 
*5,000 
4,030 
225 
700 
1,650 
24,395 
210 



1 , 755 
1,540 
625 



152,020 
$231,740 



a Excludes exemption of $6,213,448 for Celanese Corporation and $29,161 for General Textile 
Mills, Inc. 

b Excludes exemption of $326,220 for Delmarva Power Co. and $2,700 for South Dorchester 
Electric Light Co. 

c Excludes exemption of $184,000 for Francis Scott Key Hotel and $18,725 for Loates Orphan 
Asylum. 

* Estimated. 

t County levy is made for calendar year. 

° Forty-seven cent levy is calculated .4 on 1937 and .6 on 1938 assessment for Equalization 
Fund calculation. 

t Reassessment figures. 



COUNTY TAX RATES FOR 1937-38 

The county tax rates for school current expenses obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1937-38 by the 1937 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes averaged 57.4 cents 
for the 23 counties, an increase of 1.5 cents over the preceding 
year. Rates for school current expenses calculated in this way 
ranged from 38 cents in Harford, which was the only county 



254 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



which levied under 47 cents for school current expenses, to 73 
cents in Allegany and 75 cents in Montgomery. There were four 
Equalization Fund counties which levied only the very minimum 
tax rate required for participation in the Fund — 47 cents. Ten 
other Equalization Fund counties levied more than the minimum 
to take care of high school transportation costs not provided in 
the minimum program, to pay for salaries in excess of the mini- 
mum, to employ teachers in excess of the number which could 
be paid for by the State, to make available an eighth elementary 
grade (Allegany), or to furnish more for books, materials, and 
other current expenses than was available in the minimum pro- 
gram. (See Table 184.) 

TABLE 184 



Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published Total County Rates, 

1937-1938 



County 


1 1937-38 County School Tax Rate for School 


Total 
Published 
County Tax 
Rate 1937-38 


Current 
Expenses 


Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 


County Average 


$ .574 


$ .143 


$ .026 


$ .743 


*$1.56 


Montgomery 


.748 


.163 




.911 


*el.50-*2.19 




.734 


.237 


.013 


.984 


*1.55 


tPrince George's 


.642 


.149 


.013 


.804 


H.23 


tAnne Arundel (a) .... 


.G31 


.182 


.055 


.868 


dl. 88-2. 50 




.588 


. 162 


.008 


.758 


*1.07 




.542 


.276 


.035 


.853 


*1.525 


-(-Carroll 


.539 


.259 


.008 


.806 


*1.05 




.538 


.022 


.132 


.692 


*.83 


Baltimore(a) 


.535 


. 162 


.006 


.703 


1.40 


tFrederick(a) 


.534 


.133 


.023 


.690 


n.oo 


tHoward 


.506 


.064 




.570 


°1.15-1.31H 


tCaroline 


.505 


.046 


.068 


.619 


*1 .23 




.501 


.014 


.012 


.527 


*.80 


tWorcester 


.497 


.133 


.040 


.670 


*.88 


("Charles 


.492 


.112 


.046 


.650 


*1.10 


(Talbot 


.489 


.125 


.138 


.752 


*1.00 


.Kent 


.487 


.049 




.536 


*1.52 


tGarrett(a) 


.481 




^203 


.684 


*.85 


tDorchester 


.473 


!i6i 




.577 


*1.12 


tCalvert 


.471 


.121 


.012 


.604 


*1.35 


-(•Somerset 


.470 


.020 


.106 


.596 


*1.30 


tSt. Mary's 


b.469 


.031 


.006 


.506 


*1.05 


Harford 


.382 


.031 


.003 


.416 


c*. 85-1. 08 



| Obtained by dividing levy shown in Table 180 by assessable basis taxable at the full rate 
for county purposes shown in Tabic 183. 

* Excludes additional rates for incorporated towns and districts. 

t Received Equalization Fund in 1937-38. 

a Rates calculated for the calendar year 1938. 

b Additional funds received from tongers' licenses bring amount available to more than 47 
cents. 

c County rate in incorporated towns 85 cents, in rest of county $1.08. 

d Rates for roads and fire departments differ in the various districts. Annapolis pays $1.50 
county levy plus $1.00 for city levy. 

e Rates of road tax. Washington suburban sanitary district tax. Md. Washington Metropoli- 
tan district tax. suburban district tax and fire area tax differ by district and area. 

° Includes additional taxes for police and water in 1st and 2nd districts. 



Tax rates for school current expenses were higher in 1937-38 
than in 1936-37 in eleven counties. (See Table 184.) 



County Tax Rate for Schools and All Purposes; 255 
White P.-T. A.'s 

The tax rate for school debt service of 14.3 cents in 1937-38 
was the same as for 1936-37. From nothing in Garrett County 
the rate for school debt service rose to 24 cents in Allegany, 26 
cents in Carroll, and nearly 28 cents in Wicomico. In Allegany 
and Wicomico these amounts were needed to pay interest and 
principal payments on bonds outstanding. In Carroll it was to 
pay off the second installment on a three-year note for the amount 
borrowed for the building program. (See Table 184.) 

The tax rate for school debt service was higher in 1937-38 than 
in 1936-37 in six counties. In one county it was the same, while 
in fifteen counties it was lower. 

The tax rate for school capital outlay of 2.6 cents in 1937-38 
was .2 of a cent lower than that for 1936-37. Four counties in- 
cluded nothing in the levy for school capital outlay, while one 
county which has not been able to secure a favorable referendum 
on a bond issue levied 20 cents and two other counties between 
13 and 14 cents for school capital outlay. (See Table 184.) 

The average county rate for all school purposes, 74.3 cents in 
1937-38, was 1.3 cents above that for 1936-37. The range in rate 
for all school purposes was from 42 cents in the lowest county to 
91 and 98 cents in the two counties spending the most. 

According to the county tax rates as published, persons not 
living in incorporated towns paid between 80 and 88 cents for all 
services performed by the county government in four counties. 
In five other counties the rate was over $1.50 for persons not liv- 
ing in incorporated towns or districts and in one of these counties 
the rates by districts varied from $1.88 to $2.35. Taxpayers in 
incorporated places which received services in addition to those 
rendered by the county paid tax rates in addition to those shown 
in the last column of Table 184 wherever an asterisk appears. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent-teacher associations were found in 1937 in 465 
white schools, 56.2 per cent of the total number. As a result 
chiefly of the consolidation of one-teacher schools, the number 
of schools having P.-T. A.'s decreased by 22 and the per cent by 
1.6. The maximum percentage of schools having parent-teacher 
associations was found in 1933 with 59.1 per cent. (See Table 
185.) 

In 1937 there were P.-T. A.'s in 100 per cent of the white schools 
in four counties and in 88 and 80 per cent of the schools in 2 coun- 
ties. In the county at the opposite extreme approximately 10 
per cent of the schools had organized parent-teacher associations 
in 1937. The percentage of white schools having P.-T. A.'s in- 
creased from 1936 to 1937 in six counties. (See Chart 40.) 



256 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 185 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1937 



Year 



1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 



Number 



490 
623 
638 
649 
617 
588 
576 
613 
571 
556 
530 
506 
487 
465 



In the white elementary schools only 27.8 per cent of the one- 
teacher schools had parent-teacher associations in contrast with 
59.5 per cent of the two-teacher and 82.8 per cent of the graded 
schools. The percentage of these organizations in one-teacher 
schools decreased by 4.8 under 1936, in two-teacher schools by 
.4, and in graded schools by 2.7 per cent. (See Table 186.) 

TABLE 186 



Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 

School Year, 1936-37 



White Schools Having: 


Parent-Teacher Associations 


Number 


Per Cent 




90 
91 
265 


27.8 
59.5 
82.8 








446 


56.0 





For data regarding parent-teacher associations in colored 
schools, see Chart 32, page 195. 

During 1936-37, according to reports from teachers summar- 
ized by county superintendents, the parents of 44,569 county pu- 
pils or over 30 per cent of all white pupils, visited the county 
schools to consult with teachers regarding the progress of their 
children or to aquire at first hand a knowledge of school problems 
and classroom instruction. The value of these contacts between 
the school and the home is inestimable in giving both the teacher 
and the parent a better understanding of the problems which each 
must face. 



White Parent-Teacher Associations; Other than County 257 
Public Funds 



CHART 40 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS, 195G AND 1937 
r^„„ + „ Number Per Cent 
C0Unty 1936 



Total and 
Co. Ave 




RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
PUBLIC COUNTY FUNDS 

The amount of money reported as contributed over and above 
public funds for the white schools in 16 counties amounted to 
$283,273 in 1937. With so large a sum of money, the advisability 
of a system of financial accounting if only for the protection of 
those responsible for these funds does not seem open to question. 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for 40 per cent 
of the funds and were the major source of receipts in 5 counties. 



258 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County 259 
Public Funds — White Schools; N. Y. A. Aid 

P.-T. A. activities accounted for 11 per cent of the receipts in 9 
counties, while parents in 3 counties made payments required for 
high school transportation. Plays, "talkies," musicals, and sales 
were an important source of funds in 7 of the counties reporting. 
(See Table 187.) 

The expenses connected with taking in the receipts reduced 
the net receipts to $149,676, which included 53 per cent of the total 
gross receipts. (See Table 187.) 

The largest proportion of the net receipts from other than 
county funds was used for transportation of high school pupils in 
Baltimore, Harford, and Montgomery Counties. School libraries 
ranked second in purpose of expenditures of net receipts in 11 
counties. Buildings and grounds received large amounts in 8 
counties, while physical education and athletic activities were 
benefited in 9 counties. In Anne Arundel and Frederick the salary 
of the cafeteria manager was paid from these funds. (See Table 
187.) 

These reports give indication that the county levy and State 
aid do not supply funds sufficient to give the schools many things 
they need. In consequence the parents and patrons of the schools 
contribute in various ways to supply additional funds so that 
attendance for many pupils may be possible, and there may be 
many school activities and experiences which enrich the lives of 
children while they are attending school. 

For similar data for colored schools, see Table 142, page 196. 

FEDERAL AID TO STUDENTS THROUGH NATIONAL YOUTH 
ADMINISTRATION 

The Federal government through the National Youth Admin- 
istration made available $63,690 to 2,344 pupils in public and non- 
public high schools in 1936-37. This was an average of $27 per 
pupil aided. It was possible to give $6 per month to the pupils 
for which services were to be rendered the school and community. 
The number of white and colored high school pupils in public and 
non-public high schools who received aid and the amount paid 
to public and non-public high school pupils in each county are 
shown in Table 188. 

Aid given to 1,712 students in 31 Maryland colleges totalled 
$164,887. State Teachers College students to the number of 97 
at Towson received $8,220 ; 78 at Salisbury received $2,878 ; 39 
at Frostburg received $2,768 ; 36 at Bowie Normal School received 
$1,800; and 23 at Coppin Teachers Training School received 
$1,753. 



260 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 188 



Federal Aid to High School Students Through National Youth 
Administration, 1936-37 





Number of High School Pupils Aided 


Amount of Aid 
Received by 


County 


White 






















Public 


Non-Public 








Colored 


Total 


School 


School 




Public 


n n — T*i l Vil i o 
nun l uuul 






Pupils 


Pupils 


Total Counties . . . 


843 


209 


399 


1,451 


$28,287 


$9 


649 


Allegany 


92 


48 


8 


148 


2,391 


2 


668 


Anne Arundel .... 


19 






19 


460 






Baltimore 


26 


62 




88 


766 


2 


823 


Caroline 


22 




' 21 


43 


1,061 






Carroll 


12 




7 


19 


488 






Cecil 


45 


' 31 


55 


131 


1,157 


1 


6li 


Charles 


24 


8 


14 


46 


877 




192 


Dorchester 


43 




31 


74 


1 ,226 






Frederick 


10 




8 


18 


575 






Garrett 


94 






94 


2,178 






Harford 


19 




16 


35 


876 






Howard 


4 




3 


7 


66 






Kent 


24 




20 


44 


922 






Montgomery 


74 


' 16 




90 


2,415 




646 


Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 


39 




57 


96 


2.713 






8 




13 


21 


176 






St. Mary's 


7 


44 




51 


267 


1 


709 


Somerset 


83 




' 89 


172 


2,800 






Talbot 


34 




23 


57 


1,970 






Washington 


69 






69 


2,081 






Wicomico 


71 






71 


1,642 






Worcester. ., 


24 




' 34 


58 


1,180 






Baltimore City . . . 


328 


128 


437 


893 


19,878 


5 


876 




1,171 


337 


836 


2,344 


48,165 


15 


525 



THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES 

There was an increase in the number of certificates issued to 
high school assistant teachers in 1937-38, since it became possible 
to make appointments to take care of increased enrollment which 
had been held up in a number of counties during the period of 
budgetary retrenchment. The appointment of special teachers of 
art was promoted and additional Federal aid through the George- 
Deen program made the financing of more vocational teachers 
possible. (See Table 189.) 

In the elementary schools the Bachelor of Science Certificate 
in Elementary Education was issued to graduates of teachers 
colleges and the advanced first-grade certificate to those who com- 
pleted a three-year course. The reduction in the number of ad- 
vanced first-grade certificates issued resulted partly from the de- 
creased number who completed the three-year course at the 
teachers colleges in 1937 under 1936. Practically all the first- 
grade certificates issued in 1936-37 and 1937-38 are held by colored 



N. Y. A. Aid to High School Pupils; State Certification 261 
of Teachers 



teachers, since this grade of certificate is now issued to white 
applicants only when they are already in the teaching service in 
Maryland and have accumulated enough credits to qualify for 
the first-grade certificate. 



TABLE 189 

Number of Certificates Issued in 1920-21, 1936-37, and 1937-38 





Number of Certificates Issued 


Grade of Certificate 










1920-21 


1936-37 


1937-38* 


Administration End Supervision: 
















Elementary Supervision 


3 


' ' 2 


. ..^ 


Supervision Special Subjects 




1 


1 






2 


1 


Attendance Officer 




2 




High School: 








Principal 


8 


5 


6 


Academic 


141 


143 


152 




35 


59 


65 


Vocational 


39 


16 


32 


Non-Public 




59 


69 


Elementary: 










19 


15 


18 


Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education 




87 


86 


Advanced First Grade 




223 


149 


First Grade 


265 


16 


11 


Second Grade 


289 


2 




Third Grade 


161 






Non-Public Advanced First Grade 






21 


Non-Public First Grade 






10 



* Up to March 1, 1938. 



Provisional Certificates 

There has been little change in the last three years in the 
number of provisional certificates issued. For elementary school 
teaching they are exclusively for elementary school principals. 
The requirements for the principal's certificate have been gradu- 
ally increased and it is difficult to find enough teachers who have 
the preparation required for the regular certificate and who at 
the same time possess the necessary personal qualities for the 
work of a principal. The provisional high school teachers' cer- 
tificates are entirely in the special fields such as music and in- 
dustrial arts. (See Table 190.) 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 



262 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 190 



Number of Provisional or Emergency Certificates Issued 





Provisional or Emergency 




Certificates Issued for 


Year 








Elementary 


High School 




School Teachingt 


Teaching i" 


1923-24 


276 


225 


1924-25 


316 


184 


1925-26 


175 


132 


1926-27 


214 


104 


1927-28 


268 


108 


1928-29 


72 


110 


1929-30 


35 


112 


1930-31 


25 


92 


1931-32 


15 


82 


1932-33 


7 


56 


1933-34 


4 


46 


1934-35 


10 


35 


1935-36 


20 


23 


1936-37 


24 


26 


1937-38* 


27 


28 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to March 1. 1938. 



ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the Teachers 
Colleges and Bowie Normal School give a thorough physical ex- 
amination to all graduates who are planning to take positions in 
the Mai^'and counties. All entrants into the service who have 
not had such examinations are required to visit the physician in 
"each county appointed to examine such teachers. The State De- 
partment of Education bears the expense of such examinations. 
Reports of these examinations are forwarded to the Medical Board 
of the Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are issued 
only to those teachers, reports of whose physical examinations 
are -approved by the Medical Board. The number examined, ac- 
cepted, and rejected, during the nine years the regulation has 
been in force are shown in Table 191. 

TABLE 191 



Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical 

Examinations 





Number 


Number 


Number 


Year 


Examined 


Accepted 


Rejected 


1929-30 


917 


910 


7 


1930-31 


885 


872 


13 


1931-32 


772 


754 


18 


1932-33 


503 


495 


8 


1933-34 


392 


383 


9 


1934-35 


509 


500 


9 


1935-36 


527 


517 


10 


1936-37 


491 


487 


4 


1937-38* 


488 


484 


4 



* Up to March 1, 1938. 



Certification; County School Administration 



263 



COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in the 
State minimum schedule depends on size of teaching staff and 
years of experience. Since 1932-33 there has been no provision 
for salary increments due to experience, and reductions of 13 per 
cent on salaries from $2,500 to $2,999, of 14 per cent on salaries 
of $3,000 to $3,599, and of 15 per cent on salaries of S3,600 plus, 
have been used in calculating State aid, which is two-thirds of the 
minimum State salary schedule. Counties, however, may pay 
salaries above those in the minimum salary schedule, the range in 
salaries in 1936-37 being from $2,558 in two counties to S6,000 in 
Allegany and $8,000 in Baltimore County. The average salary 
was $3,900, an increase of $132 over 1936. (See Table XIX, 
page 301.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four 
having from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with more than 200 
teachers, the average being 221. The smallest county had 59 
teachers and the largest 564. Several counties which would have 
had more than 200 teachers had they not carried forward a policy 
of school consolidation and transportation have replaced the ad- 
ditional problems of a large teaching staff with those of the trans- 
portation service. (See Table IX, page 291.) 

Conferences of County Superintendents with State Department Staff 

At the fall conference in November, 1936, policies regarding 
items to be included in the State public school budget request 
were discussed. 

At the spring conference in April, 1937, the school legislation 
which was passed in 1937, the new set-up in the State Department 
of Education for physical education and recreation through the 
appointment of a State supervisor of physical education and recre- 
ation to begin work in July, 1937, the education of hard of hearing 
pupils, and important recommendations of the school survey made 
by Dr. Payson Smith and Dr. Wright were discussed in addition 
to the report of the certification committee on renewal of certi- 
ficates, administrative matters concerning supervision, and plans 
for testing in 1937-38. 



264 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



THE MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
Graduates of 1937 

There were 39 county and 58 city graduates from the three 
Maryland State Teachers Colleges in 1937. With the exception 
of 4, all of the county graduates completed the four-year course, 
while all but 3 of the city graduates had pursued the three-year 
course. There were fewer county graduates in 1937 than in any 
year reported since 1920. (See Table 192.) 

TABLE 192 



White Graduates of Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1920 to 1937 



Year 


TOWSON 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 
Counties 


Total 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


1920 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


' '27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


ab49 


a25 


b24 


tl5 


tl9 


158 


1934 


tl99 


fill 


t88 


t45 


t52 


fl85 


1935 


cdl58 


c70 


d88 


e55 


t31 


del 74 


1936 


ef91 


e42 


f49 


g50 


h30 


fghl29 


1937 


m71 


c58 


kl3 


ml8 


h8 


hkm39 


1920-1937 


*3 , 768 


*1,419 


*2,349 


*922 


*573 


*3,843 



* Excludes duplicates — wbo completed two-, three-, and four-year courses. 

t Graduates of the three-year course e Includes 13 who completed the four-yr. course 

j Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course f Includes 10 who completed the four-yr. course 

a Includes 22 who completed the three-yr. course g Includes 22 who completed the four-yr. course 

b Includes 9 who completed the three-yr. course h Includes 8 who completed the four-yr. course 

c Includes 3 who completed the four-year course k Includes 12 who completed the four-yr. course 

d Includes 7 who completed the four-year course m Includes 15 who completed the four-yr. course 



In 1937 from Towson there were 13 county and 58 city grad- 
uates, including 12 from the counties and 3 from Baltimore City 
who received Bachelor of Science certificates in Education after 
completing the four-year course. Frostburg graduated 18 of 
whom 15 finished four years of work, while all of the 8 graduates 
from Salisbury received the four-year certificate. (See Table 

192. ) 

Placement of 1937 Graduates 

Of the 39 county graduates in 1937, all but 1 whose family 
moved out of the state received teaching positions. Of the 58 
Baltimore City graduates, 32 received appointments, 2 returned 
for the fourth year of work, and 24 were not teaching. (See Table 

193. ) 



1937 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges and Their 265 
Placement 



TABLE 193 



Distribution of 1937 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges by Home County 

and Teaching County 



County 


TOWSON 

Graduates 


Frostburg 
Graduates 


Salisbury 
Graduates 


All 
Graduates 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Total Counties: 


















Teaching 


13 


13 


18 


18 


6 


7 


37 


38 


Not Teaching 










*1 


*1 


*1 


*1 








17 


g 






1 1 


c 



Anne Arundel 








1 








1 


Baltimore 




' a7 




4 




' a4 


"5 


aal5 


Carroll . . . 




1 




1 






.... 


2 






.... 








"i 




1 


Frederick 














2 


1 


Garrett 








5 






1 


5 


Harford 














1 


. ... 


Howard 


. ... 












. ... 








' ' 2 












2 


St. Mary's 


1 












1 




1 












1 


i. 




1 


1 






... 


. . . . 


1 


1 


Talbot 


1 












2 














4 




4 


. ... 












1 


i 


1 




Baltimore City: 




















32 


b32 






1 




33 


b32 


Not Teaching 


24 


24 










24 


24 


Fourth Year 


2 


2 






! ' ! . 




2 


2 


Entire State: 


















Teaching 


45 


45 


18 


18 


7 


7 


70 


70 


Not Teaching 


24 


24 






1 


1 


25 


25 


Fourth Year 


2 


2 










2 


2 



a Includes one Baltimore City girl teaching in Baltimore County, 
b Includes one Baltimore County girl teaching in Baltimore City. 
* Moved away. 



Since there were so few county graduates in 1937, it was neces- 
sary for many of the counties to fill vacancies with teachers from 
outside the state or to employ unqualified teachers as substitutes. 

Enrollment at Teachers Colleges 

It was only in the fall of 1920, 1935, and 1936, that Towson had 
a lower total county enrollment than the number enrolled in the 
fall of 1937,-186. The enrollment of 290 from Baltimore City 
in 1937 exceeded the city enrollment at Towson in any year since 
1932. There were 170 students enrolled at Frostburg in 1937, 
an increase of 39 over 1936, and the highest enrollment on record 
at the school since 1929. At Salisbury the enrollment of 210 in 
the fall of 1937 was the highest since the school was established. 
Frostburg and Salisbury offered two years of junior college work 
which might or might not be used as preparatory to professional 
teacher training. (See Table 194.) 



266 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 194 



Enrollment at Maryland State Teachers Colleges 



Fall of 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


City 


County 


County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


5i8 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1.109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


1936 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 


1937 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 



According to the enrollment in the senior classes at the three 
colleges in the fall of 1937, there may be 102 county graduates in 
June, 1938. These students who enrolled as freshmen in Septem- 
ber, 1934, were the first group who knew at their entrance that 
four years of work was required for graduation. In the fall of 
1937 from the counties the junior classes numbered 103 students, 
the sophomore classes 144, and the freshman classes enrolled 213 
students. (See Tables 195 and 196.) 

At Towson in the fall of 1937 the junior class from Baltimore 
City who were taking the three-year course included 57 students. 
In addition there were 9 city students taking the fourth year of 
the four-year course. The city sophomores numbered 114 stu- 
dents, and in the freshman class 110 were enrolled. (See Tables 
195 and 196.) 

The enrollment of county students at the three colleges in the 
freshman year is larger than the enrollment in the succeeding 
years. The county enrollment at Towson of 31 in the junior year 
is doubled in the freshman class with 62. At Frostburg, the 
sophomore and junior classes of 44 and 32, respectively, are ex- 
ceeded by a freshman class of 60. At Salisbury, the freshman 
enrollment of 91 is followed by a sophomore class of 52, and 40 
in the junior class. Both Frostburg and Salisbury are permitted 
to offer two years of junior college work, which may or may not 
become preparatory to the professional teacher-training course. 
(See Tables 195 and 196.) 

At Towson, 19 city and 99 county students were residents in the 
fall of 1937. The county students who were residents included 53 
per cent of the Towson county group. There were 77 resident 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges, Total and by 267 

Class 

students, or 45 per cent of the enrollment at Frostburg, and 81 
residents, or 39 per cent of the total enrollment at Salisbury. 
With the increase in the charge for boarding students from $5 
to $6 per week, which went into effect in September, 1933, many 
students living at a distance from the college have found it more 
economical to live at home and commute daily. Especially at 
Salisbury, where the junior college has been established, the en- 
rollment has been augmented by many young men living in the 
vicinity of the college. (See Table 195.) 

The campus elementary school enrollment in the fall of 1937 
was 245 at Towson, 206 at Frostburg, and 121 at Salisbury. (See 
Table 195.) 

TABLE 195 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland State Teachers Colleges by Class, 

Fall of 1937 



Class 


Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 








burg 


bury 








City 


County 






County 


State 


Freshmen 


110 


62 


60 


91 


213 


323 




114 


48 


44 


52 


144 


258 


Juniors 


57 


31 


32 


40 


103 


160 




9 


45 


30 


27 


102 


111 








4 




4 


4 


Total 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 


Resident Students 


19 


99 


77 


81 


257 


276 




271 


87 


93 


129 


309 


580 


Elementary School 


245 


206 


121 




572 



The enrollment at the three State teachers colleges distributed 
by class, sex, and county indicates that the college is attended in 
largest numbers by high school graduates who live in the same 
county in which the school is located or in an adjoining county. 
For example, over 72 per cent of the county enrollment at Towson 
in the fall of 1937 came from Baltimore, Harford, Anne Arundel, 
Howard, and Carroll Counties; at Frostburg, all but 6 students 
came from Allegany, Garrett, and Washington ; and at Salisbury 
nearly 73 per cent were resident in Wicomico, Dorchester, Somer- 
set, and Worcester. Counties having colleges within their borders 
or nearby send a large proportion of their high school graduates 
to these institutions. (See Table 196 and Table 58, page 86.) 

County superintendents and high school principals will prob- 
ably find it advantageous to check up the enrollment by classes 
from their county at the State teachers colleges with the tables 
in the annual report showing teacher turnover in white elemen- 
tary schools for a number of years to ascertain whether it will 
not be advantageous to adopt measures to bring before high school 
graduates opportunities in the field of elementary education. 
(See Table 196, and Chart 14 and Table 54, pages 80-81.) 



268 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges; Status of 269 
Freshmen 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Teachers Colleges in the Fall of 1937 

Over 94 per cent of the 1937 freshmen at Towson from Balti- 
more City were graduates of the college preparatory course, not 
quite 3 per cent had taken the commercial course, 2 per cent had 
pursued the technical course, and less than 1 per cent were grad- 
uates of the general course. Of the county entrants at Towson, 
81 per cent had taken the academic course, 16 per cent had pur- 
sued the general course, and 3 per cent the commercial course. 
(See Table 197.) 

TABLE 197 



1937 Entrants at State Teachers Colleges 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 

Class 


Per Cent from Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep. . 
General 


94.6 
.9 
2.7 

1.8 


80.7 
16.1 
3.2 


61.6 
16.7 
11.7 

1.7 
8.3 


73.6 
23.1 
3.3 


Upper 

Middle 


80.0 
17.3 
2.7 


72.6 
17.7 
9.7 


48.3 
30.0 
16.7 
5.0 


41.8 
42.8 
15.4 


Commercial 

Technical or 

Vocational .... 
Unclassified 

Total 


Unclassified . . . 
Total , . , 


110 


62 


60 


91 


110 


62 


60 


91 







At Frostburg, over 61 per cent of the 1937 freshmen were 
graduates of the academic course, 17 per cent had pursued the 
general course, 12 per cent had taken the commercial course, 
2 per cent the vocational course, and 8 per cent were unclassified. 
At Salisbury 74 per cent had pursued the academic, 23 per cent 
the general, and 3 per cent of the 1937 freshmen were graduates 
of the commercial course. (See Table 197.) 

At Towson, 80 per cent of the city and 73 per cent of the county 
entrants in 1937 were ranked in the upper third of their high 
school graduating class, while 2.7 and 9.7 per cent of the city and 
county entrants, respectively, were from the lower third of their 
classes. Frostburg had 48 per cent of the 1937 freshmen entrants 
from the upper third and 17 per cent from the lower third, while 
corresponding figures at Salisbury included 42 per cent from the 
upper and 15 per cent from the lower third of their high school 
classes. (See Table 197.) 

Withdrawals in 1936-37 of Freshmen Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 

in 1936 

The requested or voluntary withdrawal before the fall of 1937 
of freshmen who had entered Towson in the fall of 1936 included 
31 city and 22 county students, 22.6 and 29.3 per cent, respec- 



270 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



tively, of the city and county groups. At Frostburg, 8 or 16 per 
cent withdrew, while 20 or 27.1 per cent of the freshmen who 
entered Salisbury in 1936 left before September, 1937. The num- 
ber and percentage of withdrawals of both city and county en- 
trants from Towson were higher, and from Frostburg and Salis- 
bury were lower than corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. (See Table 198.) 

TABLE 198 



Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges in September, 1936, who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily before September, 1937 





Towson 












Frostburg 


Salisbury 




City 


County 






Freshman Enrollment, September, 1936 


141 


78 


53 


94 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer and Death 


4 


3 


3 


20 


Withdrawals by Request 


13 


6 


1 


3 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


18 


16 


7 


17 


Per Cent* Withdrawn by Request 


9.5 


8.0 


2.0 


4.1 


Per Cent* Voluntary Withdrawals 


13.1 


21.3 


14.0 


23.0 


Total Per Cent* of Withdrawals 


22.6 


29.3 


16.0 


27.1 



Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer or death. 



Faculty at the State Teachers Colleges 

At Towson in the fall of 1937 the instructional staff of 32, 
excluding 9 in the campus elementary school, included one more 
instructor than the number employed the year before. Training 
centers included between 2 and 6 teachers in from 1 to 4 schools in 
Baltimore County and between 18 and 24 teachers in from 9 to 
12 schools in Baltimore City. The number used varied according 

TABLE 199 



Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, Fall of 1937 



Position 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


President 


1 


1 


1 


3 




27 


9 


ell 


c47 


Library 


4 


2 


3 


9 




9 


6 


4 


19 


Training Centers: 










County 


a6 




d6 


adl2 


City 


b24 






b24 


Office Staff 


8 


2 


2 


12 


Dormitory 


3 


1 


1 


5 



a Varies from 2 to 6 teachers in from 1 to 4 schools in Baltimore County, 
b Varies from 18 to 24 teachers in from 9 to 12 schools in Baltimore City, 
c Includes director of training who also acts as principal of campus elementary school, but 
excludes social director who also acts as teacher of home economics, 
d Includes 6 teachers in 5 schools in Wicomico County. 



Withdrawals; Faculty; Total and Per Student Costs at 271 
Teachers Colleges 

to semester. The Towson office staff included 8 members and 
there were 3 individuals on the dormitory staff, the same number 
as in 1936. At Frostburg the staff remained the same in 1937 as 
in 1936. At Salisbury there was one added to the instructional 
staff and a one-fourth time teacher was added to the staff of the 
campus elementary school. (See Table 199.) 

Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 

Total current expenses and cost to the State at each teachers 
college from 1934 to 1937 were much lower than they were from 
1928 to 1933. (See columns 1 and 3 in Table 200.) The reductions 
in the last four years resulted from salary cuts and the policy of 
retrenchment which followed the effects of the depression. Since 
the college enrollment dropped over the ten year period, the fees 
in the last four years have been kept up by the increases which 
went into effect in the fall of 1933 when a charge of $100 for 
tuition replaced the fees of $20 previously paid for registration, 
health, and library, and the charge for board was increased from 
$5 to $6 per week. 

The college enrollment at Towson decreased steadily from 1928 
to 1936, with the exception of a slight increase in 1932. Enroll- 
ment for 1937 at Towson showed a considerable increase over 
1936. At Frostburg and Salisbury the years 1932 and 1933 
showed the lowest enrollments, since which years there have been 
more or less consistent increases in enrollment. The effects of 
the depression in making it more difficult for high school grad- 
uates to finance further education, especially with the increased 
costs and the lengthening of the course to three and then to four 
years, and the fear that there would not be a position after grad- 
uation from college resulting from the failure to appoint the usual 
number of teachers, deterred many students from attending the 
teachers colleges. The shortage of teachers in the past three 
years, however, has brought about an increase in enrollment. All 
of the colleges showed an increase in enrollment in 1937 over 1936, 
and a still further gain in the fall of 1937. (See column 4 in Table 
200 and Table 194, page 266.) 

In its third year the National Youth Administration gave $8,220 
to 97 students at Towson, an average of S85 per student aided; 
$2,768 to 39 students at Frostburg, $74 per student; and S2,878 
to 78 students at Salisbury, an average of $37 per student aided. 
Services were rendered school and community by the students 
helped. 

There is considerable difference at the three colleges in the 
relation between the enrollment in the campus elementary school 
and the college enrollment. Since the cost of the campus elemen- 
tary school is a charge against the college costs and the cost per 
college student, this accounts for some of the differences in per 
student costs. At Frostburg since 1932 the campus elementary 



272 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

school enrollment has been much larger than the college enroll- 
ment. At Salisbury the elementary school enrollment was larger 
than the college enrollment in 1933, 1934, and 1935. At Towson 
the campus elementary school enrollment was 34 per cent of the 
total college enrollment in 1928 and 75 per cent in 1936. (See 
column 6 in Table 200.) 

Over the ten-year period, total cost per college student averaged 
between $410 and $556 at Towson, the amount in 1937 being $420. 

TABLE 200 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges, 1928 to 1937 











College 




Average Annual Cost 






Fees 




Enrollment 


Per Cent 


per College Student 




Total 


Paid 


Cost 






Elementary 








Year 


Current 


by 


to 






is of College 










Expenses 


Students 


State 




Per Cent 


Enrollment 




in 


to 








Total 


Resident 




Total 


Fees 


State 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 



Towson 



1928.... 


$300,675 


$76,406 


$224,269 


734 


51 


34 


$410 


a$104 


$306 


1929 


301,590 


64,551 


237,039 


650 


51 


39 


464 


a99 


365 


1930 


314,699 


64,660 


250,039 


604 


49 


43 


521 


al07 


414 


1931 


311,674 


61,663 


250,011 


561 


51 


42 


556 


allO 


446 


1932 


277,642 


57,201 


220,441 


582 


43 


46 


477 


a98 


379 


1933 


261,686 


42,182 


219,504 


503 


36 


53 


520 


a84 


436 


1934. . . . 


210,135 


79,108 


131,027 


450 


36 


54 


487 


bl96 


291 


1935 


192,873 


58,317 


134,556 


354 


31 


71 


545 


bl65 


380 


1936. . . . 


179,751 


50,286 


129,465 


330 


25 


75 


545 


bl53 


392 


1937. . . . 


184,263 


65,395 


118,868 


438 


23 


54 


420 


bl48 


272 



Frostburg 



1928. . . . 


$71,247 


$16,770 


$54,477 


194 


38 




*$368 


a$87 


*$281 


1929 


73,584 


14,566 


59,018 


178 


44 


65 


413 


a82 


331 


1930 


76,581 


13,221 


63,360 


161 


43 


65 


476 


a82 


394 


1931. . . . 


77,554 


14,290 


63,264 


154 


51 


80 


504 


a93 


411 


1932. . . . 


75,575 


9,809 


65,766 


113 


50 


166 


669 


a87 


582 


1933 .... 


71,254 


9,175 


62,079 


121 


41 


175 


589 


a76 


513 


1934 


61,359 


21,545 


39,814 


115 


49 


171 


533 


bl87 


346 


1935. . . . 


56,780 


23,230 


33,550 


117 


49 


171 


485 


bl99 


286 


1936 


59,558 


22,415 


37,143 


130 


42 


161 


459 


bl73 


286 


1937 


64,087 


23,444 


40,643 


131 


45 


153 


489 


bl79 


310 



Salisbury 



1928 


$85,688 


$21,216 


$64,472 


167 


81 


38 


$513 


a$127 


$386 


1929 


86,575 


28,437 


58,138 


180 


80 


35 


481 


al58 


323 


1930 


98,930 


27,456 


71,474 


168 


88 


53 


589 


al63 


426 


1931 


98,359 


28,005 


70,354 


160 


90 


59 


615 


al75 


440 


1932 


88,197 


20,475 


67,722 


124 


85 


79 


711 


al65 


546 


1933. . . . 


71,346 


12,575 


58,771 


98 


72 


108 


728 


al28 


600 


1934 


66,144 


24,267 


41,877 


114 


71 


102 


580 


b213 


367 


1935 


59,435 


20,706 


38,729 


109 


40 


121 


545 


b252 


293 


1936 


67,672 


32,289 


35,383 


184 


41 


69 


384 


bl92 


192 


1937. . . . 


70,185 


34,801 


35,384 


200 


40 


61 


351 


bl74 


177 



a Day students paid $20 and residents $200. 

b Day students paid $100 and residents $316. 

* Elementary school paid for through Allegany County budget. 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 273 

At Frostburg over the period from 1929 to 1937, cost per college 
student averaged between $413 and $669, the 1937 amount being 
$489. At Salisbury, the range in cost per student for the ten years 
was between $351 and $728, the 1937 amount being $351. The 
differences in costs for the three colleges are explained in part by 
per cent of students in residence, relation between elementary 
and college enrollment, relation between resident enrollment and 
capacity, and many other factors. (See column 7 in Table 200.) 

The average annual fee paid by each college student was higher 
after 1933 than before, because it became necessary after the 
budgetary cuts to increase the fee for instruction from $20 to $100 
and the board from $5 to $6 per week. The proportion of resident 
students was higher at Salisbury than at Towson and Frostburg, 
which explains the higher average fee paid at Salisbury. (See 
column 8 in Table 200.) 

During the ten-year period the cost per student to the State 
ranged between $272 and $446 at Towson, the lowest figure ap- 
pearing in 1937 ; between $286 and $582 at Frostburg, the aver- 
age in 1937 being $310; and between $177 and $600 at Salisbury, 
the average in 1937 being $177. The proportion of students in 
residence and the relation between elementary and college enroll- 
ment affect cost to the State per student at the three colleges. 
(See column 9, Table 200.) 

The detailed expenditures and receipts and costs per student 
for the year 1936-37 shown separately for costs of instruction and 
costs of resident students indicate that the cost per student for 
instruction was highest at Frostburg ($385) and lowest at Salis- 
bury ($227), while the dormitory cost per resident student was 
highest at Towson ($397) and lowest at Frostburg ($232). The 
total cost of instruction and dormitory per resident student was 
highest at Towson ($726) and lowest at Salisbury ($537). A 
much larger proportion of the capacity at Towson than at Frost- 
burg or Salisbury was unoccupied. (See Table 201.) 

Included in the total costs for instruction and per student costs 
of instruction are the total costs of educating pupils in the campus 
elementary schools at the three institutions. The elementary 
enrollment is 54 per cent of the college enrollment at Towson, 61 
per cent at Salisbury, and 153 per cent at Frostburg. This in 
large part explains the high cost of instruction per college student 
at Frostburg. (See note on Table 201.) 

Inventories of Teachers Colleges 

The inventories for land and improvements at Towson and 
Frostburg increased from 1936 to 1937 largely as a result of the 
changes made by the W.P.A. program in the glen at Towson and 
back of the school buildings at Frostburg. The equipment also 
showed an increase at Frostburg and a slight gain at Towson. 
(See Table 202.) 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Total and Per Student Costs, Inventories, State Teachers 275 
Colleges; Contributions of County Teachers to Retirement System 



TABLE 202 

Inventories at State Teachers Colleges, September, 1937 



Land and Improvements 

Buildings 

Equipment 

Total 



Towson 



$127,870 
1,156,500 
212,030 



$1,496,400 



Frostburg 



$80,591 
354,718 
29,857 



$465,166 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM COUNTY TEACHERS AND MEMBERSHIP IN 
MARYLAND TEACHERS RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its tenth year 
of operation, 1936-37, received contributions from county teachers 
to the amount of $272,797, an increase of $8,288 over the amount 
contributed during 1935-36. In October, 1937, 5,012 county 
teachers, 94.7 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active 
members of the system. (See Table 203.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
88.1 per cent to 98.5 per cent. Only 2 counties had fewer than 
90 per cent of their teachers enrolled in the Retirement System, 
while over 95 per cent were members in 12 counties. Contribu- 
tions from 203 members in the State Department of Education, 
the three State Teachers Colleges, the Bowie Normal School, and 
the four State schools for handicapped and delinquent children 
brought the total contributions to S290,6.27. (See Table 203.) 

Inventory of Value of Equipment 

The inventory of equipment for the office of the Retirement 
System was $3,432, in the office of the staff of the State super- 
visor of Vocational Rehabilitation S820, and allocated to the 
State Department of Education $15,806, as of September 1937. 



276 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 203 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Re- 
tirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1937, 
Number and Per Cent of October, 1937, County Teaching Staff Who are 
Members in Active Service 







Members 




Amount 


in Active Serivce 


County or Institution 


Contributed 


October, 1937 




Year Ending 








July 31, 1937 










Number 


Per Cent 


County : 










$30,319.34 


470 


96.7 




15,556.89 


297 


90.8 




40,472.55 


550 


95.5 


Calvert 


2,480.83 


62 


93.9 




5,350.83 


112 


95.7 


Carroll 


10|70l!05 


225 


98.3 


Cecil 


8,503.08 


153 


96.8 


r* Via _|oo 


A ^fifi 99 


109 


92.4 




7,372.66 


164 


94.3 




16,854.58 


307 


97. 5 




7,859.91 


154 


92.8 




10,907.43 


202 


91 .8 




4 551.84 


101 


93.5 




4i710'.18 


93 


97 9 




26,629.51 


463 


98.5 




22,174.96 


452 


96.6 




4,332.01 


92 


97.9 




3,259.68 


82 


91.1 




C AtQ QQ 

b , 41o . yo 


136 


97.1 




5,046.55 


107 


91.5 




Oft fMQ C1 


369 


88.1 




8,701.39 


176 


89.3 


Worcester 


5,981.74 


136 


96.5 




$272,796.82 


5,012 


94.7 


Teacher Colleges: 










$4,861.94 


45 






1,431.50 


17 






1,797.40 


22 




Normal School: 










853.33 


14 




Department: 




24 




Statp Department of Education 


2,995.39 




Maryland Library Advisory Commission 


329.35 


4 






239.00 


3 




Other Schools: 








Maryland Training School for Boys 


2,056.69 


29 




Montrose School for Girls 


508.29 


7 




Rosewood State Training School 


884.45 


13 




Maryland School for the Deaf 


1,872.85 


25 




Total Schools and Departments 


$17,830.19 


203 






$290,627.01 


5,215 





LIST OF FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES, 1936-37 



No. Subject of Tables Page 

Financial Statements 278-280 

I Number of Schools 281 

II Total Public School Enrollment 282 

III Non-Public School Enrollment and Teaching Staff 283 

IV Catholic Private Schools, Enrollment and Teaching Staff.... 284-285 
V Non-Catholic Private Schools, Enrollment and Teaching 

Staff 286-287 

VI Average Number of Public School Pupils Belonging" 288 

VII Average Daily Attendance; Per Cent of Attendance 289 

VIII Average Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance.. 290 

IX Number of Teaching Positions, Public Schools 291 

X Certificates of County White Elementary Teachers, Oc- 
tober 1937 292 

XI Certificates of County Teachers in White One- and Two- 
Teacher Schools, October 1937 293 

XII Certificates of Teachers in White County Regular, Senior 

and Junior High Schools, October 1937 294 

XIII Certificates of County Colored Teachers, October 1937 295 

XIV Teachers New to Maryland 296 

XV Pupils Belonging Per Teacher and Salary Per Teacher 297 

XVI Receipts from State and Federal Government 298 

XVII Receipts from All Sources 299 

XVIII Total Disbursements 300 

XIX Disbursements for General Control 301 

XX Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 302 

XXI Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges 303 

XXII Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 304 

XXIII Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 305 

XXIV Pupils Attending, Belonging; Teachers; Expenditures in 

Junior, Junior-Senior High Schools 306 

XXV Disbursements for White High Schools 307 

XXVI Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 308 

XXVII Disbursements for Colored High Schools 309 

XXVIII Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Courses in In- 
dividual County High Schools 310-315 

XXIX Enrollment by Subject in Individual County High Schools.. 316-321 



277 



278 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1937 



Account 



State 
Appropriation 



Receipts from 
Fees, Federal 

Aid, Other 
Sources, and 

by Budget 
Amendment 



Refunds, 
Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to State 
Treasury 



State Teachers College, Towson . . . 

State Teachers College, Frostburg . 

State Teachers College, Salisbury . 

State Normal School, Bowie 

State Department of Education . . . 

Bureau of Educational Measure- 
ments 

Bureau of Publications and Print- 
ing 

Physical Education and Recreation 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers . 

State Aid for Handicapped Children 

State Aid to Approved High Schools 

Part Payment of Salaries of School 
Officials 

State Aid to Colored Industrial 
Schools 

Free Textbooks and Materials of 
Instruction 

Equalization Fund 

Fund Distributed on Basis of Cen- 
sus and Attendance 

Fund Distributed to Reduce Taxes 



$117,145.00 
40,643.00 
35,385.00 
29,928.00 
55,530.00 

9,000.00 

4,500.00 
15,000.00 
8,500.00 
10,000.00 
800.00 
750.00 
1,500.00 
12,000.00 
536,000.00 

157,153.00 

27,000.00 

250,000.00 
495,795.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,250,000.00 



$75,500.90 
22,014.16 
38,855.34 
15,852.84 
307.56 

1,000.00 



a$776.92 
al5.48 
al,560.26 
.11 



416.94 
1,124.13 



1,754.03 
6,327.92 
14,044.91 
375.00 



67.06 
2.92 
106.00 



779.00 
1,925\17 
598.40 



4 , 923 . 57 



Totals . 



$4,856,629.00 



$179,335.23 



Teachers Retirement System: 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers . . . 
Expense Fund 



^146,084.00 
517,265.00 
11,200.00 



$8,993.39 



: tl24,021 .00 



$5,026,970.84 



Totals . 



$5,531,178.00 



$179,335.23 



$133,014.39 



$5,577,498.84 



a Includes refunds of fees amounting to $776.88 at Towson, $15.25 at Frostburg and 
$1,559.06 at Salisbury. 

b Includes $1,200.73 reserved for tests. 

c Includes $2,303.58 reserved for medals, badges, etc. 

t A balance of $124,021.00 still due as of Sept, 30, 1937, was paid Oct. 8, 1937. 
* $350,000.00 additional in State bonds were received April 1, 1937. 



Financial Statements for State Education Dep't. and 279 
Teachers Colleges 



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280 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1937 



Receipts 



Purpose 


State 
Appropria- 
tion 


Transfers 
by Budget 
Amendment 


Other 
Receipts 


Total 
Receipts 


Bureau of Educational Measurements 


$9,000.00 
4,500.00 
15,000.00 
8,500.00 
10,000.00 
800.00 
750.00 
1,500.00 
12,000.00 


$1,000.00 




$10,000.00 
4,500.00 
16,754.03 
al4,827.92 
b24,044.91 
1,175.00 
750.00 
2,279.00 
12,000.00 
c4,682.10 


Bureau of Publications and Printing 




Physical Education and Recreation 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 


1,400.00 
375.00 


$354.03 
a6,327.92 
bl4,044.91 


Consultant Architect 




Medical Examination of Teachers 


779.00 




State Aid for Handicapped Children 




Supervision of Colored Schools 




c4,682.10 



Disbursements 



Purpose 



Salaries 



Traveling 
Expenses 



Miscel- 
laneous 



Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to Reserve 
Fund 



Bureau of Educational Measure- 
ments 

Bureau of Publications and Print- 
ing 

Physical Education and Recreation 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Medical Examination of Teachers. 

State Aid for Handicapped Children 

Supervision of Colored Schools. .- 



$6,317.00 



6,826.68 
11,244.00 
7,262.63 



750.00 



3,750.00 



$2,791.29 
2,891.55 
1,434.30 
1,069.00 



d$3,266.06 

3,375.87 
e7,136.06 
625.31 
15,345.06 



932.10 



$416.94 

1,124.13 

'67^06 
2.92 
106.00 



2,279.00 
f 12, 000. 00 



a Includes $6,317.92 from Federal funds. 

b Includes $14,000.00 from Federal funds. 

c From General Education Board. 

d Includes $1,200.73 reserved for tests. 

e Includes $2,303.58 reserved for badges, medals, etc. 

f Includes $1,566.98 reserved for payments to counties in 1938. 



Construction Accounts 



Purpose 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 


Balance, October 1, 1936 


$4,318.50 
20.50 


$ .44 


$2,490.63 


Total September 30, 1937 

Disbursements: 






$4,339.00 

$995.00 
3,343.86 


$ .44 


$2,490.63 

$226.22 
1,275.88 
560.00 










Balance, October 1, 1937 






$4,338.86 
*$.14 


*$.44 


$2,062.10 
$428 . 53 



* Reverted to State Treasury, September 30, 1937. 



Miscellaneous Financial Statements; Number of Schools 281 



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282 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools 



283 



TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1937 





White 


Colored 






Enrollment 










County 


















Number 






Number 


Number 




Number 




of 




Com- 


of 


of 


Enroll- 


of 




Schools 


Elemen- 


mercial 


Teachers 


Schools 


ment 


Teachers 






tary 


and 
















Secondary 










jCatholic Parish and Private 


Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1936 


Allegany 


9 


2.102 


447 


73 








Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


292 




8 


I ' "i 


' 72 


' ' 2 




17 


3 , 095 


*42i 


121 








Calvert 


1 


40 


9 


3 








Caroline 


1 


20 


13 


8 








Carroll 


2 


177 


40 


9 








Cecil 


1 


119 




3 










2 


322 


' 66 


13 




120 


' ' 2 


Frederick 


7 


510 


210 


51 


1 


7 


1 


Garrett 


1 


79 




3 








Harford 


1 


96 




3 








Howard 


4 


265 


' 53 


18 


' i 


' si 


. ,..| 


Montgomery .... 


4 


339 


111 


33 


.... 






Prince George's 
St. Mary's 


5 


847 


84 


31 




' 89 


' ' 2 


9 


1,134 


179 


43 


2 


204 


6 


Washington 


1 


348 


74 


11 








Total Counties. . 


66 


9,785 


1,707 


431 


7 


523 


14 


Baltimore City . . 


66 


29,817 


4,435 


885 


8 


al,440 


50 


Total State 


132 


39,602 


6,142 


1,316 


15 


al,963 


64 


*Non-Catholic Private Schools 


Allegany 


2 


47 




2 








Anne Arundel . . . 


5 


69 


189 


23 








Baltimore 


14 


504 


679 


153.8 








Cecil 


5 


254 


273 


40 








Frederick 


1 


43 


3 


2 








Montgomery .... 


9 


412 


300 


69.6 








Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 


2 


71 




8 








2 


29 


7 










St. Mary's 


2 


21 


142 


15 








Washington 


2 


20 


54 


11 








Wicomico 


1 


37 




3 








Total Counties . . 


45 


1,507 


1,647 


334.4 


... 






Baltimore City . . 


27 


1,904 


918 


291.3 




biii 


"5 


Total State 


72 


3,411 


2,565 


625.7 


1 


bll7 


5 



^Schools for Exceptional Children 



Md. Tr. School for Boys . . . 


247 


23 


9 








Md. School for the Deaf . . . 


145 


35 


18 








Montrose School for Girls. . 


59 


40 


9 








Md. School for the Blind. 


66 


16 


18 




c72 




Md. Tuberculosis Sani- 
















68 


3 


2 








Md. Tr. School for 














Colored Girls 










68 


2 


Reinhardt School for Deaf 














Children, Inc 


10 




3 









t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools, 
a Includes 58 high school pupils, 
b Includes 18 high school pupils. 
C Includes 4 high school pupils. 



284 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions. Fall of 1936 



County and School 



Allegany 
*S. S. Peter's and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

*St. Patrick's, Catholic Girls 
Central High, Cumberland 

*St. Mary's, Cumberland 

*St. Peter's, Westernport .... 
St. Michael's, Frostburg. . . . 
St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage. . . 
*La Salle Institute, Cumber- 

land 

St. Joseph's, Midland 

St. Michael's, Eckhardt 

Total 

Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis 

St. Mary's (Colored), 

Annapolis 

Baltimore 

School of the Immaculate 

and *Catholic High, 

Towson 

St. Mark's, Catonsville 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Michael's, Overlea 

*St. Stephen's, Bradshaw . . . . 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Charles', Pikesville 

St. Clement's, Rosedale . . . . 
St. Clement's, Lansdowne . . 

Ascension, Halethorpe 

*St. Charles' College H. S., 

Catonsville 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon 

Total 



Enrollment 






High 


Teach- 


Ele- 


and 


ers 


men- 


Com- 




tary 


mer- 






cial 




OO I 


1UO 


16 


391 


64 


11 


341 


85 


12 


197 


56 


8 


228 




8 


174 


26 


5 


16 


111 


7 


122 




4 


1 D 




2 


2,102 


447 


73 






8 


72 




2 


261 


144 


11 


373 




g 


371 




6 


347 




8 


213 


72 


7 


253 




5 


206 




4 


188 




6 


184 




4 


171 




5 


167 




4 




148 


22 


127 




4 


30 


57 


15 


80 




5 


75 




3 


49 




4 


3,095 


421 


121 



County and School 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 
Solomon's 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 



Carroll 

*St John's, Westminster . 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown 



Total 



Cecil 

Parish School 



Charles 
*Sacred Heart, La Plata .... 
St. Mary's, *Notre Dame 
High, Bryantown 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

*St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, Emmitsburg 
*St. Joseph's College H. S., 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Francis', Brunswick . . . 
Notre Dame Academy, 
Libertytown 

Total 

St. Euphemia's (Colored), 
Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. . . . 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



40 



20 



147 
30 



177 

119 

220 
102 



322 
120 

148 

185 
108 



20 



510 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



Enrollment in Catholic Non-Public Schools 



285 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools 
Private Institutions. Fall of 1936 



and 



County and School 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City . 
St. Augustine's, Elkridge 
Trinity Preparatory, 

Hchester 

*St. Louis', Clarksville. . . 

Total 

St. Augustine's (Colored) 
Ellicott City 



Montgomery 

St. Michael's, Silver Spring 
St. Martin's, Gaithersburg . 
*Georgetown Preparatory, 

Garrett Park 

Academy of the Holy Name 
Silver Spring 

Total 



Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier. . 

St. Mildred's, Laurel 

Holy Redeemer, Berwyn . 
St. Mary's, Marlboro .... 
*La Salle Hall, Ammendale 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored), 
Upper Marlboro 



St. Mary's 
*St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 

*St. Michael's, Ridge 

St. John's, Hollywood 

Little Flower, Great Mills . . 

St. Joseph's, Morganza 

Holy Angels, Abell 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood . . . 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck . . 

Leonard Hall, Leonardtown 

Total 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



116 
102 



38 



265 
31 



240 
99 



339 



400 
145 
188 
114 



847 
89 



117 
157 
175 
169 
148 
146 
95 
80 
47 



1,134 



High 
and 
Com- 
mer- 
cial 



53 



23 



111 



84 



135 
44 



179 



Teach- 
ers 



33 



43 



County and School 



St. Mary's (Continued) 
St. Peter Claver's 

(Colored), Ridge 

St. Joseph's (Colored), 

Morganza 

Washington 
*St. Mary's, Hagerstown . . 

Total County White 

Catholic Schools 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 

Baltimore City 

*Seton 

*Mt. St. Joseph's 

institute of Notre Dame . 

*Calvert Hall 

*Notre Dame of Maryland 

Loyola 

*Mt. St. Agnes' 

Mt. Washington Country 

School 

Calvert Hall Country 

School 

Visitation 

Total 

*St. Martin's 

Other White Parish Schools 
Institutions for White 
Children 

Total White 

*St. Francis' Academy 
(Colored) 

Colored Parish Schools . 

Institutions for Colored 
Children 

Total Colored ... 

Total State 

White 

Colored 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



140 
64 

348 

9,785 
523 



45 
263 



153 



115 



701 



140 
179 



797 



29,817 



40 
,131 



211 



1,382 



602 
905 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



286 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and Second- 
ary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1937 



County and School 



White Schools 

Allegany 

The Waddell School .... 
Seventh Day Adventist . 

Total 

Anne Arundel 

ttSevern 

Holladay 

Cochran Bryan 

U. S. Naval Academy 
Prep 

The Thomas School 

Total 

Baltimore 

ttMcDonogh 

Garrison Forest 

Hannah More Academy . 

St. Timothy's 

Greenwood 

Oldfield's 

Roberts-Beach 

Lutherville Kindergarten 
Miss Barnhart's Kgn. . . . 
Mrs. Eagle's Nursery 

School 

The Playground 

Sylvanside 

Crestmont School 

Total 

Cecil 

ttTome Town 

tfTome Boarding School . 
ffWest Nottingham 

Seventh Day Adventist . 

Reynold's 

Total 

Frederick 

Buckingham School for 
Boys 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



17 



57 



12 



69 



292 
t61 
12 

13 

7 

x20 
xl8 

°15 

tu 

t!4 



475 



191 
12 
5 
29 
17 



254 



43 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



115 

39 
35 



189 



279 
t65 
83 
84 
64 
58 



679 



91 
12-2 
50 
10 



273 



No. of 
Teachers 



Full 
Time 



22 



53 

no 

15 
12 
15 
11 
7 
1 
1 



L32 



Part 
Time 



1.8 

t3 



21.8 



County and School 



Montgomery 

Washington Missionary 

College 

Landon School for Boys . 

Countryside 

Chevy Chase Country . . 
Washington Country 

School 

National Park Seminary 

Green Acres 

Chevy Chase 

Bullis School 

Total 

Prince George's 

Longfellow School for 

Boys 

Avondale Country 

Total 

Queen Anne's 

Gunston School 

Seventh Day Adventist 

Total 

St. Mary's 

ttCharlotte Hall 

ttSt. Mary's Seminary. . . . 

Total 

Washington 

St. James' 

Seventh Day Adventist . 

Total 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's 

Total County White 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



147 
92 
§58 
t44 

42 

a29 



412 



71 



21 



20 
*37 
1,478 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



192 
42 



39 



300 



1 12 

54 



1,647 



No. of 
Teachers 



Full 
Time 



* Includes kindergarten, 
t Data for School Year 1935-1936. 
ft Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 
$ Nursery school and kindergarten only. 
§ Includes nursery school and kindergarten. 
° Nursery school only, 
a Includes nursery school, 
x Kindergarten only. 



Enrollment in Non-Catholic Non-Public Schools 



287 



TABLE V— (Continued) 



Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Baltimore City, Year Ending June 30, 1937 









Number of 


County and School 


Enrollment 


Teachers 












Elemen- 


Secondary 


Full- 


Part- 








Time 


Time 


White Schools 


— 








Gilman School 


162 


135 


30 


3 


§ Friends' School 


*179 


117 


23 


.6 




*259 




18 


6 


Roland Park School 


*179 


' 73 


17 


17 


Hebrew Parochial School 


160 


58 


9 


4 


Park School 


*149 


67 


27 


1.9 


Bryn Mawr School 


t99 


108 


26 


6 


St. Paul's School for Boys 


56 


70 


9 


1 


Boys' Latin School 


57 


62 


10 


.8 


§Franklin Day School 


22 


89 


5 


3 


Immanuel Lutheran School 


102 




3 




Girls' Latin School 


17 


' 75 


10 


3 


SSamuel Ready School 


30 


43 


4 




Homewood School 


* t 71 




8 


4 


Seventh Day Adventist School 


47 


' 21 


3 


2 


Guilford Nursery School and Kindergarten 


x60 




6 




Miss Crater's Country School 


*t47 




4 


1 


Chapel of the Nativity School 


*30 




2 




Lutheran Deaconess Home Kindergarten 


x30 




2 




Jewish Educational Alliance Nursery School 


°27 




2 


2 


Cathedral Kindergarten 


x25 




2 


1 


Little School in Guilford 


*t25 




3 


2 


Cloverdale School 


*22 




2 




Ireland Nursery School 


°17 




3 


1 




*U3 




2 




Morven School 


10 




1 




Aline B. Strauss Nursery School 


°9 




1 




Total White 


1.904 


918 


232 


59.3 


Colored School 










Seventh Day Adventist School 


99 


18 


3 


2 



* Includes kindergarten. 

t Includes nursery school. 

x Nursery school and kindergarten only. 

Nursery school only. 

§ Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



288 



1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Disbursements for Junior and Senior and for Last Four 307 
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of Education 



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Disbursements for Colored Elementary and High Schools 



309 



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310 1937 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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INDEX 



A 

Academic course, each high school 310-315 
Administration 
General control 

Cost per pupil, 223-225 
Expenditures, 301 
Per cent for, 220-221 
Superintendents, 263 
W.P.A. program, 232-233 
Adult education 

Emergency program, 210-211 
Evening schools, 206-209 
Parent education, 208 
Agriculture 

Cost, 130-132, 227, 229-230 
Supervision, 229-230 
Teachers' salaries, 130-132 
Enrollment 

Colored, 131, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 89, 91-92. 95, 98, 131 
Failures and withdrawals, white pupils, 
102-104 

Schools having, 89, 106-107, 316-321 
White teachers of, 106-107 
Aid from State and Federal funds to 

Bowie Normal School, 6-7, 199-200, 278-279 
Counties and Baltimore City 

Distributed by type of fund, 1936-1937, 
298 

1920-1937, 213-215 

Total and per cent, 1936-1937, 217-219 
State teachers colleges, 6-7, 271-274, 
278-279 

Vocational education, 130-132, 209, 227-230, 
278, 280 
Appropriations 

County, 1937-1938, 247-251, 299 
County and State 
1920-1937, 213-215 
1936-1937, 217-219, 298-299 
State 

1936- 1937, 217-219, 278-280, 298 

1937- 1938, 6-7 

Approved high schools, see table of contents, 
4 

Individual, 310-321 
Number 

Colored, 189-190 
White, 115-117 
Architect, consultant, 7, 278 
Art, white high schools 

Enrollment, 89, 93, 316-321 
Teachers of, 106-107 
Assessable basis, 251-253 

Athletics 

Colored schools, 190-192 
Whit* schools, 201-204 



A — (Continued) 

Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 290 
Average daily, 289 
Index, of 

Colored elementary, 150-151 
White elementary, 150-151 
Officers, 301 
Per cent of, 289 

Colored elementary, 145-148 
Colored high, 161 
White elementary, 16-19 
White high, 74 
Summer school 
Pupils, 204-206 
Teachers 

Colored, 167-168 
White elementary, 42-43 
White high, 109 
Auxiliary agencies 

Cost per white pupil for, 226 
Elementary, 54-56, 59-60 
High. 128-129, 133-134, 136 
Expenditures for 

Colored, 182-184, 308, 309 
Total by purpose, 303 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 
Per cent of current expense budget, 
220-222 

B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners 
Colored, 190-192 
White, 201-203 
Belonging, average number, 288 
By months 
Colored, 146 
White elementary, 18 
White high, 74 
Each high school, 310-315 
Per teacher, 297 
Colored, 172-174 
White elementary, 46-48 
White high, 121-123 
Proportion in high school 
Colored, 161-162 
White, 76 
Birth rate 

Colored, 143-144 
White, 14-15 
Boaid of Education, State, 2, 278, 280 
Bonds 

Bowie Normal School, 200 
Outstanding, 242-243 
State, for Retirement System, 7, 278 
Books and instructional materials 
Cost per white pupil, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129, 132 



322 



Index 



323 



B— (Continued) 

Books and instructional materials (Cont.) 
Expenditures 
All schools, 302 
Colored, 308, 309 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 
Per cent of current expense budget, 

220-222 
State aid for 

1936- 1937, 298 

1937- 1938, 7 

Bowie Normal School, 6-7, 198-200, 278-279 
Boys and girls 
Enrollment, 282 
Grade enrollment 
Colored, 151. 153 
White, 23-24 
Graduates 

Elementary school 
Colored, 153-154 
White. 26-27 
High school 

Colored, 162-163 
White, 76-78 
Non-promotions 
Elementary 

Colored, 155-158 
White, 27-30 
White, high school subjects, 102-104 
Budget(s) 

Bowie Normal School 

1936- 1937, 200, 279 

1937- 1938, 6-7 

Local, county and Baltimore City 
1920-1937. 213-216 

1936- 1937, 217-219 

1937- 1938, 247-251 
State public school 

1936- 1937, 278-280 

1937- 1938. 6-7 
Teachers colleges 

1936- 1937, 271-274, 279 

1937- 1938, 6-7 

Buildings, grounds, and equipment 
Condition of colored, 186-187 
Cost 1920-1937, 214, 216 
Cost 1936-1937 

Analyzed, 304 

By type of school, 240-241 
Number of, 281 

Sanitary inspection of, 230-231 
Value of school, 243-246 
Per pupil belonging 
Colored, 185-186 
White, 243-246 
Busses, school, 239-240 



c 

Capital outlay, school 
Cost 1920-1937, 214. 216 
Cost 1936-1937 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 304 
By types of schools, 240-241 
Colored schools, 185, 308, 309 
White schools, elementary, 305 
White schools, high, 307 
Cost per white pupil belonging 
Elementary, 54, 67 
High, 129. 137 
Census, school 
Colored, 138-141 
White. 8-12 
Census and attendance fund. 7, 308 
Certificates 

Medical examinations for, 261-262 
Number issued, 260-262 
Teachers and principals 
Colored, 167, 295 
White elementary, 41-42, 292-293 
White high, 108, 294 
Child guidance clinics, 38 
Classes 

Evening school, 206-209 
Federal emergency. 210-211 
Size of, 297 

Colored, 172-174 
White elementary. 46-48 
White high. 121-123 
Special for handicapped. 36-40 
Summer school, Baltimore City, 204-206 
Clerks, county high schools, 107 
Clinics, mental hygiene, 38 
Colleges 

Attended by teachers for summer courses 

Colored, 167-168 

White elementary. 42-43 

White high. 109 
Colored high school graduates 

of 1936 entering, 163-164 

of 1937 entering Bowie Normal, 162-163 
Per cent of 1936 high school graduates 
entering 

Colored, 163-164 

White. 82-87 
State Teachers. 264-275 

Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties. 1936-1937 
Colored, 171-172 
White elementary, 264-275 
White high. 113-115 
White high school graduates 

of 1936 entering Maryland. 86-87 
of 1937 entering State Teachers. 80-81 
Colored schools, for details see table of con- 
tents, 4 



324 



Index 



C — (Continued) 

Commercial subjects, white high schools 
Enrollment 

Each high school, 316-321 

Total and by county, 89, 92, 95, 98-100 
Failures and withdrawals, 102-104 
Schools having, 89, 106, 316-321 
Teachers, number, 106 

Conferences, programs of 
Superintendents, 263 
Supervisors, colored, 197 

Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools 

Colored, 188-189 

White, 68-70 
Schools closed by, 282 
Transportation of pupils, 233-240 

Colored, 182-184 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 133-134 

Cost per pupil, 222-227 
Bowie Normal, 199-200 
Capital outlay 

White elementary, 54, 67 
White high, 129, 137 
Current expenses, 222-227 

Auxiliary agencies, white schools, 226 

Elementary, 54-56, 59-60 

High, 128-129, 133-134, 136 
Books and materials of instruction, 
white schools, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129. 132 
Colored schools, 178-182 
Elementary schools, white, 51-5G, 59-60 

By type, 53, 225 
General control, 223-224 
Health activities 

White elementary, 56, 59-60 

White high, 134, 136 
High schools, white, 127-130, 132-134 
Individual high schools, 310-315 
Instruction, white schools, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-130, 132 
Maintenance, white schools, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129, 132 
One-teacher schools, white, 53, 225 
Operation, white schools, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129, 132 
Salaries, white schools, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-130 

Excluding federal vocational aid, 
129-130 

Supervision, white elementary, 54-55 



C — Continued) 

Cost per pupil for current expenses — (Cont.) 
Transportation, 234-237 
Colored, 182-184 
White elementary, 55-56 
White high, 133-134 
State Teachers Colleges, 271-274 

Costs (See expenditures) 

Courses in individual high school, 310-315 

Current expenses 

Cost per pupil for, 222-227 
Colored, 178-182 

Individual high schools, 310-315 
White elementary, 51-56, 59-60 
White high, 127-130, 132-134 
Expenditures, total, 300 
Colored, 308-309 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools 

Colored elementary, 144-145 

Colored high, 160-161 

White elementary, 15-16 

White high, 73 
Days in session, 290 

Colored elementary, 144-145 

Colored high, 160-161 

White elementary, 15-16 

White high, 73 
Debt service 

1936- 37, 304 

1937- 38, 247-251 

Tax rate for, 253-255 
Dental clinics, 65 
Disbursements (see expenditures) 

E 

Elementary schools: For details see table of 

contents, 4 
Emergency adult program, 210-211 
English, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, \165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White 

Per cent in each year. 88-89, 93-94 
Total and county, 88-89, 95 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 102-104 

Schools offering, 89, 106 

Teachers, number white, 106 

Enrollment 

Attending school in adjoining counties, 

246-247 
Bowie Normal School, 198 
Elementary 

Colored, 142-143 / 
White, 13-15 



Index 



325 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment (Continued) 
Grade or Year 

Colored, 151-153 \ 
White, 23-25 
High school 

Course, each school, 310-321 
Growth in 
Colored, 159 
White, 71-72 
Subject 

Colored, 165-166 
Each school, 316-321 
White, 88-101 
Year 

1925-1937, 87-88 
Each school. 310-315 

White, per cent in English, 88-89, 93-94 
Non-public, private and parochial schools, 
283-287 
Colored, 143 

White elementary, 14-15 

White high. 72-73 
Public schools, total, 282 
State teachers colleges, 265-268 
Subject 

Colored high, 165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White high, 88-101 
Summer schools 

Pupils, 204-206 

Teachers 

Colored, 167-168 
White elementary, 42-43 
White high, 109 
Total public schools, 282 

Equalization Fund 

Calculation of. 6, 217-218, 221 

1936- 1937. 217-219, 221, 298 

1937- 1938. 6-7 

Per cent of total current expenses, 217-219 

Evening schools and courses, 206-209 
Emergency adult program. 210-211 
Enrollment. 206-207 
Expenditures. 208-209. 303 

Expenditures. 300 

(See also general control, instruction, op- 
eration, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining coun- 
ties, current expenses, debt service, capi- 
tal outlay) 

Bowie Normal School. 199-200, 279 
Colored schools. 308, 309 
Elementary schools 

Colored. 308 

White. 305 
Evening schools. 208-209. 303 



E — (Continued) 

Expenditures (Continued) 
Extra-curricular activities 

Colored, 196-197 

White, 257-259 
Health 

All schools, 303 

By State and County Health offices. 56, 
59-61 

White elementary, 56, 59-60 

White high, 134, 136 
High schools 

Colored, 309 

White, 307 
Junior and junior-senior high schools, 306 
Libraries 

All schools, 303 

White elementary, 56-57 

White high, 134 
Salaries 

All schools, 302 

Colored, 308-309 

Vocational teachers, 130-132, 208-209, 

227-230 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 
Summer schools, 206, 303 

Total, by major classifications, 300 

Transportation 
All schools, 303 
Colored, 182-184 
Elementary and high, 233-237 
Elementary schools, white, 55-56 
High schools, white, 133-134 

Vocational work 

Entire program. 227-230 
Teachers' salaries, 130-132, 208-209 

Extra-curricular activities 
Colored, 196-197 
White, 257-259 

F 

Failures (see non-promotions) 

Federal aid 

Adult emergency program. W. P. A. 
210-211 

N. Y. A.. 73, 159-160, 200, 201, 259-260, 273 
P. W. A., 200. 222 
Vocational education, 227-230 
Salaries of teachers 

Baltimore City, 228-229 

County day. 130-132 

County evening. 208-209 
W. P. A.. 59. 136. 208. 210-211, 230-231, 240 

Financial statements 
County schools. 298-309 
State Public School Budget, 278-280 



326 



Index 



F — (Continued) 

Fixed charges 

Expenditures, 303 

Per cent of current expenses, 220-222 
French 

Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White, 89-91, 95, 98 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 102-104 
Schools offering, 89, 106, 316-321 
Teachers, white, 106 

G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 223-224 
Expenditures, 301 
Per cent for, 220-222 
Graduates 
Colored 

Elementary school, 153-154 
High school, 162-163 

Entering Bowie Normal, 162-163 
From each school, 310-315 
Occupations of. 163-164 
Normal school. 198-199 
White 

Elementary school, 26-27 
High school, 76-78 

Entering State teachers colleges, 80-81 
From each school, 310-315 
Occupations of, 81-87 
State teachers colleges, 264-265 
Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries 
Colored, 181-182 
White, 124-127 

H 

Handicapped children 

Appropriation, 1937-1938, 6-7 

Expenditures. 36. 280 

Opportunities for education of, 36-41 

Receipts from the State, 298 

Standards for eligibility to home instruc- 
tion, Baltimore City, 40-41 

Transportation in Paltimore City, 234 
Health 

Activities of State Department of, 60-66 

Colored, 192-194 
Cost per pupil 

White elementary, 56. 59-60 

White high, 134, 136 
Expenditures 

All schools. 303 

By county health offices, 56, 59-61, 298, 
299 

White elementary, 56, 59-60 
White high, 134, 136 
Colored elementary, 308 



H— (Continued) 

High schools, for details see table of con- 
tents, 4 
Home economics 

Cost of vocational work in, 227-230 
Supervision, 229-230 
Teachers' salaries, 130-132 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White. 89, 91-92, 95, 98 
Schools having, 89, 106-107 
Teachers of, white, 106-107 
Home instruction of pupils 
Colored. 40-41, 167, 282 
White, 36, 40-41, 282 

I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 249-251 
Index of school attendance 
Colored, 150-151 
White, 22-23 
Industrial arts 

Cost of vocational work in industries, 
227-230 
Supervision, 229-230 
Teachers' salaries, 130-131 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White. 89, 91-92, 95, 98 
Schools having, 89, 106-107, 316-321 
Teachers of, white, 106-107 
Instruction 

Cost per white pupil, 226-227 
Elementary, 54-55 
High, 128-130 
Expenditures 

Bowie Normal School, 199-200, 279 
Colored, 308, 309 

For salaries, supervision, books, etc., 
302 

State teachers colleges, 271-274 
White elementary, 305 
White high. 307 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220- 
222 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools 
Enrollment, 306 
Expenditures, 306 
Teachers 

Certification, 294 

Growth in number of, 110 

Number, 306 

Resignations, 110-111 

Turnover, 112-113 



Index 



327 



K 

Kindergartens, enrollment 
Colored, 152 
White, 23-25 

L 

Languages (see English, French, Latin) 
Late entrants 

Colored, 148-149, 150 
White, 20-21 
Latin 

Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 89-90, 95, 98 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 102-104 
Schools offering. 89, 106 
Teachers of. white, 106 
Legislation affecting rehabilitation, 213 
Length of session, 290 

Colored elementary, 144-145 
Colored high, 160-161 
White elementary. 15-16 
White high. 73 
Levies, county. 247-251 
Libraries 

Colored schools, 184 
Expenditures 
All schools, 303 
White elementary, 56-57 
White high. 134 
Service from outside (see Library Advisory 
Commission) 

Library Advisory Commission, service from 
Colored, 185 

White elementary, 57-59 
White high. 135-136 
W. P. A. projects, 240 
White elementary, 59 
White high. 136 
Lip reading classes, 37 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per white pupil for, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129, 132 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 303 

Colored, 308, 309 

White elementary, 305 

White high, 307 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220- 
222 

W. P. A. program. 230-233 
Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per white pupil, 226-227 

Elementary. 54-55 

High. 128-129, 132 



M — (Continued) 

Materials of instruction (Continued) 
Expenditures 

Colored, 308, 309 
Total, 302 

White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 
State aid for, 7, 298 

Mathematics, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White, 89-90, 95-97 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 102-104 
Schools having, 89, 106, 316-321 
Teachers of, white, 106 

Medical examinations 
Pupils 

Colored, 192-194 

White, 62-65 
Teachers 

Appropriation for, 7 

Expenditures, 280 

Number, 261-262 

Mental hygiene clinics, 38 

Mentally handicapped children, 11-12, 37-41. 
140-141 

Men teachers 
Colored. 171-172 
Total. 291 

White elementary, 46 
White high, 115 

Music, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White, 89, 93. 95, 100-101 
Orchestras, bands, etc.. 100-101 
Schools having, 89, 106-107, 316-321 
Teachers, number of. white. 106-107 

N 

National Youth Administration 

Aid to students, 73, 159-160, 200, 201. 259- 
260, 271 

Night schools (see evening schools) 

Non-promotions 

Colored elementary schools, 155-158 
Subject, white high schools, 102-104 
White elementary schools, 27-31 

Number belonging. 288 
By months 

Colored. 146 

White elementary, 18 

White high. 74 
Each high school, 310-315 



328 



Index 



N — (Continued) 

Number belonging — (Continued) 
Per teacher, 297 
Colored, 172-174 
White elementary, 46-4S 
White high, 121-123 
Proportion in high school 
Colored, 161-162 
White, 76 
Nursery schools, 211 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates 
Colored, 163-164 
White, 81-87 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, decrease in, 188-189 

Number of, 281 

White 

Capital outlay in, 241 

Cost per pupil, 53, 225 

Decrease in, 68-70 

Number belonging in, 69-70, 288 
Per teacher, 297 

Per cent of attendance, 17-18 

Salary per teacher in, 297 
Operation 

Cost per white pupil, 226-227 

Elementary, 54-55 

High, 128-129, 132 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 302 

Colored, 308, 309 

White elementary, 305 

White high, 307 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220- 
222 

Orchestras, bands, etc.. 101-102 
P 

Parent education classes, 208 
Parent-teacher associations 

Colored, 194-195 

White, 255-257 
Parochial and private schools, 283-287 

Colored, 143 

White elementary, 14-15 
White high, 72-73 
Part-payment of salaries 

1936- 1937, 278, 298 

1937- 1938, 7 

Persistence to high school graduation, white, 

78-80 
Physical education 

Appointment of State Supervisor, 263 

Appropriation for 

1936- 1937, 278, 280 

1937- 1938, 7 



P— (Continued) 

Physical education — (Continued) 
Badge tests 

Colored, 190-192 
White, 201-203 
Expenditures by P. A. L., 203-204, 280 
High school enrollment 
Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 89, 93, 95, 100 
Schools offering, 89, 106-107, 316-321 
Teachers of, white, 106-107 
Physical examinations (see medical exami- 
nations) 

Physically handicapped children, 11-12, 36-40 
Service for crippled children through State 
Department of Health, 66 
Presidents of teachers colleges, 2, 270 
Private and parochial schools, 283-287 
Colored. 143 

White elementary, 14-15 

White high, 72-73 
Programs of conferences (see conferences) 
Property, valuation of 

County and City, 251-253 

School, 243-246 
Colored, 185-186 
White, 243-246 
Psycho-educational clinic, 41 
Pupils 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 

246-247 
Non-public schools, 283-287 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, 188-189 

White, 68-70 
Per teacher, 297 

Colored, 172-174 

White elementary, 46-48 

White high, 121-123 
Public school 

Enrollment, 282 

Number attending, 289 

Number belonging, 288 

Pei- cent of attendance, 289 
Transported 

All schools, 233-240 

Colored, 182-184 

White elementary, 55-57 

White high, 133-134 
P. W. A. projects, 200, 222, 240-241 

R 

Ratio of high school to total attending and 
belonging 
Colored, 161-162 
White, 75-76 



Index 



329 



R — (Continued) 

Receipts from 
All sources, 299 
Federal Government 

Emergency adult program, 210-211 
Evening schools, counties, 209 
N. Y. A., 73, 159-160, 200, 201, 259-260 
271 

P. W. A.. 240-241 

W. P. A.. 59. 136, 210-211, 230-231, 240 
Teachers' salaries, counties, 130-131 
Vocational education, 227-230 
Baltimore City, 228-229 
Rosenwald fund, 184, 280 
Sources other than public funds 
Colored schools. 196-197 
White schools, 257-259 
State 

Distributed by type of fund, 1937, 298 
1920-1937. 213-216 
Teachers colleges, 271-274, 279 
Total and per cent, 220-222 

Rehabilitation, vocational 

Appropriation, 1937, 1938, 6-7 
Financial statement, 278, 280 
Legislation re, 213 
Services rendered, 212-213 

Resignations of teachers 
Colored, 168-169 
White elementary, 43-45 
White high. 110-111 

Retirement System, Teachers, 275-276 
Appropriation, 6-7 
Financial statement, 278 
Members, 275-276 

Rosenwald fund, 184, 280 
S 

Salaries 

Attendance officers, 301 
Superintendents, 301 
Supervisors. 302 
Teachers 

Average per teacher, 297 
Colored, 175-178 
White elementary, 49-51 
White high, 123-125 
Cost per white pupil, 226-227 
Elementary, 54-55 
High, 128-130 
Per cent of school budget, 220-222 
Total, 302 

Colored, 308, 309 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 

Sanitation projects, 230-231 



S— (Continued) 

Science, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 89-90, 94-95, 97 
Failures and withdrawals, 102-104 
Schools offering, 89, 106, 316-321 
White teachers of, 106 
Session, length of, 290 
Sex of teachers, 291 
Size of 

Classes. 297 

Colored, 172-174 
White elementary, 46-48 
White high, 121-123 
School (s) 

Colored elementary, 186-188 
Colored high, 190-191 
Each high. 310-315 
White elementary. 67-70 
White high, 117-121 
Social studies, high schools 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 88. 89, 93-96 
Failures and withdrawals, 102-104 
Schools offering, 89, 106, 316-321 
White teachers of, 106 
Special classes for handicapped, 36-41 
Special high school teachers, 106-108, 310-315 
Standardized tests 

Colored elementary, 158 
White elementary, 32-36 
White high, 104-105 
State 

Aid to health, 60-61, 298 
Aid to schools 

Showing various school funds, 298 

1920-1937, 213-215 

1937-1938, 6-7 

Total and per cent, 1936-1937, 217-219 
Board of Education 

Appropriation, 7 

Expenditures, 280 

Members. 2 
Department of Education 

Appropriation, 6-7 

Expenditures, 278-280 

Members, 2 
Health Department 

Expenditures, 56, 59-61 

School activities. 60-66 
Colored. 192-194 
Public school budget, 6-7 
Teachers Colleges. 271-274 
Teachers retirement system. 275-276 
Statistical tables. 281-321 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 98- 
100 



330 



Index 



S— (Continued) 

Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 165-166 
Each high school, 316-321 
White, 88-101 
Summer school attendance 

Baltimore City pupils, 204-206 
Teachers 

Colored, 167-168 

White elementary, 42-43 

White high, 109 
Superintendents 
Conferences, 263 
Names, 2 
Salaries, 301 
Supervision, Supervisors 
Activities 

Colored, 197 

White elementary, 70 

White high, 137 
Cost per white elementary pupil for, 54-55 
Cost, salaries and expenses 

All schools, 302 

Colored elementary, 308 

White elementary, 305 

White high, 307 
Names of, white, 3 
Number of, 291 

Per cent of current expense budget, 220- 
222 

T 

Taxable basis, 251-253 

Tax dollar, distribution of school, 220-222 
Tax rates, county, 253-255 
Teacher-pupil ratio, 297 
Teacher(s) 

Academic, high school, 106-108, 310-315 
Colleges, 264-275 
Number of, 291 

For each high school subject, 106-108 
In schools of each type 
Colored, 308, 309 
Non-public schools, 283-287 
Public schools, 291 
White elementary, 305 
White high, 307 

White junior and junior-senior high, 
306 
Total, 291 
Sex of, 291 

Special high school, 106-108, 310-315 
Teachers' Retirement System 
Appropriation, 6-7 
Financial statement, 278-279 
Staff, 2 

Teachers contributions to, 275-276 



T— (Continued) 

Tests 

Athletic badge 

Colored, 190-192 

White, 201-203 
Elementary schools 

Colored, 158 

White, 32-36 
High schools, 104-105 

Trades and industry, courses in 
Enrollment 

Colored, 165-166 

Each high school, 316-321 

White, 89, 91-92, 95, 98 
Schools having, 89, 106-107, 316-321 
White teachers of, 106-107 
Training centers 

Colored normal school, 199 
State teachers colleges, 270 
Training of teachers 
At particular colleges 

Colored, 171-172 

White high, 113-115 
Bowie Normal School, 198-200 
Certification, 260-262 

Colored, 167, 295 

White elementary, 41-42, 292-293 

White high, 108, 294 
State teachers colleges, 264-275 

Transportation of pupils, 233-240 
Baltimore City, 234 
Cost, 233-237 

Colored, 182-184 

White elementary. 55-57 

White high, 133-134 
Cost per pupil transported, 234-237 

Colored, 182-184 

White elementary, 55-57 

White high, 133-134 
Per cent of pupils transported, 237-238 
Type of vehicles used, 239-240 

Tuition 

Charge teachers colleges, 271-273 
To adjoining counties, 246, 304 

Turnover in teaching staff, 296 
Colored, 168-171 
White elementary, 44-46 
White high, 112-113 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 251-253 
School property used by 

Colored, 185-186 

White, 243-246 



Index 



331 



V— (Continued) 

Vocational education 
Agriculture 
Cost, 130-132 

Enrollment, 89, 91-92, 95, 98, 316-321 

Appropriation, 6-7 

Baltimore City, 228-229 

Cost of, 227-230 

Administration and supervision, 229-230 
Teachers' salaries, 130-132, 208-209, 228- 
229 

Evening schools, 206-209, 228-229 
Financial statement, 280 
Home economics 
Cost, 130-132 
Enrollment 

Colored schools, 165-166 
Day schools, 89, 91-92, 95, 98, 316-321 
Evening schools, 206-209, 228-229 
Industrial courses 
Colored, 165-166 
Cost. 130-132 
Enrollment 

Day. 89, 91-92, 95, 98, 316-321 
Evening. 206-209, 228-229 



V — (Continued) 

Vocational rehabilitation 
Appropriation, 6-7, 213 
Financial statement, 278, 280 
Service rendered, 212-213 

w 

White schools (see table of contents for 

white elementary and high schools) 4 
Withdrawals of pupils 

Colored elementary, 149-150 

Teachers college freshmen, 269-270 

White elementary, 21-22 

White high, 102-104 
W. P. A. projects, 230-233 

Emergency education program, 210-211 

Library, 59, 136, 240 

Parent education, 208 

Sanitation, 230-231 
Work relief projects, 230-233 

Y 

Year, length of school, 290 
Colored elementary, 144-145 
Colored high, 160-161 
White elementary, 15-16 
White high, 73 




°0 NOT CIRCULATE 



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